Protecting “Lebanese sovereignty” and “American expatriates” and
— the United States invaded Lebanon in 1958.
Lebanon is located on the West Bank of the Mediterranean Sea. It is a weak country. It has no oil and only 9000 standing troops. However, such a country was “favored” by the United States in 1958, allowing the United States to fight for its national sovereignty. Why? This has to start with its geographical location.
the Middle East region where Lebanon is located is one of the birthplaces of world civilization. It is located at the junction of Europe, Asia and Africa. Since modern times, the rich oil resources found in the Middle East have made it the focus of the world. During the cold war, this region became a place of dispute between the United States and the Soviet Union and a hot spot of confrontation and competition between capitalism and communism.
in January 1958, Egyptian President Nasser announced the merger of Egypt and Syria into a new country – the United Arab Republic. For a time, it aroused pan Arabism in Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Lebanon in the Middle East. The US government is full of such remarks: Nasser has a “timetable” for taking over the Middle East. Once successful, the Soviet Union will control the Middle East and its oil. Under such circumstances, Eisenhower could only believe that the interests of the United States were at stake. He is determined to use force to prevent Pan Arab nationalism against the West from ruling the region. He will choose a time and place to implement the “Eisenhower Doctrine” named after him – the total containment of communism. Soon, the opportunity came.
in 1952, Kamil chamon was elected president of Lebanon. He is a pro Western Christian. Since he came to power, he has blindly followed the United States and aroused the dissatisfaction of the people at home. In April 1958, President chamon destroyed Lebanon’s tradition and constitution in order to seek re-election as president. Muslims in the country began to riot in protest, so that the old feud between Islamists and Christians broke out again. On the morning of May 8, 1958, nasib matni, President and editor in chief of the Lebanese telegraph, was assassinated and killed. Matni is a famous nationalist journalist in Lebanon. He calls for the implementation of the national independence policy and opposes the government taking “Eisenhower Doctrine” as its political basis. The incident of
aroused a strong shock in Lebanese society. People everywhere have taken the form of mass demonstrations, general strikes and general strikes to oppose the government’s terrorist rule and demand the president’s resignation. The Xia Meng government dispatched a large number of armed police, army and gendarmerie to implement bloody repression against the mass movement, resulting in many bloody tragedies. In this way, the mass strike, strike and other struggles developed into an armed uprising of the people. The uprising people have become braver and braver, and the results of the struggle have been expanding. The Xia Meng government has been in turmoil.
President chamon wrote to Eisenhower and introduced his situation. The US president immediately convened a meeting of relevant personnel. At the meeting, Eisenhower said: “if the Lebanese government asks us for help, we must act resolutely.” He also stressed that the mission of the US military in Lebanon is to protect American lives and property and help the legitimate government of Lebanon.
Eisenhower “did what he said, and then the first step of American interference in Lebanon’s internal affairs came out: transfer the amphibious forces of the 6th fleet to the Mediterranean; Put on alert the air combat brigade stationed in Europe that may be airlifted to the region; Deliver the promised so-called “police equipment”, including rifles, pistols, ammunition and tear gas, to the Lebanese government. At the same time, the United States has made full use of the Baghdad treaty countries as its tools for interfering in Lebanon’s internal affairs. Previously, Jordanian and Iraqi officers and soldiers had already secretly and in batches participated in the Xia Meng army to suppress the people’s armed forces of the uprising.
the United States is eager to quickly submit the situation in Lebanon to the UN Security Council. It instigates the Lebanese government to “accuse” the United Arab Republic of interfering in its internal affairs to the Security Council. Under the activities of the United States, the Security Council decided to send a military observation team to Lebanon to investigate.
are coordinated with the above activities, and preparations for direct armed intervention by the US and British forces are also stepping up. On June 15 and 16, Eisenhower consulted with Secretary of State Dulles and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff on the situation in Lebanon. They intend that as long as the Lebanese government makes a “request” or the government is overthrown, the United States will send troops to land in Lebanon. On the same day, the chamon government announced that it had “requested” the United Nations to send an army of thousands to Lebanon.
US Marines landed
in Lebanon. Finally, with the mediation of the United Nations, President chamon announced that he would not seek re-election. The situation seems to have calmed down. However, on July 14, a revolution took place in Iraq. The Faisal Dynasty was overthrown by the uprising people and the Republic of Iraq was established. The New Republic immediately announced its withdrawal from the Baghdad treaty group and ordered Iraqi forces in Lebanon to participate in the resistance activities of the Lebanese people’s armed forces. The situation in the Middle East deteriorated rapidly. CIA director Dulles emergency report: “President chamon’s government has formally requested the United States and Britain to intervene within 48 hours through our ambassador.” Hearing this news, Eisenhower finally breathed a sigh of relief, and the long brewing “Eisenhower Doctrine” finally found a “reasonable” place to use.
on July 15, 1958, the United States, at the request of the Lebanese government and under the pretext of protecting “Lebanese sovereignty” and “American nationals”, took the form of sudden attack, sent troops to land in Lebanon and grossly interfered in Lebanon’s internal affairs.
the actions of the United States have been fiercely criticized and criticized, which has triggered strong anti American sentiment in the Arab region. Facing the chaotic situation, the United States once again thought of the United Nations. It asked the United Nations to arrange emergency troops to replace American troops there, but the proposal was rejected by the Soviet Union, which demanded that the United States and Britain immediately stop armed interference in the internal affairs of Arab countries. On August 9, the United Nations emergency special session was held in New York, which was held in the Soviet Union and Arab countriesWith perseverance and efforts, the meeting finally adopted the proposals of the United Arab Republic and others, calling for the complete withdrawal of U.S. troops from Lebanon. On August 21, the United Nations adopted a resolution proposed by the Arabs themselves: Arab countries do not interfere in each other’s affairs, and UN Secretary General Hammarskj ö LD made practical arrangements for the withdrawal of us and British troops from Lebanon.
the United Nations resolution basically ended the crisis in Lebanon. The United States was forced to withdraw all the invading troops from Lebanon at the end of October 1958.