“Reducing horse prices and refusing marriage” and

— in 1449, warla invaded the

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of the Ming Dynasty. The emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty “learned from the loss of previous generations”, and eunuchs (eunuchs) were strictly prohibited from interfering in the internal affairs of the country, and officials were not allowed to pass the four grades. At that time, there was an iron plate in front of the palace gate, which read “internal Ministers shall not interfere in political affairs, and those who anticipate shall be killed”. However, in the process of seizing power, the later emperor Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty relied on eunuchs around emperor Jianwen to get a lot of information, so he began to rely on eunuchs after becoming emperor. By the time of the fifth emperor Yingzong of Ming Dynasty, the power of eunuchs represented by Wang Zhen reached its peak.

when Emperor Yingzong of the Ming Dynasty ascended the throne, he was only 10 years old. Wang Zhen, the eunuch leader who accompanied him to grow up, became a person he trusted very much. Emperor Yingzong of the Ming Dynasty ordered Wang Zhen to be a eunuch of rites. The eunuch in charge of ceremonies, ceremonies and punishments is the head of the 24 yamen of eunuchs. He also manages important affairs such as the East Hall, so he has great power. With the help of the emperor’s childishness, weakness and credulity, Wang Zhen wantonly expanded his power, so that he became the actual decision-maker of the government affairs of the imperial court. Wang Zhen instigated the young emperor to torture in order to deter his officials. Those who were not right or against Wang Zhen were often arrested and imprisoned on unwarranted charges. At the same time, bribery between the government and the public became common, and many officials were promoted by bribing Wang Zhen. The court atmosphere was unprecedentedly bad, and it was difficult for honest officials to establish themselves. All officials of the government and the public, whether for speculation or for the sake of perfecting their positions, were almost dumped in Wang Zhen’s power. Wang Zhenli used his huge power to plunder people’s wealth, widely buy rural areas and build large-scale construction. The Treasury wealth accumulated since the era of Taizu and Chengzu was squandered. People’s lives were extremely miserable. A large number of farmers went into exile, and peasant uprisings broke out one after another in various places.

on the one hand, the national power of the Ming Dynasty was declining day by day. On the other hand, the northern border was suffering more serious. The Wara tribe, a branch of Mongolia, has gradually become powerful since the early 15th century. In 1439, he first inherited the throne of his father tuohuan shunning and took control of vara. He first ascended the throne and then harassed the border guard station of the Ming Dynasty for many times, and contacted the female immortal in Eastern Liaoning to try to attack the core ruling area of the Ming Dynasty together. After several attacks, Wala occupied most of Southern Inner Mongolia and outside the Great Wall, which was originally controlled by the Ming Dynasty. Xuanfu (now Xuanhua, Hebei) and Datong became the first line of border defense in the north of the Ming Dynasty. As long as Wala cavalry entered the Xuanhua and Datong lines, they could directly threaten Juyong Pass, Zijingguan and other internal passes of the Great Wall. Once these passes were lost, Beijing will be directly exposed in front of the Warsaw army.

Wang Zhen faced with this situation, not only did not take measures, but fantasized about stabilizing the Wara leader through bribery. Every time Wala envoys came to Beijing to pay tribute, Wang Zhen gave a heavy reward, “no one would refuse to beg.”. In order to get more rewards, Wala continuously increased the number of missions. Later, the number of missions entering the Customs was as many as thousands. Wang Zhen still gave generous rewards as usual.

in 1443, Liu Qiu, a lecturer, wrote that there were too many varagon envoys and harbored evil intentions. He suggested that the border defense in the North should be strengthened, the army should be reorganized and grain and wages should be stored. However, Liu Qiu was soon arrested and imprisoned by Wang Zhen, and then dismembered and killed in prison. Since then, few people have dared to mention the northern border defense affairs, and the border defense affairs have become more relaxed.

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Wala, for many years, have been exploring the reality of the Ming Dynasty through diplomatic missions and business missions, and have a better understanding of the situation of the Ming Dynasty. The abundance of wealth and the emptiness of military power of the Ming Dynasty also played a dual role of temptation. Therefore, since the basic unification of vara outside the Great Wall in 1447, it has begun to plan a large-scale attack, just waiting for a suitable excuse.

was soon found. In the autumn of 1448, as usual, a mission was sent to Beijing to pay tribute to good horses. The actual number of the mission was 2524, but in order to get more rewards, it lied that it was 3598. After knowing this, Wang Zhen was very angry. He thought that falsely claiming the number of tribute envoys was contempt for the court and ordered to reduce the price of horses. The tribute envoy said, “this is the bride price.” It means to marry a Royal Princess first. The court replied, “there is no betrothal marriage.” It turned out that before that, he also sent envoys to pay tribute and bribe the officials of the Ming court, who told the Ming court in detail about the reality and reality of the country; He also expressed his intention of intermarriage to the messenger first. The messenger promised privately, but failed to report to the court. I first thought the intermarriage was successful, so I took Gongma as the bride price. It was also unexpected that the Ming court not only reduced the price of horses, but also refused to marry. In the spring of 1449, after the mission returned to warra, it could not wait to invade the Ming Dynasty on a large scale under the pretext of “reducing horse prices and refusing marriage”. Of course, the Ming Dynasty did not expect that its most reasonable and polite explanation had become an excuse for vara’s invasion.

soon, the Ming court received the warning of warla invasion, responded quickly and carried out a series of war preparation activities. However, preparations for war in the Ming Dynasty had just begun, and warla had been divided into four routes and began to attack. The deployment of the warla army is: on the first route, the main force, led by Yexian, attacked Datong; On the second road, general ara led some cavalry to attack Xuanfu; On the third way, vara Khan tuotuobuhua led 30000 people to attack Eastern Liaoning; The fourth way, send a cavalry to attack Gansu.

civil engineering changes

also advanced to attack Datong all the way, “the soldiers in Datong are very sharp, the soldiers in Datong are defeated, and the castle outside the Great Wall is trapped” (volume 32 of the annals of Ming history, civil engineering changes). Datong general Wu Hao died in maoerzhuang. The defeat of the Datong front continued to spread to Beijing, and the emperor Yingzong of the Ming Dynasty, incited by Wang Zhen, prepared to enlist in person. On July 16, 1449, Ming Yingzong and Wang Zhen led more than 500000 troops from Beijing. Due to improper organization, all military and political affairs were decided by Wang Zhen. The conscripts’ ministers of civil and military affairs were not allowed to participate in military and political affairs, which surprised the army. On August 1, 1449, the Ming army entered Datong. In order to lure the Ming army into depth, he took the initiative to withdraw north. Wang Zhen saw that the Warsaw army withdrew northward and still insisted on moving northward. Later, he heard that the troops in front were ambushed and retreated in panic. When they retreated to Xuanfu, the vara brigade came after them, and 30000 cavalry of the Ming army were “killed and looted”. On August 1 and 13, 1449, the Ming Yingzong led his army to the civil castle, while the warla army pressed on the Ming army. The earth of the civil castle is high and waterless, and the soldiers are hungry and thirsty