“Respectful punishment” and

— the Shang Dynasty established by King Wu’s attack on Zhou’s

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Shang Tang in 1046 BC has entered the abyss of comprehensive crisis after the initial rise, decline, revival, prosperity and weakness of King Zhou of Shang Dynasty. Under the rule of King Zhou of Shang Dynasty, the political corruption and severe punishment of yin and Shang Dynasty, and the use of foreign troops for years, the people had a heavy burden and unbearable pain; There were many contradictions and disintegration among the aristocrats, which led to the unrest of the whole society, resulting in a chaotic situation of “such as grass, such as water, such as soup”.

King Zhou of Shang Dynasty

is in sharp contrast to the declining and dying Shang Dynasty. The state power of Zhou, the Western vassal state of Shang Dynasty, is just as prosperous as that of the middle of the day. The active management of Gong Liu, Gu Gongfu, Wang Ji and others made Zhou rapidly prosperous, and its power extended into the river and Han river basins, resulting in a strong desire to get rid of control.

in view of the “defeat of Shang and Zhou”, they adopted the suggestions of important officials such as LV Wang (i.e. Jiang Taigong, also known as LV Shang) and pretended to obey the Shang Dynasty in everything. He once led the princes to make a pilgrimage to King Zhou to show him the so-called “loyalty”; At the same time, large-scale construction was carried out, “waiting for maids, ringing bells and drums”, pretending to be greedy for pleasure, deceiving King Zhou and inducing him to relax his vigilance, so as to induce the Shang Dynasty to relax its control over Zhou and move eastward, so as to ensure that the preparations for the destruction of Shang Dynasty can be carried out smoothly in the dark.

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King Wen of Zhou actively cultivated morality and did good deeds politically, enriched the people and the country, recruited talents, developed production, and formed a Qingming political situation of “September 1 for the tiller, Shi Lu for the official, ridiculed but did not levy in the market, no restriction on Ze Liang, and no criminals”. His policy of “benevolence, respect for the elderly, kindness to the young and courtesy to the virtuous” has won widespread support and consolidated internal unity. While cultivating the internal affairs of the Ming Dynasty, he launched an active political and diplomatic offensive against Shang Zhou: asking Shang Zhou to “go to the punishment of branding”, striving for neighboring countries and isolating Shang Zhou to the greatest extent. King Wen once fairly handled the territorial disputes between Yu and Rui, and also issued the decree of “searching for fugitive slaves” to protect the vested interests of slave owners. Through these measures, King Wen expanded his political influence and disintegrated the vassal of the Shang Dynasty. After the preparations for

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were basically completed in all aspects, King Wen, with the assistance of LV Shang, formulated the correct military strategic policy of defeating Zhou. The first step is to cut the wings of merchants and form a strategic encirclement of the dynasty songs of Shang capital. To this end, King Wen first deployed troops to the northwest and southwest, successively conquered the states of Canrong, Mizu, Ruan and Gonggong, and eliminated the worries behind him. Then, it organized the military forces to develop eastward, crossed the Yellow River eastward, and successively destroyed the important tributaries of Li,, Chong and other commercial houses, opening the way to attack the commercial capital – Chaoge. So far, Zhou has been in a favorable situation of “two-thirds of the world”, and it is only a matter of time to defeat Zhou and destroy Shang.

King Wen

died on the eve of completing the great cause of “Jian Shang”. His son Ji Fa succeeded to the throne as King Wu of Zhou. After he ascended the throne, he inherited his father’s will, followed the established strategic policy, and stepped up its implementation: he allied with the princes in Mengjin (now the northeast of Mengjin, Henan Province), sent spies to Chaoge, and was ready to wait for the opportunity to start the army.

at that time, King Zhou of Shang Dynasty felt the serious threat posed by the people of Zhou Dynasty and decided to use troops against Zhou Dynasty. However, this planned military action was dashed by the rebellion of the Dongyi nationality. In order to quell the rebellion of Dongyi, King Zhou mobilized his troops to attack Dongyi with all his strength, resulting in a great void of troops in the western line. At the same time, the contradictions within the ruling group of the Shang Dynasty showed incandescence. Shang Zhou played the role of refusing advice, wantonly acted as Hu, slaughtered important officials of the royal family, imprisoned Jizi and forced Weizi away. The discontent of the people can not be further increased. Even the grand master and the young master run around with musical instruments. Zhou has been completely isolated, and the time is ripe to attack Zhou. At this time, King Wu of Zhou had thought of an “excuse” for his expedition against King Zhou.

in December of the fourth year after King Wu of Zhou succeeded to the throne (the first month of 1046 BC), King Wu, under the banner of respecting King Wen’s order, “Yin had a felony and had to expedition”, commanded 300 chariots, 3000 Huben and 45000 Jiashi, and marched out of Jingdong. King Wu of Zhou issued three “Thai oaths” to denounce King Zhou, claiming that he was “punishing the tyrant with respect”, and “punishing the tyrant with respect” became the best excuse for King Wu of Zhou to attack the tyrant.

in the late first month of 1046 BC, the Zhou army arrived in Mengjin, where they met with the anti business tribes of Yong, Lu, Peng, PU, Shu (all living in the current Han water flow), Qiang, Wei (all living in the current Weishui river basin) and Pinglu south of Shanxi Province. King Wu of Zhou delivered the first “Thai oath” at the meeting of the National Normal University. The general meaning is:

“… the monarch bears the heavy responsibility of being the parents of the people. Now King Zhou of Shang Dynasty does not respect heaven and acts recklessly, bringing disaster to the people. He is addicted to wine and lust and pursues tyranny: punishing criminals and implicating his relatives; appointing officials, regardless of virtue, only by family background… Cruelly searing the loyal and persuasive virtuous ministers with artillery torture tools; cutting open the pregnant woman’s stomach and dissecting the fetus Son. These atrocities of King Zhou of Shang Dynasty have aroused the vibration and anger of heaven. Heaven once ordered my dead father King Wen to seriously pursue the power of heaven to attack King Zhou of Shang Dynasty. ”

“King Zhou of Shang Dynasty has committed many crimes and committed many crimes. If I don’t obey the will of heaven, this crime is serious…. I worry about the event of defeating Zhou day and night, because receiving orders from my dead father is the same as receiving orders from heaven. Therefore, a grand sacrificial assembly was held to worship the gods, in order to realize God’s support for King Zhou of Shang Dynasty with the help of your people Punishment God has mercy on the people. God will listen to what the people want. I hope you can help me to destroy King Zhou of Shang Dynasty and make the world peaceful. You can’t miss the opportunity! ” After the division meeting of

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, King Wu of Zhou took advantage of the favorable situation of people returning to Zhou in the commercial land, led his headquarters and the tribal army cooperating with him to quickly advance eastward from Mengjin in the rain on the 28th of the first monthTo cross the Yellow River (now Sishui Town, Xingyang, Henan). At that time, there was a terrible natural scene of flooding and landslides. The army was terrified and thought it had disturbed heaven. In order to eliminate the fear in the army, King Wu of Zhou said the second “Thai oath” to the military exercises to inspire the soldiers.

“… the emperor should be gracious to the people as well as to the people according to God’s will. King Xia Jie could not treat the people as God did, causing the disaster to spread to the vassal states. Didn’t God order and protect Shang Wang Tang to remove the appointment of King Xia Jie? King Zhou of Shang also sinned worse than King Xia Jie: he was licentious, resulting in the decline and departure of sages; he mutilated loyal ministers; he claimed to be He has been appointed by heaven, but he said that it is not beneficial to sacrifice the gods of heaven, earth and ancestors, and that it is not great to promote tyranny. The historical lesson of disobeying God, harming the people and going to ruin is not long ago. Xia Wang Jie is an example…

“God entrusted me with the important task of governing the people all over the world, because my dream is consistent with my divination. Good and auspicious signs appear repeatedly, which indicates that our expedition to King Zhou of Shang will be successful.”

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after King Wu of Zhou’s call for “righteousness and obedience”, the troops immediately calmed down from the fear of the terrible natural scene of “flooding and landslides”.

in order to further boost morale, King Wu of Zhou held a grand military parade the next day and issued the third “Thai oath” to the army, which further exposed the tyranny of King Zhou of Shang Dynasty and aroused the hatred of the army against King Zhou of Shang Dynasty.

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the three “Thai vows” of King Wu of Zhou found a “reasonable” basis for the expedition against King Zhou. He claimed that he pursued the will of heaven. Although this “excuse” was not true because there was no will of heaven at all, it was due to the restriction of the level of science and technology, and people’s understanding of the nature and human nature was still very superficial at that time, Gods and other things occupy a very important position in people’s hearts. Coupled with the cruel rule of King Zhou of Shang Dynasty, people believe that King Wu of Zhou is “punishing heaven with deference”. After three “Thai vows” of

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, King Wu of Zhou led his troops to continue to go north and turn eastward to Baiquan (now northwest Huixian County, Henan Province), directly pointing to the Chaoge. The Zhou division did not encounter the resistance of the Shang army along the way, so it drove smoothly. After only a six-day trip, it was convenient to arrive in Muye at dawn on February 4. The news of the Zhou army’s attack spread to the court song, and the Shang court was terrified. King Zhou of Shang Dynasty had no choice but to deploy defense in a hurry. However, at this time, the main force of the commercial army was still far away in the southeast and could not be transferred back immediately. So they had to arm a large number of slaves, together with the merchant army guarding the capital of the country, with a total of about 170000 people, led by themselves, to the pastoral field to meet the division of Zhou. “SPE, KDS” and “SPE, KDS” in the early morning of the 5th day of the month. Before the battle, King Wu denounced King Zhou for listening to the slander of pet Ji, not offering sacrifices to his ancestors, luring sinners and runaway slaves in all directions, cruelly harming the people and many other crimes, thus arousing the hatred and fighting spirit of the enlisted soldiers. Then, King Wu solemnly announced the operational requirements and military discipline in the battle: every six or seven steps forward, we should stop gathering in order to maintain the formation; Every time you stab four or five times or six or seven times, you should also stop gathering to stabilize your feet. Yan Shen was not allowed to kill the surrender in order to disintegrate the Shang army. After the oath of

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, King Wu ordered to launch a general attack on the Shang army. He first made “the division is still the father and a hundred men to the division”, that is, LV Shang led a part of elite assault troops to challenge the Shang army, so as to contain and confuse the enemy and disrupt their positions. The slaves and prisoners of war in the merchant Army wanted King Wu. At this time, they revolted one after another, turned their spears and helped Zhou Shuai fight. “All the soldiers fall to fight and open the king of Wu.” Taking advantage of the situation, King Wu rushed the Emperor Zhou division with “big soldiers (main force)” and fiercely killed the enemy. As a result, more than 100000 people of the Shang army immediately collapsed. Seeing that the general trend was gone, King Zhou hurriedly fled back to Chaoge that night, boarded the deer platform and burned himself to death. The Zhou army took advantage of the victory to attack, captured the Chaoge and destroyed the Shang Dynasty. Later, King Wu sent out troops to invade the princes of the Shang Dynasty and eliminate the residual forces of the Yin and Shang Dynasties. The Shang Dynasty perished.

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the fundamental reason why King Zhou of Shang dynasty fell quickly was naturally because the ruling group of yin and Shang Dynasty was corrupt in politics, rampant in extortion, severe punishment and cool law, resulting in the loss of the hearts of the people and the betrayal of all relatives. The long-term plundering war against the East weakened the power and caused the imbalance of military deployment. The rulers of yin and Shang Dynasties lacked vigilance against the strategic intention of the Zhou people, relaxed their vigilance and ate the consequences. Passive and passive in battle command and inaction, coupled with the uprising in the slave array temporarily and hastily collected in the army, it is inevitable that it will be defeated.