Section IV resurgence – Introduction to

of Ruiz volcano eruption

in Amero region in Tolima Province, Colombia, South America, there is a volcano covered with snow all year round – Ruiz volcano, with an altitude of 5321 meters. During the 390 years from 1595 to 1985, there were two large-scale eruptions. The first occurred in 1595. There are few and detailed records of this event in history; The second occurred in 1845. In this eruption, 250 million tons of mud and stones were sprayed out, the mountains and rivers under Ruiz mountain were filled, and the river was filled with mud and magma. At that time, a town called ambalema was completely destroyed, killing more than 1000 people. However, as time goes on, volcanic ash with rich minerals falling from the sky slowly accumulates here and becomes a layer of fertile soil.

look at Ruiz volcano

from a distance. After that, groups of Colombians came here from all over the world, opening up wasteland and farming on fertile land. Because the soil is rich in various nutrients, the crops here are particularly prosperous, and these Colombians have lived a new life since then. A new town, Amero, has emerged. By 1985, tens of thousands of people had gathered near Ruiz volcano. Few of these residents had really seen the power of the volcano, and many geographers believed that Ruiz volcano had become an extinct volcano and would not erupt again. As a result, people begin to gradually forget that there are still great dangers in their environment.

disaster history


in August 1985, Ruiz volcano, which had been sleeping for 140 years, showed signs of awakening, and the crater began to emit thick smoke continuously. In the face of the signs before the eruption of the volcano, the local people, except a few, seemed indifferent. The mayor and priest of Amero town also repeatedly comforted everyone not to panic. They thought nothing would happen. Perhaps out of worship and admiration for the two “wise men”, people become more calm.

on the night of November 13, 1985, people who had been busy for a whole day went to bed early. This Amero town with a population of 25000 was quiet and seemed to fall asleep with people. However, not everything is sleeping at this time. After giving people three months of reminders and warnings, Ruiz volcano finally couldn’t stand the “inner fanaticism” anymore. It woke up completely.

Mount Ruiz erupted

shortly after the bell rang at 11 p.m., suddenly a purple flame burst out in the sky, burning the darkness of the night, and then bursts of huge noise came from the place where the flame erupted. The sleeping people in Amero town were awakened, but before they knew what had happened, a great disaster fell on them. Ruiz volcano sent out a loud and soul shaking sound. For a time, it seemed as if the earth was shaking and the sky was spinning. The huge flame emitted by the volcano illuminated the whole sky like day. The tumbling magma melted the covered snow and instantly turned it into hot water. They roared down the mountains, mixed with sand and gravel along the road. Several rivers near Mount Ruiz were immediately filled with mud and then overflowed the riverbed, forming a hell of water and fire.

after the eruption of Mount Ruiz, the roaring torrent of

poured into the town of Amero. There were cries and cries for help everywhere. People were stunned by the sudden situation. Only a very few people thought of running for their lives. They either ran to a high place or climbed a big tree, But the vast majority of people were swallowed up by the debris flow and buried forever in the torrent more than ten meters deep before they had time to respond. The fierce debris flow destroyed all the houses and trees it could touch, drowned and buried countless livestock, and the home of Amero Town, which has been built through generations, was destroyed.

Ruiz volcano erupted magma crazily. In just eight minutes, Amero town at the foot of the mountain became a dirty mud and stone field. An originally vibrant town disappeared from the earth in an instant and became a graveyard for more than 20000 residents.

after swallowing Amero Town, the surging torrent did not stop here, but continued to spread around, and several nearby villages were destroyed one after another. The magma ejected from the volcano is like a fire rain falling from the sky. Where it falls, it burns everywhere, tens of thousands of hectares of crops are burned, and all creatures everywhere the lava goes are smeared with charcoal.

in this terrible disaster, the whole Amero town was buried by magma and sludge up to seven or eight meters thick. In addition, 14 towns were damaged to varying degrees, with a disaster area of 30000 square kilometers. All water transmission pipelines, bridges, roads, schools, houses and hospitals within this range were destroyed, and 25000 people died, More than 5000 people were injured. After the disaster of




, 50000 people were homeless and 130000 people became victims. The affected area was a miserable scene, and only the top of a few tall buildings were exposed outside the mud. As the most important coffee exporter in the world, Colombia’s coffee export has always been a pillar industry of Colombia’s economy. However, the affected areas this time are important coffee producing areas. When the volcano erupted, the surging magma burned a large area of coffee gardens, causing tens of millions of dollars of losses to the local area.

post disaster rescue

after receiving the news of the eruption of Ruiz volcano, the Colombian government organized a large-scale rescue operation. Firefighters, police, medical personnel and countless volunteers from all over the country arrived at the disaster area as soon as possible to rescue, evacuate and comfort the victims. Seventy or eighty helicopters rescued all kinds of victims