Protect the orthodox residents

in Turkey – “the Crimean War in 1853

there is an ancient city with a long history and full of vicissitudes among the four hills in the middle of Palestine on the East Bank of the Mediterranean in the wave light Li à n 滟. It is famous for Jews and Jews all over the world The holy city worshipped by Christians and Muslims – Jerusalem.

“recovery map of Crimean War

Jerusalem is an insignificant small city, but its popularity in the world is not weaker than that of New York and Paris. The reason why its reputation is so enduring is entirely because it has a strong religious color, historical monuments, unique atmosphere and wonderful scenery. The names, place names and myths mentioned in the Bible can find corresponding churches and temples in the old city of Jerusalem.

in the southern suburb of Jerusalem, there is a small town called Bethlehem. Near the town, there is a cave called mahed cave, in which the Virgin Mary gave birth to Jesus. When Jesus was young, he studied in Jerusalem. Later, he received disciples in Bethlehem to spread the “Gospel” of God. Finally, he was crucified and buried in this place. However, after three days of crucifixion, Jesus rose again from the cemetery and ascended to heaven 40 days later. The resurrection Church in mahed today was built by the mother of the ancient Roman emperor on the base of Jesus. Because Jesus was born, crucified and resurrected here, Jerusalem is even more sacred and supreme.

but history always makes people laugh and cry.

holy land should be an inviolable place. Christmas is a day full of warmth and joy. On Christmas day in 1847, in the Holy Church of Bethlehem, the birthplace of Jesus, a group of ordinary and dignified priests were chasing and fighting with candlesticks and crosses like wild dogs in the wilderness… The two sides of the group fight were Catholic and Orthodox priests.

they are fighting for the management of the Holy Land: who is in charge of the key to the church in Bethlehem? Who is responsible for repairing the dome of the Church of the holy sepulchre? What kind of Burley star was erected on the holy tomb… After the incident of

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, the French emperor Louis’ put pressure on the Turkish Sultan as a Catholic protector (this area was under the jurisdiction of Turkey at that time) and asked the Turkish Sultan to respect the rights of Catholics. Counting on the support of France, the Turkish Sultan handed over the management of the holy land to the Catholic Church. So the key of Bethlehem church was handed over to the Catholic monks. A Catholic Silver Star with a French national emblem was also erected on the holy land. Czar Nicholas I was extremely angry about this. In addition, Constantinople and the two straits (Bosporus and Dardanelle) are the most attractive to the major powers. Because they are the throat between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the “Golden Bridge” connecting Europe, Asia and Africa, and important strategic places. Russian czar I called it “the key to our house”. Marx pointed out in an article on the war: “As the Czar’s plan to open a port to the Mediterranean for half a year, he was annoyed that it was easy for the czar to open up such a big port to the sea. Therefore, as the Czar’s plan to open up another port to the Mediterranean, he was annoyed that he could not open up such a big port for half a year.”

so he asked the Turkish Sultan to respect the rights of the orthodox as the protector of the orthodox. He sent a high-level mission headed by makikov to Turkey and asked the Sudan to: 1. Protect the privileges of the Orthodox Church to the holy land; 2. Confirm by formal treaty that the Czar has the right to protect all orthodox subjects in the Ottoman Turkish Empire, etc. Under the threat of the Czar, Turkey partially met Russia’s requirements, but refused to sign an agreement and did not recognize the Czar’s right to protect Turkish orthodox subjects.

where did Tsar Nicholas I eat this set? No matter 3721, on July 3, 1853, on the pretext of protecting the rights of orthodox residents in Turkey, he sent troops to occupy Turkey’s vassal Moldavia and valachia. On October 4, Turkey declared war on Russia and the Crimean War broke out.

during the Crimean War, Turkey was supported by Britain, France and Sardinia, and Prussia and Austria actually stood on the Turkish side. Engels once commented that Russia is facing a hopeless war between a nation with backward mode of production and several nations with modern production.

on November 18, 1853, the first general war between Russia and Turkey was held in Sinop military port, Turkey. At that time, Britain, France, Austria, Portugal and other countries insisted that the Turkish government order to stop the just started military operations and resolve the dispute through “negotiation”. Russia took advantage of the opportunity to dispatch six capital ships and two cruisers under the command of admiral nakimov to have a fierce battle with the Turkish fleet. Four hours later, Turkey was sunk seven warships, the commander of the sub fleet was captured, and more than 5000 sailors died. The victory of the Russian army in the battle of Sinop made it control the situation in the Black Sea, and the land war plan of the Turkish army was curbed.

“the battle of Sinop was like such an impactor that scattered the impact of the long-standing current.” On January 3, 1854, Napoleon III suggested that Britain and France take military action against Russia to “protect” Turkey. On February 6, Russia’s diplomatic relations with Britain and France were interrupted. On February 7, Britain and France issued an ultimatum to Russia asking Russia to withdraw from the Principality of Moldavia and valachia before April 30, which Russia ignored. On March 12, the alliance of Britain, France and Turkey was formed. On the 27th and 28th, France and Britain declared war on Russia successively, and the British and French coalition forces entered the Black Sea.

Napoleon III wanted to win more alliesGeographical advantage gave up neutrality and stood for Britain and France. On December 2, 1854, the offensive and defensive alliance of Britain, France and Austria was established. Since Austria had already concluded an alliance with Prussia, Britain, France, Austria and Prussia fought against Russia together. The Austrian government mobilized all the troops, but still avoided military action.

however, Napoleon III also made some achievements in the active activities of the kingdom of Sardinia. French envoys have been in frequent contact with the king and Prime Minister of Sardinia since May 1854, and finally signed the alliance treaty on January 26, 1855. Subsequently, 15000 Italian soldiers under the command of general mamora fought against Russia together with the British and French coalition forces on the Crimean peninsula. In this way, the military strength of the Allied forces of Britain, France and Sardinia far exceeded that of Russia.

the Crimean War formed three battlefields: the Danube River Basin, the Black Sea coast and the Caucasus. The governments of Britain, France and other countries believe that as long as they capture Sevastopol, the base of Russia’s Black Sea Fleet on the Crimean Peninsula, they will win the war and eliminate Russia’s influence in the Balkans and the Near East.

on September 14, 1854, the army under the command of British general Raglan and French general San Arnault, with a total of more than 60000 people, landed in Kerim and surrounded Sevastopol. Austria is responsible for guarding the Principality of the Danube River. On September 11, 1855, the fortress of Sevastopol fell. Before that, Nicholas I poisoned himself.

after the defeat of Russia, the two sides held a Paris conference from February 25 to March 30, 1856 and concluded the Paris peace treaty, ending the Crimean War.

“the Tsarist government suffered a disastrous defeat… The Tsarist government made a fool of Russia in front of the world, but also made a fool of itself in front of Russia. The unprecedented period of awakening has begun.”

after the Crimean War, the leader status of European reactionary forces owned by czar Russia for many years disappeared, and the situation of giving orders to central and southern Europe ended. Russia has a grudge against Austria’s “betrayal”, and the relationship between Austria and Britain has become intimate. After the Crimea war, a new pattern appeared in European international relations.