In the first decade of the 20th century, the US Navy was a beloved lucky man.

With the president’s special care, the “young urchins” waving flags and shouting, and the glorious voyage of the “Great White Fleet”, all these undoubtedly greatly increase the prestige of the navy in the eyes of ordinary Americans.

As a result, the Navy wants money, goods and things, pays attention from top to bottom, and has a powerful position and influence in American society.

By contrast, the US Army (known as the “yellow army” because of its tan uniform) is eclipsed.

On the one hand, due to its poor performance in the Spanish American war, it has never been understood by the press and the public.

On the other hand, the army has long played the role of border security and strike police, and there are really not many exciting feats and proud moments.

“Isn’t the future of the country pinned on the Navy? Why do we need so many armies?” Not only do ordinary people think so, but also many people in congress hold this view.

As a result, Congress is neither willing to allocate funds to the army nor concerned about whether the army is short of personnel and supplies.

As a result, the living conditions of the officers and soldiers of the whole army have been lower than normal for a long time, and are getting worse and worse.

For example, at that time, an army officer had to rely on his meager salary to provide his own uniforms, meals, knives, revolver, field telescope, bedding and tableware.

He also had to pay for the moving expenses required for normal mobility and the housing expenses of his family members.

The situation would be even worse if they were deployed to border areas with difficult conditions.

It seems that most of the soldiers who left the US Army in Lindao were worse off than those who left the US Army in the border.

Later, they were assigned to serve as the commander-in-chief in Lindao because of the poor conditions of the US Army in 1911.

In addition, they were always worse off than those who left the US Army in Lindao before the Second World War Forty years later, the equally successful army five-star general George Marshall was also a young lieutenant who “only knew how to work hard”.

He had to support himself, his wife and his mother-in-law with a second lieutenant’s salary of 116 dollars and 67 cents a month.

If the money was used sparingly, it would make ends meet, but his beautiful wife liked to dress up and loved fancy clothes and skirts.

It was difficult to tell Lieutenant Marshall, who was known as a “model husband”.

He later said that he was shy The dilemma of counting copper plates: “A spring hat costs $3.

55 and a spring suit costs $14.

I remember them all very well.

I have to calculate every penny carefully.

I have to try my best to save some money.

I really don’t care whether I have $1.

50 or $10.

50 left in a month, but I can only save but not overspend.

In those days, I’ve been trying my best to make a month’s salary better Save money and live on it.

” For a real soldier, the problem of living treatment is still the second, and the most painful thing is that he can’t reflect his own value and pursuit.

At that time, there were few opportunities for promotion.

In peacetime, the army was just like this.

Officers and sergeants stayed in the same rank for more than ten years.

At the same time, we have to live and practice according to the old rules and regulations since the civil war.

It is boring and has no new ideas.

As Marshall later said, “it’s not because the army seemed to be full of mindless people at that time, but because using your brain can only cause trouble.

Just follow your book.

” One spring, Lieutenant Marshall was ordered to perform what he later called “the hardest service I’ve ever experienced in the army”.

At that time, he was transferred to the 1st Cavalry Regiment in Clark fort, Texas to map the territory of 2000 square miles in the southwest of the state.

Marshall’s specific task was to measure a large area of barren land between kamstok and Langley.

The regiment equipped him with a sergeant, a driver, a porter and his assistant, as well as a cook, two horses, an escort carriage, a four mule cart and a baggage team with 20 mules.

When everything was ready, Marshall and his party were on their way.

It was a hot summer, and the survey team had just set out from kamestok when it encountered hot weather.

They began to measure along the railway.

“The thermometer went up to 130 degrees Fahrenheit,” Marshall later recalled.

“I had to count track knots as I walked along the railway, because I needed to use the track as a baseline to get an accurate measurement.

Another way was to measure the distance from the odometer on the wheels of the freight wagon and record the time of the horse.

” Walking, the problem comes.

Because the onions and potatoes brought with the car were eaten up in the first week, there was no one around, and there was no money to buy anything.

They had to live on canned bacon and other meat, which Marshall was not used to.

Due to the lack of fresh vegetables, he had indigestion and soon suffered from heartburn.

When he later mentioned it, he still had a lingering fear: “I just need to drink water and keep panting.

I remember I weighed about 165 to 170 pounds when I entered the desert and only 132 pounds when I came out.

” However, water shortage is the biggest suffering.

Lieutenant Marshall had to order that the animals first drink enough water, and then distribute the rest of the water to his team bit by bit.

When the water shortage was most serious, Marshall walked out of this terrible desert without dripping water in order to help others.

Three months later, the skinny and ghostly team finally returned to Clarksburg with difficulty.

Marshall and Sergeant reported to the officer on duty.

Where was lieutenant Marshall like an American officer at this time? Clearly like an Indian spy.

His face and hands were peeled off by the sun, and the broad felt military cap whose top was bitten off by a mule looked like a scarecrow’s hat, and his military uniform was even more dilapidated.

So that the officer on duty didn’t even want to look at him.

He just gossiped with his old sergeant who looked a little more energetic.

Although Marshall brought back a “best and most complete map”, which was highly praised by his boss and a four-month vacation, Lieutenant Marshall still couldn’t contain his anger and grievances.

In front of his boss, he shouted, “shit, we’re starving!” Marshall’s experience can be regarded as the experience of the U.S. Army in that eraA typical epitome of life.

Under the premise of “building a first-class navy”, the untimely army seems to be in such a state that no one cares.

However, this situation finally took a turn after Elio lute became Secretary of the army.

Speaking of lute’s coming to power, there was also a noisy episode in advance, which was the sensational “preserved beef” incident.

In June and July 1898, the American Expeditionary Force led by general Schaft could not deliver supplies due to inconvenient transportation.

It mainly lived on travel rations.

The main food of the so-called travel ration is a kind of canned salted beef.

Over the years, this kind of canned food has mature technology and stable quality.

It has been regarded as a field standard food by the regular army when there is no fresh meat to eat.

However, for some reason, the army grain m storage department did not purchase this kind of canned salted beef, which has long been recognized by the army officers and soldiers.

Instead, it bought a food called canned boiled beef.

This kind of beef not only looks ugly, insipid, gluten and poor taste, but also can’t be imported directly without cooking or seasoning.

Knowing that it was unpopular with the army, the officials of the Ministry of food m and quarantine stressed with justification that as long as this beef was cooked with vegetables and seasoning, it would become a delicious stew.

It tastes great! However, when the war began, a large number of vegetables and seasonings loaded with the ship were either lost halfway or rotted in the steaming bottom cabin.

The army had no choice but to eat the canned beef in the hot and smelly cabin.

You can imagine what the beef would taste like after being smoked and roasted in the hot air of the ship and Cuba.

Before long, the officers and soldiers wanted to vomit at the sight of canned beef.

As a result, many people suffered from serious gastrointestinal diseases and their physical fitness plummeted.

In the front line and in the rear hospital, yellow skinned Army soldiers could be seen everywhere.

They gathered in twos and threes and scolded the officials of the grain m storage department for being bastards, which made them suffer so much.

After the war, all the officers and soldiers who had experienced nausea and vomiting in the process of entering Cuba were still angry and accused the above-mentioned man-made disasters caused by bureaucracy.

Subsequently, with the help and deliberate exaggeration of journalists, wartime defects such as transportation problems and medical and health problems were made public and exposed, which aroused the great indignation of the American public.

The mediocre Secretary of the army Russell Alger became the scapegoat for all the bad things in the war.

Under such circumstances, President McKinley had to announce the establishment of an investigation team to formally investigate the matter, so as to appease people and calm public anger.

The investigation team is headed by general Dodge, an old subordinate of Sherman during the civil war, and composed of nine prestigious gentlemen, so it is called “dodge investigation team”.

The hearing was very dull.

However, when general Nelson miles came out to testify, the situation immediately rose and changed greatly.

Miles jumped out at this time for a reason.

It turned out that although he had been in the important post of commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war, he never became a famous hero.

He had hoped to turn the war into a springboard to the presidency, but his role in the war was only reflected in the fierce battle of Puerto Rico.

This is an unbearable setback and blow for the arrogant miles.

He was convinced that the reason why he didn’t become famous at one stroke must be that someone in the Department of the army was secretly making trouble.

It was under the influence of this mentality that he poured out all the sullen air he had long stored in his chest to the Dodge investigation team.

At the hearing, miles made an impassioned speech and fiercely accused the Army Department of poor management and leadership.

Minister Alger was to blame.

At the same time, he scolded the food m storage department as a bloody showerhead, which was useless.

In full view of the public, he told the investigation team that canned beef did not belong to the scope of legal rations at all.

It was incredible to use this kind of canned beef.

What’s more, he said that the frozen beef had been treated with a secret chemical before being sent to the army, so it was more harmful to the body.

This kind of beef has a smell similar to body preservative, so it is called “preserved beef”.

As soon as this remark was made, there was a great uproar of public opinion.

The problem of “preserved beef” immediately became the social focus of public attention, and became the latest scandal pursued and hyped by journalists.

Of course, officials of the Ministry of grain M production who believe that “there is no credit but hard work” will not sit idly by and watch such curses and accusations mixed with personal grievances.

A few days later, food m minister Charles Egan finally had a chance to plead.

At the special hearing held by the Dodge investigation team for this purpose, he first stated that it was the first time in the history of the U.S. military that the food situation was good and the amount of food was sufficient in the Spanish war.

Compared with the predecessors who used to climb the ice, lie on the snow and sleep in the open air, today’s soldiers enjoy much more.

What caused their complaints and dissatisfaction was not the lack of food, but the monotony, which only proved that the soldiers were spoiled.

Egan also pointed out that the Ministry of food m and agriculture had purchased and sent almost 4 million vegetables to Cuba.

It was only due to the well-known lack of transportation capacity and Cuba’s bad roads that they were not transported to the front-line forces in Schaft.

Now it is obviously unfair to blame all the crimes on the grain m storage department alone.

As he spoke, Egan couldn’t help getting angry.

When answering the key question – “preserved beef”, he finally lost his temper because he couldn’t control himself.

In front of the crowd, he angrily denounced miles as a true liar and said he would “shove them back into the throat of miles, who was full of things in the barracks toilet”.

Egan’s testimony cannot be justified at all.

The disadvantages of Wartime Logistics are ultimately caused by the inherent shortcomings of the U.S. Army system.

But his rude behavior of roaring in court and making personal attacks is really injurious.

Therefore, the result of his testimony is dramatic.

On the one hand, the investigation mission found that he was guilty of “the crime of conduct inconsistent with the status of an officer and gentleman”, and had to be tried by military justice.

On the other hand, President McKinley also felt it necessary to appoint another committee to focus on miles’ beef complaint in order to calm the scandal as soon as possible.

Coincidentally, miles chose the wrong target again with his usual stupidity.

He was so fond of talking about the concept of “preserved beef” that he gave up the continuous attack on canned beef, otherwise he might be killed in one fell swoop.

As a result, under the direct intervention of the president, the “beef court” finally announced that miles could not provide any decent evidence to prove his accusation that the frozen beef contained harmful chemicals.

In fact, the army liked and welcomed the frozen food very much.

Although the storm ended with miles’ failure, it damaged the reputation of the army department again and irreparably.

Under such circumstances, President McKinley is no longer willing and unable to continue to protect minister Alger.

He asked Alger to resign and replace him with a person who showed strong administrative ability in the process of holding public office for a long time, although his political status was not high.

This father was Elio lute.

Lute, who had been a lawyer before, had no connection with the military and had no interest in it.

He never dreamed that an irrelevant beef storm would push him to the post of secretary of the army.

Therefore, when a representative of President McKinley came to ask for his opinion, rutt rebuffed, saying that he was a lawyer, knew nothing about the war and the army itself, and was really incompetent to accept the president’s good intentions.

McKinley’s representative replied that it was because you were a lawyer that the president decided to use it.

Now the main task of the Army Department is to carry out administrative and judicial management of the islands obtained from Spain.

These jobs just need your professional knowledge and leadership.

After listening to this explanation, lute finally dispelled his worries, summoned up his courage and energy and took office.

As the 41st Secretary of the army since the founding of the United States, lute soon proved to the world that his ability, quality, way of thinking and contribution to the U.S. Army are no worse than any previous generation.

With his keen insight trained in many years of lawyer career, at the beginning of taking office, lute comprehensively investigated and summarized the challenges, difficulties and various persistent diseases faced by the U.S. Army, and soon came up with his own governance and reform plan, which was mainly reflected in his first annual report in December 1899.

In this document, lute first talked about quelling the rebellion in the Philippines and managing Cuba, Puerto Rico and so on.

Then, he devoted considerable space to expounding his reasons and determination for preparing for a comprehensive reorganization of the army and the Army Department.

He said, “the real purpose of having an army is to prepare for war”, which is a “very important point of view”.

However, according to past experience and lessons, the regular army of the United States alone may not be able to carry out a war at all.

Therefore, it is necessary to build a reserve force that can effectively supplement the regular army in wartime.

In order to ensure this, in peacetime, we must make adequate plans for wartime army reinforcements, equipment and operations as far as possible.

However, under the existing system, that is, the office of the Secretary of the army, the office of the commander in chief and various administrative, technical and logistics departments, in fact, no one has the responsibility to formulate the plan.

Even if someone makes the plan, he is by no means sure to implement it.

To formulate a plan, we must get rid of the phenomenon of the Army Department and the army without a leader, and get rid of the situation in which the Minister of the army and the commander of the army share the same share and the heads of departments and bureaus of organs go their own way.

In short, reserve team building, planning, command and management are the key to building a good and effective army.

The army reformer’s report immediately resonated with many of the reformers.

In this regard, lute was deeply gratified and greatly increased his confidence.

In order to make up for his lack of military expertise as soon as possible, with the assistance and influence of Deputy Minister Henry Corbin and assistant deputy minister William Carter, lute began to seriously study foreign military systems and U.S. military policies.

He first studied several reports of the Dodge investigation mission on the Spanish American war.

He also read Wilkinson’s book “head of the army”, a British military critic, which praised the German general staff and strongly advocated that such staff should be fully applicable to parliamentary democracies after changes.

At the same time, he also read through all the manuscripts of the late famous general Upton with great interest, and especially praised the more specific reform plans, such as the three battalion regiment, abolishing the rigid promotion system of seniority, establishing a German style general staff, and so on.

Finally, he published Upton’s manuscript in the form of government documents and wrote a wonderful preface for it.

This has once again triggered a new round of “Upton fever” among American professional officers.

Since Upton committed suicide in 1884, for more than 20 years, his theoretical views have been widely spread among army officers and deeply rooted in the hearts of the people.

Almost all professional officers who have read Upton’s works have accepted the effective German system.

Now, lute publicly sacrificed the theoretical “magic weapon” of uptonian doctrine, which undoubtedly won more support and sympathy for himself.

After a period of intensive preparations, Minister lute made steady progress towards the goal of establishing a staff headquarters.

First of all, he let the wind out on different occasions and asserted that he could persuade Congress to completely abolish the nondescript post of army commander and replace it with the post of chief of general staff, so as to end the historical legacy of multiple politics and mutual strife in the senior command organization.

In this way, the chief of general staff can become the chief of staff of the Secretary of the army, and the Secretary of the army, as the civilian agent of the president, can obtain the authority stipulated in the constitution, and must often hear expert suggestions.

The post of chief of staff no longer has to be elected on the basis of seniority, just like the commander of the army in peacetime.

Congress can authorize the Secretary of the army to appoint people he trusts.

Subsequently, lute’s research on this issue became more and more in-depth, and his expression became more and more clear.

He clearly advocated that the chief of staff would lead the General Staff Department, which was responsible for planning, formulating a war plan that could deal with all emergencies and ensuring the supply of all necessary materials.

“Our current system cannot ensure the smooth operation of a guiding head office, which is necessary for any army,” he said The General Staff Department will become such a head organization.

It is neither an “executive” organization nor an “administrative” organization, but an organization that formulates plans and supervises the implementation of plans.

according toIn accordance with Germany’s practice, the general staff should closely cooperate with higher institutions and army academies engaged in war research.

In order to completely change the foolish, ridiculous and isolated state that prevailed among the officers of the old staff office in the past, lute’s solution is that the combat officers and staff officers of the army, including the officers of the General Staff Headquarters and the officers of the old staff office, should rotate regularly.

Although lute’s idea has a strong sense of the times and pertinence, there are many obstacles to its implementation.

Because this plan has hurt the vested interests and privileged status of the old staff organs, it will inevitably lead to the opposition of these organs.

Moreover, the heads of various departments of the organ have been working for a long time, and almost everyone has a powerful network of relationships behind them.

Officials protect each other and are deeply rooted.

In particular, the rebellious General Myers regarded the plan as an attack on his prominent position from the beginning.

If he was not taken care of well, he would get into trouble again.

What is more worrying is that although public opinion has been calling for the reorganization of the Army Department, the plan to establish the general staff is likely to be used by the anti imperialists of the Democratic Party and become their handle for attacking European militarism.

In order to ease the opposition, lute had to take cautious and tortuous steps.

On November 27, 1901, he announced the establishment of the Army University Committee in the form of a routine order, stipulating that the task of the committee was to promote army education and Research on military policy, thus nominally eliminating the general staff style planning work that was prone to attack.

The committee is composed of five short-term military officers, with the posts of chief of engineering, chief of artillery, President of military academy and President of Fort Leavenworth school.

In fact, it has taken the embryonic form of the general staff.

Under the direct leadership of lute, the committee studied the establishment and equipment required by an army of 25000, 50000, 150000 or 250000 people, discussed the improvement of the Army Reserve, and played an important role in advocating the idea of establishing a permanent general staff.

After a period of throwing stones and asking for directions, in February 1902, lute felt that the heat was almost over, and finally put forward a proposal to the Congress to formally establish the general staff.

Subsequently, the two sides in favor of and against this issue launched a year long repeated contest and fierce dispute.

As expected, all departments and bureaus of the agency fully exerted their influence in Congress to block the proposal.

General miles not only thought he had been insulted, but also raised his posture to resist.

Before that, he had obstructed LUT’s efforts to merge army camps across the country, which won the gratitude of some members of Congress because they didn’t want to see the good business brought by the scattered garrison areas to their respective sites come to an end.

At the same time, miles also visited the Philippines and issued a report after returning, which provided a lot of new evidence for those who have been holding on to the pigtails of the US military in the Philippines.

In this way, miles gathered a group of people who were skeptical of any reform of the army and formed an alliance with them.

When he came to the Senate Armed Services Committee to testify on the proposal of the general staff, he made a careful rendering of his military career over the past few decades in order to win the sympathy of the Civil War veterans who dominated the Committee.

One of the main points of his frontal attack on the general staff was that he believed that the plan was best suited to the monarchy of the old world, while the same modern democratic government was incompatible with fire and water.

In this regard, lute showed no weakness.

He came up with a very clever counter measure, that is, to invite several famous military veterans such as Lieutenant General Scofield and major general Merritt to the committee, because their achievements and experience were more brilliant than miles, and they spared no effort to support the proposal of the general staff.

These respected veterans suppressed miles’ arrogance in one fell swoop.

Lute struck while the iron was hot, and then concentrated on expounding and defending his plan in his 1902 annual report.

After this contest, coupled with the obvious shortcomings of the existing command system, Congress was finally persuaded.

Subsequently, under the mediation and facilitation of general Dodge, an old hand in out of court activities, all departments and bureaus of the organ could only make concessions.

Therefore, Congress finally voted to establish the general staff on February 14, 1903.

In August, it was a week after general miles retired that the general staff was established.

The new law replaces the position of commander in chief with the chief of staff, which rotates every four years and is equipped with a staff of 45 officers.

One part of the army’s staff headquarters should also perform regular rotation of officers in the field headquarters, so as to supervise the work of another part of the army’s staff headquarters.

Its specific responsibilities include: improving officer education, field exercises, emergency plans, intelligence collection and analysis, tactical organization and theoretical mobilization plans, etc.

All this reflects the original intention of minister lute, that is, the general staff is “the head of an army”.

It should not be involved in the administrative affairs of the army.

It should plan and guide rather than carry out specific operations.

Although the decree only gives the Staff Department the power to supervise and coordinate all departments and bureaus of the army, and does not merge all logistics bureaus as suggested by lute, once it is established, it has brought immediate results to the improvement of the army’s wartime mobilization organization.

Through the hard work of several chiefs of staff, the chief of staff had become the main way of professional consultation and giving orders between the president and the army in the years before the first World War.

If the “head” of the army needs fresh blood, its body, the tactical force for future war, needs more muscles.

Lute also kept this in mind and regarded it as an important work in the whole reform plan.

Before Congress passed the general staff bill, together with Charles Dick, a member of the house of representatives from Ohio, lute revised the long-standing militia act and prompted Congress to enact the new law, known as the dick act, in January 1903.

The dick act eliminated the confusion surrounding the term “militia” for a long time.

The decree recognizes two types of militia: the basic militia, which is under dual federal and state controlDry militia (National Guard) and unorganized male people aged 18-45.

The company and regiment of the former are designated as “formed militia”, and the latter undertakes military obligations to the state and states in a state of emergency.

In order to make the formed militia as a regular army reserve more practical, the government distributes weapons and equipment to the National Guard free of charge.

Congress’s annual appropriations used to be limited to the purchase of weapons and some special equipment, but now they can be used to buy general military supplies.

In order to maintain the status of the National Guard and federal funding, all units of the national guard must conduct at least 24 drills or shooting exercises every year, plus no less than five days of summer camping training.

Guard units are also subject to regular inspections by regular officers and Guard officers.

The regular army will also send officers to the States to guide the work of the guard.

When the national guard team trains with the regular army, they can receive federal allowance and board expenses.

Officers of the National Guard are now also eligible to enter the Fort Leavenworth Army school or the army military academy, where they can also receive federal allowances and meals.

In addition, the dick Act provides that the president can call up the guard for nine months instead of the previous three-month period, and when the nine-month service period ends, the national guard can continue to serve in the Federation as a voluntary force.

In this case, the accepted national guard force may have its own officers.

In this way, not only the status, treatment and equipment of the National Guard, the country’s main national defense reserve force, have been greatly improved, but also the regular army has strengthened its control over the training and organization of the guard.

This has proved to be of great significance in the next two world wars.

While carrying out the above work, lute also began to expand the existing army, improve army equipment and deal with colonial problems.

He himself was called to Washington to solve the colonial problem.

Shortly after he took office, the Filipino uprising forced the recruitment of the federal volunteer team to reach the legal limit of 35000.

With the regular army, the total force has reached 70000.

Nevertheless, manpower is still insufficient.

Luther had to convince Congress that in order to deal with the colonial problem, the army needed to be expanded tirelessly.

In February 1901, Congress agreed to expand the 25 infantry regiments of the regular army to 30 and the cavalry regiment from 10 to 15.

For a long time, the irregular artillery regiment composed of field artillery companies and fortress artillery companies has been dissolved in order to form an artillery “army” composed of 30 field artillery companies and 120 coastal artillery companies.

The newly approved regular army strength, including three engineering battalions, includes 3820 officers and 84799 soldiers.

There is also a Philippine reconnaissance mission and a Puerto Rican mission.

The number of infantry companies can range from 65 to 146, and the number of cavalry companies can range from 100 to 164.

As long as Congress does not raise an objection, the president can increase the military strength with the maximum limit, and may exceed the limit until the military strength is enough to ensure sufficient reinforcement to the US troops in the Philippines.

As a result of the expansion of the army, there are 1135 vacancies in the regular army, of which at least 20% need to be filled within one year, and the same amount will be supplemented every year thereafter until all vacancies are filled.

All persons under the age of 40 are eligible for a certificate issued by the review committee to become lieutenant and second lieutenant.

Soldiers who have served for one year can also take the exam.

Most of those appointed as officers are excellent volunteers, but there are also graduates from military academies other than west point.

For example, George Marshall, who graduated from the Virginia Military School, was finally awarded the rank of captain of the United States Army after 14 years of service.

As the highlight of the army reform, lute also led the implementation of a high-profile weapons development program.

At that time, the US artillery was very backward, basically the same as in the civil war.

As early as 1865, the Prussians invented smokeless gunpowder.

This gunpowder is not only conducive to concealing the artillery position, increasing the range and improving the hit rate, but also its penetration ability is much better than black gunpowder.

In 1884, smokeless gunpowder was widely used in Europe after improvement by the French.

However, the US artillery still used black powder in the Spanish American war.

In 1897, the French invented the 75mm artillery with excellent performance, but by 1898, there was no weapon comparable to it in the American artillery Arsenal.

It was under the vigorous advocacy and implementation of Luther that the U.S. Army finally manufactured the m1902 3-inch field gun in 1902.

The gun uses smokeless gunpowder, can launch high explosive shells and shrapnel, and is equipped with optical sight and recoilless gun frame.

After several subsequent improvements, the gun is actually comparable to the French 75mm gun.

At the same time, the Army Ordnance Department also tested all kinds of machine guns, including browning, markqin, Lewis and so on.

In particular, it is worth mentioning that the army has developed M1903 Springfield rifle with bolt to unload bullets.

This kind of gun has excellent performance and has been used on the eve of World War II.

The tentacles of lute’s reform also went deep into the field of military academy education and achieved great success.

The purpose of lute’s reform is to form a closely coordinated system between several older military schools and army military schools.

He has long found that 13 officers in the regular army have not received formal military education, and he believes that it is impossible to cultivate qualified officers who meet the needs of the times by relying only on one military academy and several piecemeal practical service schools.

Therefore, in November 1901, he ordered the reorganization of army schools.

Since then, each army station, regardless of its size, has been organized by a school to teach prescribed theoretical and practical courses to officers.

Those students who have special training prospects in resident schools will be sent to senior schools of all services and arms for further study.

These schools were developed on the basis of the original old schools, but various reforms have been carried out under the leadership of lute and his successors.

By 1910, these schools had developed into army service schools, all of which were located in Fort Leavenworth, including army combat school (formerly known as Infantry School), communication school, army field engineering school and army medical field service correspondence school.

In addition, there are the cavalry school in Fort Riley, the coastal artillery school in Fort Monroe, and the school in WashingtonEngineering school and medical school.

A staff college has also been set up at the historic Infantry School in Fort Leavenworth.

The top of this school system is the Army University in Washington.

The common feature of these schools is that they have completely bid farewell to the tradition of the old army in the era of fighting with Indians, abandoned the teaching method of emphasizing rote memorization, reformed the old-fashioned and outdated teaching content, replaced it with a high-standard military scholarship system and encouraging teaching method, and established a high-level instructor team with active thinking and enterprising spirit.

What can best illustrate the quality and performance of the instructors of the lute school system is their superb ability to know people and be bole.

A large number of young officers selected and trained by them have become the most important commanders of the U.S. military during the Second World War 40 years later.

In 1904, lute retired from the Army Department and left Washington with peace of mind.

Both people at that time and later people spoke highly of him.

As the revered Lord Haldane said: “you know, I really don’t need to know anything about the army and its system anymore, because the five reports written by Elio lute as the Secretary of the United States Army are the final conclusion on the military system and its status of a democratic country.