The fourth section of the Roman expedition to Gaul

Gaul War refers to the eight-year expedition of Roman commander Caesar in Gaul from 58 to 51 BC.

background

the ancient Romans called the vast area north of the Rubicon River and the Pyrenees in Italy, west of the Rhine River and up to the Atlantic Ocean Gaul. Among them, the Po River Basin south of the Alps and north of the Rubicon river is called Shannan Gaul. It has long belonged to Rome and gradually assimilated with other parts of Italy; The vast area north of the Alps and west of the Rhine River, including today’s France, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland, is called Shanbei Gaul (also known as outer Gaul). There are free Gauls living here, whose residents can be divided into three parts: bergi, helveti and Celts. The tribes are transitioning from the end of primitive society to class society, with deep contradictions and many wars. Gaul war mainly refers to Caesar’s conquest of Gaul in the north of the mountain.

the head of the great emperor

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in 58 BC, Caesar came to Gaul as governor with four legions. It was very difficult to conquer Gaul area larger than Italy with this force. To this end, Caesar adopted the method of defeating foreigners with foreigners, disintegrating and breaking them one by one. Before that, there were three main tribes in Gaul that had been fighting constantly. They were the edois, the seckwani and the awerni. The former and Rome were allies, while the latter two tended to the Germanic people on the other side of the Rhine. Around 60 B.C., the Germanic tribal leader ariowistus led his army across the Rhine River and helped the chekwani defeat the edois. Therefore, the chekwani had to give part of their land to ariowistus. With the entry of the Germanic people, the helveti people living in western Switzerland wanted to pass through the province of Rome in Gaul and seek a new land of freedom. Caesar flatly refused and drove his people to the north of the province to stop the helveti people. The helveti chose another path, crossing the areas of the shekwani and edoi. Caesar learned that he left his deputy general lapinus in charge of the fortification he had built. He hurried to Italy, where he called up two legions and brought out three legions who were resting in the winter camp near aquilaire (the barracks used by legions in ancient Rome for winter). He led the five legions, chose the nearest road and crossed the Alps, Rush out to Gaul. It happened that the Edomites sent messengers to Caesar for help, so Caesar, the commander of Rome, decided to go to war with the helvetis.

the hervetes crossed the ala river with connected rafts and boats. When 34 hervetes had completely crossed and about 14 people remained on this side of the ala River, Caesar led three legions to attack the part of the hervetes who had not crossed the river. The other party was heavily loaded and caught off guard. Most of them were killed, and the rest fled everywhere. Soon, Caesar’s cavalry had a hand with the cavalry of the helveti, and Caesar’s army was disadvantageous. For this reason, Caesar ordered his team not to fight for the time being.

the helvetes set up their camp at the foot of a mountain in Rory, a camp far from Caesar. While Caesar sent scouts, he sent rapinus to occupy the top of the mountain. He took his army to the nearest mountain and set up a battle line there. The helvetes first attacked the rear of the Caesar army. Caesar immediately sent cavalry to resist. At the same time, he divided the four old legions into three columns and arranged them in the middle of the mountain. He placed the two legions and all auxiliary troops newly summoned from Gaul on the top of the mountain, and then put the whole army’s luggage together, which was guarded by the troops at high places. The helvetes, with all their own vehicles, came after Caesar’s army, gathered their luggage, drove away the cavalry sent by Caesar, quickly formed a very dense square and rushed to the front of Caesar’s army. Caesar first sent his horse far away from the army, and then sent away the horses of other soldiers, so that everyone could face the same danger and had no hope of escape, so as to stimulate the morale of the army to the greatest extent. After encouraging everyone, he immediately ordered to fight. The Roman soldiers were condescending, threw down light spears, and soon dispersed the enemy’s rear array, and the other party was scattered. The Roman soldiers took the opportunity to pull out their swords and rushed towards each other. Many Gauls’ shields were hit by light spears, and the iron spear head was bent and stuck in the shield, so it was inconvenient to drag the shield to fight. So the Gauls simply threw away their shields and fought naked. They were injured and could not support them, and began to flee to a hill. The Roman army followed closely, and 15000 of the other party’s rear army immediately turned around to attack the Roman flank and surrounded the Roman flank army. Seeing this, the hervetes who had retreated up the mountain stood down again and went into battle. The battle was very fierce. The Gauls fighting near the baggage lined up their vehicles as fortresses, stood high and threw arrows at the attacking Romans, while others hid between chariots and four wheeled vehicles and sent spears and guns upward. But in the end, the Roman army still defeated the other side. The helvetes had to form an alliance with the Romans.

then Caesar prepared to destroy the Germanic forces. In the summer of 58 BC, under the influence of Rome, the Gaul tribes held a Congress in bibraktie. The assembly asked Caesar to protect them from the Germans. The leader of the Germanic people, ariovistus, refused to carry out the demands of Rome, so Caesar declared war on the Germanic people.

Germanic people are tall, brave and skilled in martial arts. There was panic in the Roman army, and Caesar managed to overcome it, which gave the Romans great enthusiasm and desire to fight.

at first, after the Germans settled down on a mountain 6 rories away from Caesar’s camp, they were not in a hurry to fight the Romans, but intercepted the Gauls’ supplies to Caesar. Caesar acted actively, deployed troops, divided his army into three columns, and pushed all the way to the enemy’s camp, forcing the Germanic people to leave the camp. The whole army used their own four wheeled vehicles aroundSurrounded by and baggage carts, the Roman combat army had no hope of escape and survival.

at Caesar’s command, the Roman army immediately attacked the enemy violently, and the Germanic advance was also extremely sudden and rapid, so that the Romans had no chance to throw light spears at each other. So the Roman soldiers had to throw away their spears and fight the enemy with their swords. The Germans formed a square array to meet the sword attack of the Romans. Roman soldiers jumped into the enemy’s Square, opened their shields with their hands, stabbed the enemy from top to bottom, and defeated the left wing of the enemy’s array. The enemy on the right wing was also defeated soon. The enemy began to flee and came to the Rhine River. Some people swam across the river, some fled in small boats, and aliovistus escaped in a small boat. The rest were caught up and killed by Roman soldiers. The Romans reached the Rhine for the first time. From then on, the Rhine became the eastern boundary of Roman Gaul territory. Caesar left some small Germanic tribes on the left bank of the Rhine against the germanes on the right bank. This policy of controlling foreigners with foreigners was later adopted by the rulers of the Roman Empire.

Caesar’s victory in 58 BC made him the ruler of all central Gaul. But there are still some tribes that do not yield to Caesar, and the bergai are one of them. So Caesar led eight legions to attack the bergai in 57 BC.

Caesar led his troops across the aksonnai River and set up a camp here, so that one side of the camp was covered by the river and the rear was protected from the enemy; He also arranged guards at the side of a bridge on the river, sent sabinus with six battalions to stay on the other side of the river, and built a camp guarded by 12 Luo Chi high barriers and 18 Luo Chi deep trenches.

the Belgians camped less than two miles from Caesar’s camp. Due to the large number of bergai soldiers and the reputation of being brave and good at fighting, Caesar decided to avoid fighting directly with them, but had some friction with each other with cavalry every day to test each other’s strength. The enemy’s crossbows were placed on both sides of the moat, so as not to dig trenches on both sides of the moat. Finally, Caesar left two legions in the camp as reinforcements when necessary, and the other six legions laid an array in front of the camp.

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there is a small swamp between the two armies, and both sides have no intention of wading through the swamp. At this time, the cavalry of the two armies were fighting. Caesar took advantage of the Roman Cavalry and led his army back to the camp. The Belgians hurried to the aksonnai river behind the Roman camp and tried to cross the other side from the ferry. Caesar learned that he sent all his cavalry, light soldiers, stone shooters and crossbow men across the river from the bridge to the aksonnai River and began a fierce battle. Most of the Berges who were crossing the river were killed, the rest were repelled by arrows and spears, and a group of people who had crossed the river were surrounded and annihilated by Roman Cavalry. The bergai army was in great disorder and began to retreat. Caesar first sent cavalry to harass each other. After finding out the truth, he ordered lapinus to lead three legions to attack the bergai. Kill a large number of people until the sun sets and the pursuit stops. The Romans returned to the camp.

other tribes succumbed to Rome one after another due to the failure of the bergi. From 57 BC to the winter of 56 BC, there was an uprising in Brittany and Normandy in today’s France. The uprising quickly spread to all the coastal areas from the Rieger River to the Rhine River. The insurgents waited for the help of the Celts in Brittany and the Germans across the Rhine. Caesar thought this was a great opportunity to control these areas, so he decided to step in. He sent his deputy general rabienus to lead cavalry to the Rhine River to suppress the discontent of the bergai people and prevent the Germanic people from crossing the river; Send three more legions to Normandy; He led the main force into the Venetian area, which is the main birthplace of the uprising. Because the insurgents had a strong fleet, Caesar’s land forces were not enough to fight. So the Romans built some small boats on the Royal River, together with the ships of the Celtic commune allied with Rome, to form a fleet led by Caesar’s deputy general Brutus. The Romans skillfully tied the sickle to the long pole and cut off the rope that tied the yard and mast together on the other party’s ship, so that the enemy’s fleet could not sail, so as to eliminate the other party’s fleet and cut off the insurgents’ reinforcements and food supply from the sea. The uprising was suppressed.

so far, all Gauls were conquered and declared as Roman provinces. In the spring of 56 BC, Caesar returned to Italy. The Luca conference decided that Caesar would be governor of Gaul for another five years. So Caesar returned to Gaul.

in order to consolidate his achievements in Gaul Province, Caesar believed that the Germanic people on the other side of the Rhine and the Celts in Brittany were frequent threats on the border of Rome’s new province. So, in the spring of 56 BC to 55 BC, when the Germanic people crossed the lower Rhine River with their wives and children to seek living space, Caesar took the opportunity of negotiation to destroy most of the Germanic people, and a few people settled in the tribe of the sugambli people after crossing the river. Caesar crossed the Rhine in an attempt to intimidate the Germans and prevent them from violating the Rhine border again. But since the sugambli had retreated inland, Caesar had to stay on the right bank of the Rhine for 18 days and then return.

in the autumn of 55 BC, Caesar went to war on the pretext that the brittanians had helped the Gauls many times. He led two legions to land on the island, which was strongly resisted by local residents, while the Roman fleet was hit by a storm, many ships were smashed, and the rest could not be used for navigation because they lost cables, iron anchors and other rigging. Caesar had to return.

Caesar set out again in the spring of 54 BC. He led a fleet of 800 ships and five legions across the Strait. The brittanies resisted under the organization of their leader cassivilaunus, but were finally defeated and forced to surrender. They handed over hostages to the Romans and promised to pay tribute in the future. In the winter of 54 BC to 53 BC, it was inhabited by the bergi peopleAn uprising broke out in the region, and two legions in Rome were almost wiped out by the insurgents. Hearing the news, Caesar rushed to the rescue and brutally suppressed the insurgents.

in the winter of 53 BC to 52 BC, a large-scale uprising broke out in Gaul. Vilchen gatorix of the avellian tribe became the leader of the anti Roman faction. The insurgents declared vilchen gatorix the king of the avellian people and the leader of the whole Gaul.

are rushing back to Gaul in Caesar, Italy. He concentrated his team against the insurgents. He personally led six legions into the area of the avellians and quickly arrived near its capital, galgovia. Vicente gatorix stored a large amount of food in the city and built a fortified camp under his city, which made Caesar retreat without siege.

then Caesar joined forces with lapinus, who had retreated from the Seine River Basin, and jointly pushed southward. Velchen gatorix led his cavalry to attack the Roman army. The cavalry were divided into three groups. Two of them lined up and demonstrated on both sides. One began to stop the Roman army. Caesar also divided his cavalry into three, went to meet, and pulled the baggage back to the middle of the Legion. After a contest, the Gaul cavalry was defeated.

in 52 BC, a decisive battle was fought between the two sides near the city of alezia in central Gaul. Before the war, the Romans dug three wide trenches and countless traps in front of the battle. The distance between each trench is 100 meters, and the middle one is filled with water. Behind the trench stands a barrier, on which a multi-storey tower is built every 25 feet. The top layer can look out, and the lower layers can hide many soldiers and all kinds of throwing weapons. Inside the trench is a fence, followed by a Roman barracks. The Romans tried to stop the Gauls.

the Gauls, under the command of vilchen gatorix, first seized the Highlands, then filled trenches and traps with soil and branches, and quickly approached the Roman barriers. Then, a large group of warriors formed a tortoise shell array and bravely rushed to the Roman fence. Archers and throwers threw weapons at the Roman barracks from the high ground. Many Romans were killed by arrows and javelins.

when Caesar saw that the rebel army was about to rush to the fence, he immediately ordered his guard to bypass the mountain, detour back to the Gaul camp from the back and burn his camp. The insurgents immediately retreated and were defeated by the Roman army. After that, the insurgents returned to the city of alezia and began to set up defensive camps. Caesar ordered his soldiers to build a wall and surround alezia. The soldiers of “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS”, “SPE KDS. Because there are more than 80000 Weixu troops in alezia, plus a large number of citizens in the city. Now the food is only enough for 30 days. Soon, 200000 Gauls gathered from all directions came to rescue alezia. The Gauls broke through the Roman line in one place, but were soon repulsed by lapinus. Hunger forced the Gauls to surrender to Rome. Velchen was executed after gatorix.

by 51 BC, the uprisings of Gaul had been suppressed, and Gaul in the north of the mountain was incorporated into the territory of Rome. So far, the Gaul war ended.

the ending

in the Gaul war, Caesar showed his outstanding military genius. Although he belonged to a small number of troops, he used a large number of mercenaries to defeat the barbarians, so he was able to defeat the Gauls. In the whole war, Caesar conquered more than 300 tribes, occupied more than 800 cities and fought with more than 3 million people, including annihilating 1 million people, capturing 1 million people, winning a large number of booty and achieving a major victory.

influence ` evaluate the victory of

Roman expedition to Gaul, which has brought far-reaching influence to the Roman Republic. A large number of slaves and wealth flowed into Rome, which stimulated the development of Roman slavery economy. From then on, the fertile Gaul area belonged to the territory of Rome, which extended the territory of Rome to the West Bank of the Rhine River, the east of the Pyrenees and as far as Britain. At the same time, the victory of the Gaul war brought great honor to Caesar and laid a solid foundation for him to dominate the political arena in Rome.