the British pirates who were proudly called “my seal” by Queen Elizabeth played an important role in creating the “Elizabethan era”. The combination of piracy and kingship, the personal interests of pirates and the interests of the state have reached the most extensive agreement in this era. The monarchy acquiesced in and supported the pirates, and the pirates maintained the monarchy and national independence; National piracy and legalization of piracy have staged an amazing play on the world stage.

by the author of

in early Qingdong, the external expansion of imperialism is nothing but piracy. Elizabeth, the “ferocious old hen”, is the mother of pirates.

Elizabeth I (reigned from 1558 to 1603) is one of the most famous monarchs in British history, and she never married for the unity and strength of the country as a woman. Elizabeth I created a personal brilliance, but also achieved a brilliant era – the Elizabethan era. In her nearly half century career as Queen of England, England has gradually developed from a small country to a maritime power. With her superb navigation skills, Elizabeth I supported the English ship in the stormy waves, dangerous beaches and reefs, and finally successfully sailed the English ship into the wider world waters, laying a solid foundation for the establishment of the “sun never sets Empire” in the future. Therefore, she is known as the God of glory, the virgin in classical mythology and the “phoenix of the world”. The piracy activities in this period became a sharp weapon for Queen Elizabeth to cut through the thorns and waves, which had a far-reaching impact on Britain to solve its political and economic difficulties and oppose Spain’s commercial hegemony and maritime hegemony. Elizabeth I is also known as the “Pirate Queen”. A famous British biographer once described Elizabeth I as follows: “this fierce old hen squats motionless and incubates the English nation. The nascent strength of the nation quickly matures and unifies under her wings. She squats motionless, but each feather stands up.”

Britain in the period of Elizabeth I has just begun to emerge. In the process of establishing the foundation of the “sun never sets Empire”, British Pirates have made great contributions. British pirates are affectionately called “my seal” by the queen. They played an important role in the special circumstances at that time. They not only served the overall security and strategic situation of the UK, but also brought countless gold and silver wealth to the queen and the country.

the reason why the queen of England used pirate groups and pirate activities needs to be found in the “small environment” and “big environment” of Britain at that time. The domestic and international environment during this period was full of dangers. Elizabeth was faced with two major problems when she ascended the throne: one is the religious problem; Second, financial issues. On religious issues, before Elizabeth ascended the throne, Britain restored the Catholic faith. At that time, Queen Mary adopted a bloody policy and married to the king of Spain, so Queen Mary was known as “Bloody Mary”. When Elizabeth ascended the throne, she was faced with the question of the direction of the country’s religious policy, whether to believe in Catholicism or Protestantism. Elizabeth chose Protestantism and advocated religious tolerance. However, Catholics at home and abroad are dissatisfied and ready to overthrow Elizabeth’s rule. On the financial issue, Elizabeth inherited a large amount of debt from her former queen, and the discredited currency worsened the situation. The focus of national finance is the royal family’s living expenses and war expenses. Queen Elizabeth dressed in luxurious and colorful aristocratic fashion for the pride of her country and the dignity of her monarch, and fed countless slaves and idle people. Her grand and luxurious country tour was enough to ruin the aristocrats who entertained her. Because it costs two or three thousand pounds to entertain the Queen each time. After Elizabeth ascended the throne, the war was still frequent. From 1585 to 1602, the number of conscripts ranged from 1806 to 12620, with a total of more than 100000. At this time, the war was waged by the state to pay, hire soldiers and assemble everything for them. Therefore, the cost of war is huge. All these factors caused resonance and put the Queen’s Government in financial trouble. The queen is in urgent need of gold and silver money to pay for national financial expenditure and royal expenses. In terms of

,

,

,

and “general environment”, the main countries are Spain and France, and Britain has an important strategic position in these two countries. In 1559, Cato conbrecci’s peace treaty ended a war that had become a “race between tired horses”. This treaty made France almost completely surrounded by Spanish territory, and only the British Isles made it possible for both countries to consolidate or break the treaty. If Spain had acquired the British Isles or at least the island of England, there would be no gap in its encirclement of France; If France acquired the British Isles, Netherland, under Spanish control, would become a lonely outpost, and the whole system of the peace treaty would be endangered. At the same time, Spain, as the world empire, was a fervent believer in Catholicism and the largest creditor of the world’s gold and silver wealth at that time. In this way, Britain has become a dangerous region and the focus of competition in Western Europe. At the beginning of her accession to the throne, Elizabeth skillfully used marriage to coordinate relations with other countries. However, with the deepening of the contradiction between Britain and Spain, the two countries were forced to go to war. On the way of this war, British Pirates played a key role. Let’s call it “pirate war”.

the pirate war during Elizabeth I

Spain was the overlord of the world in the 16th century, both on land and sea. As a member of the Iberian Peninsula, it is the pioneer and the biggest beneficiary of the great geographical discovery. Under the auspices of the Pope, Spain and Portugal divided the world into two, each with half the country. From 1580 to 1640, Spain merged Portugal and became the most powerful country in the world, monopolizing maritime trade and a large amount of gold and silver from the Americas. As mentioned earlier, Britain’s financial difficulties, the queen tried to open source, but the outside world is already Spain’s world. In this case, the queen of England and her merchant and pirate did not recognize Spain’s trade monopoly. Elizabeth declared publicly that BritainOur businessmen need the protection of British warships. On the other hand, Spain’s military repression, financial repression and religious persecution of the Netherland revolution have greatly damaged Britain’s traditional trade relations with Netherland.

in terms of religion, the two countries are even more incompatible. The king of Spain failed to propose to Elizabeth and instead supported Catholics in Britain and Mary in Scotland to rebel. Elizabeth suppressed the rebellion with the support of Cecil and Walsingham. Queen Mary and the Duke of Norfolk were eventually executed, destroying Spain’s trump card threatening Queen Elizabeth’s status. The contradictions between the two countries have intensified.

Elizabeth and the ministers were fully aware of the dangers of Britain and how much England depended on Antwerp under the control of Spain, which provided a market for Britain’s bulk woolen exports and provided goods such as weapons. He was also aware of the turmoil in England, the emptiness of the Treasury, the poor equipment of the army and the weakness of the Navy, so he was unable to confront Spain. However, in order to obtain the development space of Britain and solve the national problems, the queen resolutely supported her businessmen and pirates to launch an attack on the sphere of influence of Spain. The British Pirates provided the queen with beautiful materials to find excuses, because the queen could claim that it was a private matter. This made Spain very angry and helpless.

under the catalysis of various factors, the contradiction between Britain and Spain intensified and finally triggered an open war. After Mary of Scotland was executed, King Philip II of Spain tried to seize the British throne, replace Elizabeth and restore Catholicism. The ports on the west coast of the Spanish Peninsula assembled fleets and stood by for operations. At this time, although Britain did not have a powerful army, it was flexible after the military reform of “pirate general” s. Equipped with artillery, it can shoot from a long distance. In addition, pirate ships have joined the war to maintain national independence. They can be said to have been baptized by the waves and have ultra-high navigation skills. In order to gain time for war preparation, Britain used pirates to sneak attacks on Spanish ports. On April 19, 1587, Drake led a fleet to raid the port of Cadiz, destroying 30 Spanish warships, and then openly robbed the enemy’s supply ships off the enemy’s coast in two months. Drake described the operation as “burning the beard of the king of Spain”. Drake’s pirate attack delayed Philip II’s invasion plan by one year and won time for Britain to prepare for war. At the same time, because a large number of wooden barrels on the Spanish supply ship were burned by Drake, they had to use wet wood to make wooden barrels. However, the wooden barrels made of wet wood soon had many cracks, which led to the corruption and deterioration of the food inside, which led to the prevalence of infectious diseases, and led to the continuous increase of the casualties of the “invincible fleet” in the naval battle, and the navy was full of complaints, This has seriously affected combat readiness and morale.