for the murdered Mongolian businessmen — the 1219 western expedition of
in huarazima on December 31, 1995, Genghis Khan was selected as “the first person in the Millennium” by the US Post. This conclusion is based on the standard of “who reduced the earth and brought the world closer in the second millennium (1000 ~ 1999) in the history of human civilization”. Genghis Khan and his descendants have launched a series of Western expeditions for more than 40 years, established a huge Mongolian Empire, connected the East and the west, and deserved to be the “first man in the Millennium”.
led by Genghis Khan lost his father at the age of 9 in 1171. After his father died, Tiemuzhen, with courage and intelligence, finally flattened the heroes and unified Mobei under his command after more than 30 years of hard work. In 1206, Tiemuzhen set up a nine legged flag, inherited the Great Khan and established the Mongolian Khanate. A shaman wizard named Kuo Kuo Chu said to timuzhen in the name of heaven: “Now, the monarch of this region, known as gurkhan, has been conquered by you. You have acquired their territory. You can use a title with the same meaning as them – Genghis. Genghis, you are the highest monarch! The highest Lord orders you to use the title of Genghis Khan.” Therefore, the nobles attending the meeting jointly supported timuzhen as Genghis Khan.
“Genghis” means ocean or powerful. After Genghis Khan’s painstaking management, the Mongolian Khanate rose in the East as early as the sun, and its foreign war achievements were quite brilliant. By 1218, the Mongolian army had conquered the northern forest grassland tribe; Occupy Eastern and Western Liaoning and enter the Korean Peninsula; Forced Jin Ting to move his capital to Kaifeng and controlled the area north of the Yellow River; Invade and destroy the Western Liao Dynasty. Khanate borders the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in the East, Central Asia in the west, Siberia in the north and the Yellow River in the south. A grassland Empire has been basically formed, and gradually has trade exchanges with many countries in Central Asia and the west, and borders on huarazima, a powerful country in Central Asia.
huarazima was originally an ancient small country in Central Asia. It gradually became strong from the second half of the 12th century. In 1200, mahamo ascended the throne. After more than ten years of expedition, mahamo turned huarazima into a huge Central Asian power and occupied the whole Persia (Iran) It is a powerful country in Central Asia with a mouth to Roshan (northeast Iran, Southeast Turkmenistan and northwest Afghanistan), Afghanistan and the middle of the river (between the SYR Darya and Amu Darya River basins).
Mongolia and huarazima, two booming neighboring powers, will inevitably collide in the torrent of the historical process. The nomadic groups on the Mongolian grassland yearned for the rivers and pastures in the Central Asian grassland, while the Mongolian aristocratic ruling group representing their interests coveted all countries on the “Silk Road” full of business opportunities and wealth.
in 1215 ad, Mahatma sent a mission headed by haradin to China and met Genghis Khan near Zhongdu, and received generous courtesy. Later, Genghis Khan sent a return mission. The retake envoy arrived at khwarazmo in 1218 and submitted a letter from Genghis Khan to mahamo, The main idea of the letter is: “at present, we have the responsibility of being friends and neighbors, and the way of human coordination should be followed by both sides; the responsibility of friendship should be borne; we should have the obligation to support and help each other in unfortunate accidents; and we should make the usual and deserted roads safe and open, so that businessmen can travel safely and unrestricted”.
before the re employment mission returned to the capital, a Mongolian caravan arrived at the border city of huarazima. General khwarazmo, who guarded the city, was also jealous of the large amount of property of the caravan and detained the caravan as a spy. Yinanchi reported to mahamo, but mahamo ignored the letter of agreement to Genghis Khan’s envoy and ordered yinanchi to execute all the members of the caravan and confiscate the wealth and goods. Only one camel driver escaped and reported to Genghis Khan.
Genghis Khan fought in the north and South all his life. His army was extremely brave. He rarely gave excuses for launching a war every time. He always “fought if he wanted” and fought undeclared. All the neighboring countries are trembling for fear of causing trouble. Unexpectedly, huarazima, a central Asian country, provoked the Mongolian Khanate beyond its capacity and created a reasonable excuse for Genghis Khan’s invasion of huarazima – revenge for the tortured Mongolian businessmen.
Genghis Khan sent General zhebe to pursue and annihilate Gu chuluk, king of the Western Liao Dynasty, who was entrenched in Xinjiang, and used stones to ask for directions to detect movements; On the other hand, he sent a mission headed by Ibn hafuraj Bula to hualazimo and questioned mahamo according to reason. Mahamo had no answer, but he killed three envoys.
khwarazima Khan mahamo repeatedly provoked, Genghis Khan could no longer bear it, and decided to lead the army to attack khwarazima in the West in the name of revenge for the tortured Mongolian businessmen.
in June 1219, Genghis Khan led his auxiliary ministers to the upper reaches of Erqisi River in Altay region, Xinjiang, where a grand oath of the western expedition was held. “The car tents are like clouds, the soldiers are like rain, the cattle and horses are wild, the soldiers are shining in the sky, looking at fireworks in the distance, even battling thousands of miles.” This is the magnificent portrayal of the western expedition on the Bank of the Ertix River written by Yelu Chucai. What kind of momentum is the military power of the Mongols hanging the whip of punishment! Yelu Chucai said in his poem: “the heavenly soldiers drink their horses on the Xihe River to make Xirong offer tame elephants. The flags cover the air, the dust rises in the sky, and the strong men are like a rainbow. The Qin emperor and Han Wu call the troops poor, clapping their hands and laughing at the children’s play.” In Yelu Chucai’s view, the western expedition is a feat of shaking the world and weeping ghosts and gods. Compared with Genghis Khan, the war action of the militaristic Qin emperor and Han Wu is just as ridiculous as a child’s play.
Genghis Khan’s army dispatched troops to attack the cities of huarazimu in four ways. Genghis Khan personally led the way, crossed the SYR River, passed through the 600 km kijilkum desert, and went straight to Bukhara, the big city in its hinterland (now Uzbekistan).
although huarazimu has a strong national power, it has not established the country for a long time and the ruling foundation is not stable. In addition, its ruling group took a defensive (long-term) position in the face of Mongolian invasion