Section III Roman art the Roman Empire created by the Romans of the Latin nation is the more practical foundation of Western civilization.
In politics, law, national organization, urban construction, culture and art, customs and other aspects, it has more directly become the model of later western society.
Therefore, understanding and studying Roman history has always been a matter of great importance to western scholars, and art is no exception.
Around 2000 BC, many primitive tribes with different languages scattered on the narrow Apennine peninsula.
Around the 8th century BC, Etrusca in the northwest, Latin America in the middle and Greek colonies along the South Coast became the centers of relatively developed culture.
From the 8th century BC to the 5th century BC, Etruscans living between the Tiber and Arno rivers created a high degree of culture.
They once went south and occupied Rome.
At the beginning of the 5th century BC, the Romans became strong.
They drove the Etruscans out of the Tiber River, united the nearby city states to form a Latin Union, and began to formulate laws to create a republic.
Since then, on the one hand, the Romans committed themselves to internal political reform, on the other hand, they actively expanded outward.
After conquering Gaul, they defeated the powerful enemy Carthaginians through three Punic Wars and gained domination over the Middle East and the Mediterranean region.
After that, due to the increasingly acute contradiction between slaves and slave owners, large-scale slave uprisings continued to break out, and the military leaders who sought power in the war gradually transformed the Republic into an oligarchic dictatorship.
In 146 BC, the Romans defeated Greece and occupied Asia Minor in 133 BC.
Since then, one by one, they put the pan Greek Empire of Macedonia into their territory.
In 27 BC, Augustus Octavian became emperor and was known as the Roman Empire.
By the second century AD, when the emperors Hadrian and Marco Aurelius were in power, the Empire’s territory extended to Britain in the north, Central Africa in the south, Persia in the East and the Atlantic Ocean in the West.
The Mediterranean became its inner lake.
It was the two great empires in the world that were far away from China in the Han Dynasty in the East.
The basis for the great success of the Romans is their high organization, discipline and dedication to the collective and the country.
They advocate perseverance and oppose weakness.
Advocate strength and oppose delicacy.
Advocate grandeur and oppose flashiness.
Advocate practicality and oppose ostentation.
Therefore, Roman Art pays attention to reality, individuality and realism.
The Romans also treated all foreign cultures with a pragmatic attitude.
From the very beginning, they absorbed both Etruscan culture in the north and Greek culture in the south.
Roman religion worships Greek gods, but adopts Etruscan religious rituals.
Roman architecture has both Etruscan domes and Greek columns.
Roman sculpture injects Etruscan strong personality into Greek classical norms.
And so on.
In general, Roman art is not a compromise between the two, Its basic foothold still lies in the realistic style of the Latin nation.
That is, the artistic tradition created by the Etruscans.
Therefore, before introducing Roman art, it is very necessary to briefly explain the essence of Etruscan art.
In the 18th century, Etruscan art was excavated in the northern Italian cities of tarquini, VEI, Florence and Bologna, which made people gain a new understanding of the pre Roman culture.
Once upon a time, the early history of Rome was covered up by some absurd legends.
Now, systematic knowledge about the history of Etrusca has been established from many inscriptions and tomb relics.
Until now, underground excavation and site investigation continue, and new discoveries continue to appear.
In the 7th century BC, Etruscans built rich cities with frequent trade exchanges with Greece, Egypt, Asia Minor and Phoenicians.
This can be proved by many exquisite Greek pottery unearthed from tombs of this period.
And like Greece at that time, Oriental style art was also popular here.
At the end of the 7th century BC, Etruscan art was influenced by Ionian Greek art, and large-scale paintings appeared in the 6th century BC.
Until the second half of the 6th century BC, carving with national characteristics rose in the weii area in the south.
These are some pottery sculptures made of clay, which may be related to the funeral.
So far, the main discoveries are many tombs from the 7th century BC to the 3rd century BC.
The works of art show that they did not succumb to the influence of Greek art and tenaciously created their own unique appearance.
The complete relic of Etruscan architecture is the tomb.
Its part on the ground is a circular dome, while the underground part is a barrel tomb composed of domes.
Compared with the adrius treasure house of Mycenae, its arched construction technique is more mature than Mycenae.
Later Roman architecture developed this technology and formed its own system.
From the ruins of Etruscan City, we can see their research on urban planning.
The city is generally built on a dangerous highland, with residential areas arranged from east to Xi’an according to the compass direction.
There are high walls around the city, and the gate is large and solid.
The site of marzaport near Bologna shows that there are main streets in the north-south direction in the city, 15 meters wide.
The residence is divided into blocks one by one, with three temples in the middle.
According to the Roman architect Vitruvius, the temple was built on a square abutment, and the roof was of wood structure.
Different from the “pillar encircling” in Greece, the temple in Etrusca had three walls and only a colonnade on the front.
Its column type is a smooth column with no groove on the surface, and the tray and column base at the top are also disc-shaped, which is called “TOS dry”.
The development of sculpture is related to the funeral customs of Etruscans.
They carried out cremation very early and put the ashes of the dead in copper or ceramic pots in tombs.
On the top of the urn, there is a portrait of the dead (first the head, then the whole body).
On a pottery urn unearthed by Qiu Xi, the head of the dead is carved very rudimentary and simple, but it has comic vividness, just like just getting rid of the suffering of secular life and closing his eyes peacefully.
The copper urn unearthed in dorceano has a circular base with a screen.
The spherical urn with high ears and feet is placed on the base.
The head of the dead on the top has a circle of eyebrow curly hair, closed eyes and serene look.
The pottery coffin unearthed in chervini in the 6th century BC shows the full body image of a middle-aged couple leaning side by sideLying on the coffin cover, the facial features are clear and the expression is close to the sun.
These works show real ordinary people, mostly by indigenous folk craftsmen.
As a statue carving in the temple, it is obviously influenced by the ancient Greek style carving in this period, but it is not as rigid as the works of Greek contemporaries.
The representative works in this regard can be regarded as two works made by a pottery sculptor named ulga at the end of the 6th century BC for the poltratra Temple of FIO.
One is a head portrait of Hermes.
The outline of each part is solid and powerful.
The quarrel is like an “antique smile”, with a “Etruscan smile”.
Apollo of FIO, another work by the same author, is part of a group of statues.
This group of statues shows the story of Apollo and Herakles competing for a female deer.
Apollo leaned forward with his arms stretched forward (his left arm was lost), as if he was going to catch a female deer.
The muscles of his chest and legs were solid and strong, and the clothes were decorated, The hair is braided neatly, hanging naturally on the shoulders, and the face is also a mysterious smile.
A decorative column between the legs is composed of two symmetrical vortex lines, reminiscent of the hyoscyam pattern lace on the Greek pottery bottle.
The style of the whole work is the combination of Greek ideal technique and Etruscan realistic style.
There are also many works different from this Greek tendency, such as the famous bronze works Capitolin? Ewolf and the statue of Brutus.
Painting is the most prominent field of Etruscan art.
Almost all the tombs found in tarquini and other places have murals.
The tomb of the ox, which belongs to the 6th century BC, is the earliest mural tomb.
It is based on the story of Achilles in Greek mythology.
It shows the battle between Achilles and Troilus.
It uses lines to draw the side image of horse riding.
The lines are very casual.
The trees are patterned and painted with a sense of rhythm.
The mural of the tomb of the bird in 530 BC shows the ceremony of divination and funeral.
The walls on both sides are painted with scenes of competition and dance.
The most vivid is a pair of wrestlers on the left wall, short and strong, strong muscles, and black lines depicting eyes, nose, hair and beard.
The paintings of this period also include hunting, fishing and landscape scenes, which are very real and vivid.
Murals belonging to the 5th century BC were painted by a group of “masters of strict style”, and the level is quite high.
For example, in the tomb of the leopard around 470 BC, men and women drinking and dancing in shrubs, flowers and plants are painted on the back wall.
The characters are vivid and colorful, reflecting the joy of spring.
The wine in their hands is completely Greek.
The tomb of ghosts after the 4th century BC may have been influenced by the religion of the underworld world.
There were evil ghosts with Eagle beaks, red hair and black body.
The mural adopts the light and shade method, which has the effect of convex and concave, which is a great progress in painting skills.
There is no clear information about when the Roman Republic began.
The early art seems to have no direct inheritance relationship with Etruscan culture, but few relics have been found so far.
Therefore, the history of Roman art generally began at the end of the Republic.
The Roman society at the end of the Republic was extremely unstable.
The slave uprising constantly impacted the rule of slave owners, and the infighting and power struggle between nobles continued.
Almost all Roman art directly served this political struggle.
Architecture is particularly important in promoting the authority of the ruling class and directly serving the country.
As early as the formation of Rome (it is said that it was built by Romulo and limni, twin brothers raised by a female wolf), the circular house in Paladin mountain had cylindrical patio and reasonable sewer system.
Some temples with Italian characteristics in the early 5th century BC also collapsed.
In the 4th century BC, in order to meet the needs of war, the Apia Avenue from Rome to Brindisi was built.
In the 3rd century BC, the north-south road network directly connected the capital Rome with major cities.
In the 2nd century BC, the political center of Rome followed the custom of the pan Greek era, with the square as the center, surrounded by the synagogue, podium, monasteries and temples.
Its remains remain today.
The Pont Rhode canal built in 179 BC proved the skill of the Romans in using arch technology for bridges and channels.
In order to meet the pleasure life of the Roman aristocracy, many luxurious houses and villas were built at this time.
In terms of sculpture, the Romans, like the Etruscans, made statues for their dead ancestors.
After the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC, the Roman nobles collected and copied a large number of carvings in the Greek era.
At the same time, they also carved commemorative statues and tombstones in imitation of the Greek style.
These portraits not only have a cool appearance, but also can reveal the character and mental state of the characters, emphasizing the characteristics of personality and temperament.
Many statues found in the heritage city of Pompeii have this feature.
Now you can see works such as Caesar, the head of someone in Pompey, the speaker and the Roman with the head of his parents.
The paintings of the Republic period were also painted by Greek painters.
In the ruins of Pompeii city, many houses were painted with beautiful murals, with a wide range of subjects and mature skills.
Although the collapse of Pompeii city was in the imperial period, many of the works were older.
In addition, there are some ancient houses with murals of the Republic period in Rome, Napoli and other places, The style is also similar to Pompey’s works, which will be introduced in the section of painting in the imperial period.
Art in the imperial period in 27 BC, after the consul Octavian defeated Anthony, he became the emperor of the Roman Empire.
The Senate awarded him the title of “Augustus”, which ended the Roman republican system and began the era of centralized empire.
The art of the imperial era clearly shows the social role of praising the emperor’s martial arts and power and boasting the emperor’s power and power.
Therefore, in the art form, it also opposes the weak and slender style and shows the characteristics of paying attention to grandeur.
Octavian himself tried to take Greece in the heyday of classicism as a model to create a prosperous art like Athens in Pericles, thus showing the regeneration of classicism.
Since then, due to the personal advocacy of the emperor, there has been a revival of Greek classicism in the era of Hadrian (A.D. 117-138) and severius (A.D. 193-211).
But generally speaking, Roman art still adheres to its own characteristics, which is significantly different from Greece.
Fangzai architectureTheir cruel, vicious and treacherous characters have led to representative works such as karakara and Daza.
According to the textual research of Michaelis in the first century of art archaeology, in Rome at the beginning of the 4th century, the number of public sculptures was incredible: there were two giant statues over 30 meters, 22 horse riding statues of emperors and generals, 80 gold-plated statues, 73 gold Ivory statues, 3785 bronze statues and countless ordinary marble statues.
This description is true from the fact that there are sometimes 200 statues in the noble houses in the excavations of Pompeii and herculem sites.
Later, due to the needs of Byzantium in Eastern Rome, the plundering of barbarians in the middle ages and the destruction of Roman rulers in previous dynasties, by the 15th century, there were only five marble statues and one bronze horse riding statue of Marco Aurelius in the whole of Rome.
There are two main types of painting Relics: mosaic and fresco.
The ruins of the ancient cities of Pompeii and herculem, discovered in 1748 and fully excavated in 1860, provide valuable information on the original murals of the late Roman Republic and the early Empire.
These two small towns on the Tyrrhenian Sea are places for Roman nobles to rest.
On August 24, AD 79, the nearby Mount Vesuvius erupted, and the erupted magma buried nearby villages and towns, including the two cities, and many architectural and carving treasures were buried underground.
It was not discovered until the 18th century.
In the residences of Pompeii and herculem, there are a large number of murals, including character stories, trees, birds and animals, flower patterns, still life scenery and so on.
Generally, lace is used to form an outer frame on the wall, and pictures are arranged inside.
The walls have background colors, forming a strong decorative effect.
Most of those engaged in this kind of work are Greek painters, and most of them use Greek powder copies.
In addition to the makers of several works of Greek painters with real names already mentioned in the chapter on Greece, a sketch of a painting on a marble slab was also found in herculem, with the signature of “Alexander of atnai”.
This painting shows five women playing ball games.
The front two squat and the back three stand.
Except that some patterns of hair and clothes are in a heavy tone, the whole painting is line drawing.
The lines are beautiful and skilled, and the modeling is accurate and vivid, indicating that the modeling ability of Greek and Roman painters has been relatively accurate.
The mural “the secret instrument of Dionysus” discovered by Pompey is a long scroll.
More than 20 men and women who perform various postures of magic are painted on a dark red background.
Basically, the structure is expressed by light and dark techniques.
Women picking flowers on a green lawn, a woman in a long pale yellow dress turns her back to the audience and reaches out to pick flowers.
Her beautiful posture, combined with light colors, increases the refreshing and pleasant atmosphere in the room.
There is also a piece of Heracles and the law, which is based on Greek mythology, which shows the story of the hero Heracles being influenced in front of the fairy in charge of literature and music.
According to ancient Roman documents, many of these works were written by Greek painters or copied the powder of Greek paintings.
Among them, the work that can best provide us with the real appearance of Greek painting is the mosaic painting “Alexander defeated the Persian King Darius III in ESU” collected by Napoli Museum.
The total length of the picture is about 4 meters.
The Greek cavalry and the cavalry of Darius are facing each other.
The young Alexander the great galloped his horse from the left to take Darius III, while Darius standing on the chariot turned his horse and fled in a hurry.
The whole picture is full of tense and real fighting atmosphere.
In addition to the ingenious use of spears in the composition to show the vast battlefield, the performance of the characters is also very vivid.
Persian soldiers wear long scarves on their heads, which are very distinctive.
Greek soldiers also have characteristics of wearing helmets and hats.
The driver of dalus nervously tightened the reins in one hand and whipped desperately in the other, with a very real look.
Philosanus, one of the original authors of this painting, is said to have personally participated in the battle of ESU with Alexander on an expedition, so he can draw so vividly.
Another excellent place for mosaics is the karakara bath on the outskirts of Rome, but most of its themes are animal and flower patterns.
In this period, there was also the saying that wax painting was used to make murals.
The painting method was to dissolve the paint into the melted wax liquid.
The painter held a long handle iron spoon and could be melted on the fire at any time.
This can also be said to be the earliest prototype of oil painting techniques.
In general, all fields of Roman art show the following characteristics: 1 The Roman Empire, which was founded on the autocratic regime of slavery, has a greater improvement in the level of productivity development than Greece.
The requirements of the ruling class for art are more clearly expressed as the purpose of advocating personal authority.
Therefore, the first characteristic of Roman art is its utilitarianism and practicability.2. Based on this utilitarian and practical need, Roman Art attaches importance to realism and personality.
This is particularly evident in portrait carving.
The artist carefully considered and deliberated on his characters from posture, action, expression, clothing to hairstyle.
The sculptor’s expression of eyes is not as neglected as that of Greece.
He focuses on the expression of pupils to convey the eyes and insight into the character.3. Due to the luxurious life needs of slave owners, Roman Art paid more and more attention to gorgeous colors and red tape decorative effects after the 3rd century, and created many exquisite patterns, which had a great impact on the later European feudal courts.
Therefore, the third characteristic of Roman art is its decoration.