Protecting the lives and property of overseas Americans
— in 1965, the United States invaded Dominica
. In May 1965, the small country of Dominica in Latin America experienced unrest and asked the United States to send troops to help. At that time, President Johnson did not hesitate to send 22000 troops into Dominica to help restore social order. This action is a major event of large-scale US military intervention in other countries after World War II. Why did President Johnson brazenly interfere in his domestic affairs despite the pressure of the Vietnam War?
the Dominican Republic is located in the eastern part of the Caribbean island. As early as 1907, the United States established its economic control over Dominica, making Dominica its protectorate. Since 1930, the United States has supported the Trujillo family to implement dictatorship in Dominica for 30 years. Under the cruel rule of American imperialism and dictators, the Dominican people lived in great hardship.
in May 1961, Trujillo was assassinated and died. In December 1961, Juan bosh, leader of the Dominican revolutionary party and representative of the national bourgeoisie, was elected president. After he came to power, he carried out some democratic reforms, which promoted the further development of the domestic national revolution. However, because Bosh’s thought of change was influenced by the Communist Party, the United States was very wary from the beginning. Americans believe that although bosh is not a communist, he has many supporters of the Communist Party, and he may be manipulated by these Communists.
in April 1963, Juan bosh promulgated a new constitution and adopted some policies against the United States, which aroused strong dissatisfaction from the United States. On September 25, 1963, the reactionary soldiers launched a coup to overthrow the Juan bosh government and establish an authoritarian regime headed by kavral. As soon as the Kavlar regime came to power, it abolished the democratic constitution, declared the left-wing political parties illegal, and made a major arrest in an attempt to prevent the development of domestic democratic forces through cruel military police rule.
have backfired. This reactionary policy has aroused a new wave of protests from democratic forces. On April 24, 1965, a group of patriotic officers led by kamano launched an armed uprising, overthrew the dictatorship of kavral, proposed to restore the 1963 constitution and support Juan bosh as president of the country. With the support of workers, college students and urban residents, the insurgents liberated the capital Santo Domingo on April 25, occupied the important stronghold of the kavral army Osama fortress on April 27, and fought until its last fortress, San Isidro base.
before April 1965, the Johnson Administration devoted all its attention to the Vietnam issue and did not pay enough attention to the situation in Dominica. At the beginning of April, US ambassador to Dominica Bennett sent an obscure telegram to: some little foxes, some of them red, are feeding on grapes… If we don’t take action, we will make bitter wine that is difficult to swallow. And strongly urged the United States to send troops to intervene. To this end, Johnson sent former ambassador Martin to Dominica for a practical investigation. In his report to Washington, he publicly advocated that there was a communist conspiracy there and suggested that the United States support anti bosh forces.
the United States absolutely does not want to give up its control over Dominica. This is because the United States has significant political, economic and strategic interests in Dominica. Economically, after the breakdown of the relationship between the United States and Cuba around 1960, Dominica became a major importer of American bran. The investment of American entrepreneurs in Dominica also increased significantly, reaching US $20 billion from 1964 to 1965. The political factor is that the United States is afraid of another Cuba in the Caribbean. President Johnson made it clear: “American countries cannot, must not and will not allow the establishment of another communist government in the Western Hemisphere.”
the civil war in Santo Domingo is going on fiercely. If it goes on, the Americans who stay there will be attacked. At 8:45 on April 25, 1964, under the pretext of protecting the lives and property of overseas Americans, US President Johnson ordered the aircraft carrier boxer to sail to the Dominican sea. On April 27, the transfer of American nationals began. On the same day, a group of armed thugs broke into the EMBA Doha Hotel and shouted to search for “counter revolutionaries”. During the search, the mob lined up some Americans in the hotel against the wall and then strafed them with machine guns. However, when the gun was fired, no American fell down, not even one injured. Then the mob withdrew. There is obviously a conspiracy behind this act of pretending to shoot American expatriates.
“Boxer” aircraft carrier
it was not long before Colonel Beloit, the head of the military group, informed the U.S. Embassy that he could no longer guarantee the safety of the Americans in view of the fact that the rebels had not been defeated. Bennett reported to the White House: “the situation continues to deteriorate… Washington should seriously consider the issue of armed intervention… If the above situation continues… We should intervene to prevent another Cuba.”
so Johnson issued a battle order on the pretext of protecting the lives and property of overseas Americans: “1500 people on standby on the boxer will land immediately. Other troops also began to pull out. At the same time, the U.S. government issued a statement: the number of U.S. troops about to reach 22000 arrived in the Dominican Republic to prevent it from becoming communism. At 18:30 on April 28, US Marines began landing in Dominica. Within a few days of
, the US forces quickly occupied the fortresses of Santo Domingo, cut off the contact between the pro bosh groups, and made them completely lose the ability of counterattack. The situation in Dominica quickly fell to the military government supported by the United States.
with the development of the war situation, the United States has successively increased its military strength to 35000. The Dominican people fought bravely against the American aggression. Although they had no advanced weapons, they fought against the American invaders for more than four months with patriotic enthusiasm