Section V Romanesque art, after social unrest between the 5th and 10th centuries, Europe, especially southwest Europe, finally became stable in the early 11th century.

This land, like crossing the severe winter and being comforted by the spring breeze, blooms new artistic flowers.

As a French priest named greyne said: “In the third year after 1000, a change has taken place in many places, especially in France and Italy.

That is: people are very concerned about the construction of churches.

Sincere men and women have donated money for the construction of large-scale new churches, from chapels in monasteries to small churches in remote areas.

The world has taken off its ancient clothes and put them on The white cassock formed by the new church.

“The social foundation of this new atmosphere is the stability of the political and economic situation of European feudal society.

This is: the Hun invasion was finally repulsed, the Germanic territory was gradually restored, the stability of agriculture, the prosperity of transportation and Commerce injected new blood into the city, the feudal order has been firmly established, the religious fanaticism has increased step by step, and many prestigious churches and bishops have played a great influence in politics, economy and culture, There are many talented artists who are familiar with architecture, sculpture and painting.

In this situation, the trend of social thought requires a new concept of value and spirit of the times to break through the narrow geographical limitations, and the so-called “Romanesque art” came into being.

The word “Romanesque” was first used by the French historian de genevier in the early 19th century.

At that time, he mainly used the term in the sense of language.

The word developed from the word “Romance” and refers to various countries using Roman (i.e. Latin) system, including southwest European countries using French, Spanish and Provencal at that time.

As an artistic style, it is worth noting the following points: first, it first appeared in France and Lombardy, and then spread to all Europe, almost all countries that have not been affected by Byzantine art.

The most typical styles exist in France, Spain and Britain.

Second, although it has common tendencies and characteristics, it has no fixed norms, theories or procedures.

It is the combination of the common traditional spirit of all regions and works.

Third, it is mainly centered on the church building, where the achievements of sculpture, painting and arts and crafts are gathered, subject to the purpose of transforming the power of religion into images, so as to preach teachings to believers who lack culture.

Architecture as mentioned earlier, in Romanesque art, architecture, especially church architecture, occupies an absolute advantage, which is unmatched by other art styles.

Before 1000 AD, the society was in turmoil, and the church spread the absurd argument that God would destroy the world in the 1000th year to deceive the people.

By 1000 AD, the destruction of the world did not happen, and the church preached that it was a gift from God.

In order to thank the Lord for his grace, the church collected taxes everywhere, built large-scale buildings and built large churches.

Romanesque architecture mainly pursues the effect of balance and stability.

It is praised for its full strength, dense and uniform rhythm and grand sense of volume.

On the surface, Romanesque churches seem to return to the basilica structure of early Christianity, but in essence, they are not the same.

Based on the complete planning, it places all kinds of buildings in a unified structure and configuration.

It uses the brick cross vault to connect with each other in the center of the cloister, so that the volume of the church can be greatly expanded.

In order to prevent fire and embody solid ideas, the church was almost built of stone.

In order to deal with the robbers rampaging everywhere in the middle ages, churches and fortresses were combined.

They were generally built with tall walls, solid gates and blockhouse towers.

From the inside of the church, due to the extensive use of columns and arches (initially the semicircular arch of ancient Rome, then the bottle arch, horseshoe arch and Islamic spire arch, until the crossed or overlapping combined arch), the indoor light is dim, in a mysterious and dark atmosphere, which enhances the psychological effect of religious propaganda.

The main representatives of French Romanesque churches are St.

Chanin Church in Toulouse (built 1080-1120) and the cathedral in anguram (built 1105-1128).

Britain’s Durham Cathedral is the essence of Rome architecture in the first half of the twelfth Century.

The most outstanding representative of Italian Romanesque architecture is the Cathedral of Pisa (built in 1063-1174), which is composed of a domed Baptistery, a grand cross shaped main hall and a famous Leaning Tower.

The main hall was designed by the Greek architect bossandas, the Baptistery was designed by Theodore, and the leaning tower was designed by Brano.

Due to the wrong calculation of the foundation, the inclined tower began to tilt soon after its completion, and has been 4.

4 meters away from the center.

In 1590, the great physicist once made the famous free fall test on the inclined tower.

In addition, in Germany, famous Romanesque buildings include the Cathedral of wolmes, the Cathedral of Mainz and the monastery of Notre Dame in atlrah in the middle reaches of the Rhine (built in 1093 and completed in the 13th century).

Although sculpture and painting are subordinate to architecture in Romanesque art, the religious sculpture of the church also showed great progress between the 11th and 12th centuries.

Although its main task is not to deify people’s minds into specific visual images, it also teaches believers without cultural knowledge about agricultural solar terms, astronomy, meteorology, commerce and textiles with the help of large and small carvings on the gate and lintel.

It is just like an Illustrated Encyclopedia for the poor.

This simple universal education of natural science is like a glimmer of good fortune in the dark imprisoned world.

The carving of the above themes is generally completed by folk craftsmen, so it has strong traditional characteristics of folk art, such as rich imagination, childish modeling, decorative flat structure, ingenious composition and so on.

The door ticket and forehead of the church are the main works of Romanesque carving art.

For example, almost all Romanesque churches have semi-circular forehead relief (tympanum), capitals and plinths, circular shafts and decorative carvings on altars or seats, etc.

Central reliefIt usually takes the “final judgment” in the Bible as the theme to show that all kinds of souls accept God’s judgment in front of God, distinguish between good and evil, or go to heaven or hell.

The relief on the forehead of Orton Church in France, the last judgment, has special artistic value.

Its whole composition is full of clear interval division: in the center is God standing in the clam shaped halo, his right hand points to heaven, where is the happy life of dancing, singing and worshipping gods all day.

With his left hand pointing to hell, the devil is giving all kinds of severe punishment to the wicked according to the seriousness of their sins.

The most outstanding artistic technique of this relief is its character modeling.

The slender and twisted body of God and angel adopts bold exaggeration, and some even reach the figure of 11 heads and earthworm, which fully shows the author’s ingenious conception and bold imagination.

Below this relief is a horizontal relief ribbon across the top of the door, composed of all kinds of good and evil souls, which plays an important role in stabilizing the picture.

In the famous Chartres church, although Gothic and Romanesque have been mixed together, the West Main Gate – “the gate of the king”, built between 1145 and 1155, can be regarded as the most refined work of Romanesque carving art in central France.

The solemn Christ in the middle dominates the composition of the whole picture, surrounded by the allegorical image of the preacher.

Most of the cylindrical round carvings are mainly portraits, which abandoned the delicate form of Byzantine art and appeared a full shape with a certain strength.

Although, compared with the portrait column in classical Greek art, it achieves this strength mainly through lines rather than blocks.

For example, in the porch of the old monastery church in limshane, France, there are three rows of such portrait columns on both sides to support the arch.

The characters try to hold up the lintel with their hands and gather the power that is about to explode.

In addition to a few imitations of Byzantine style and decoration with plant patterns, most of the carvings on the capitals and foundations are also based on religious figures and biblical stories.

Folk craftsmen did not miss the opportunity to express their hatred for the rulers in such works.

For example, on the column foundation of Amiens Church in France, a crown wearing Prince and noble was carved, which was pressed under the column and could never turn over like demons and ghosts.

Other decorative carvings are also wonderful.

For example, the famous “throne of Barry” in the pilgrim church of St.

Nicholas was carved in marble around 1098.

The four legs of the seat are statues of four slaves (or evil souls), which is quite skillful.

The Baptistery of this church also has a marble holy water tray, which is also exquisitely carved.

Painting is far less valued in Romanesque art than architecture and sculpture.

This is probably because it is far less solid and powerful than architecture and sculpture.

For believers with extremely mediocre appreciation level, an entity is much more vivid than a flat “symbol”.

The paintings in Romanesque art are mainly the limited frescoes in the church and the detailed paintings and illustrations of a large number of manuscripts.

Neither of them was invented in this period, but they both achieved great development during this period.

At this time, religious paintings in the church generally use less Byzantine mosaic techniques, but use frescoes.

Due to the limitation of materials, few are well preserved, and many are repaired or redrawn by future generations.

For example, it is found in Catalonia, Italy.

In Burgundy, the frescoes of the Basilica of belzeraville can still be seen in part of the authentic works of the 12th century, and their color has been very dim.

The style of Romanesque murals only got rid of the influence of Byzantium in the 12th century and formed a strong independent style.

It especially emphasizes the expression of feelings and does not hesitate to take distorted and exaggerated forms.

More common are the scenes of suffering painted one after another on the two wing panels of the church.

For example, the crucifixion map of chalsala Cathedral in 1138, the crucifixion map of bravidu Church in 1228, the life map of Francesca in 1235, and so on.

The production center of manuscripts and Bible illustrations is still in Central Europe, especially Britain, which inherits the barbarian art tradition.

The Lambeth Bible and the Bree Bible produced by British craftsmen in the 12th century adopt decorative and patterned methods to express the clothing patterns.

The characters have beautiful shapes, complete volume and bright and rich colors.

As in sculpture, the characters in the painting are also painted to stick the clothing lines tightly to the body, just like coming out of the water, which is called “damp fold style”.

During this period of Arts and crafts, many valuable creations of craftsmen also served the church.

Today, many churches treasure priceless handicrafts.

For example, the “bayou brocade” collected by bayou Church in Kent, England, is about 10 meters long and embroidered on linen with colored wool.

The content describes a war in which Duke William of Normandy invaded Britain in 1086.

It is decorated with a circle of lace composed of animal patterns.

Stained glass inlays on church windows began in the Carolingian Dynasty and were only widely used in Romanesque churches.

However, there are few works that really belong to before the 12th century.

Chatelet church is a relatively complete preservation of the stained glass inlays of the 12th-13th century, which has become a place for many tourists.

In addition, some wonderful works have been partially preserved in the churches of St.

maipell in Paris, St.

Danny in Paris, Augsburg and Lehmann in Germany.

Other small crafts, such as ivory carving, fine gold and silver work, enamel King Lang color vessels, as well as holy object boxes, crosses, shepherd’s sticks, communion plates, etc.

made with exquisite carving techniques, have developed unprecedentedly.

For example, the candlestick of grosta in London’s Abbott Art Museum, the gold-plated cross in westonia in Berlin Art Museum, the famous relic box engraved with the relief picture of “Machi’s worship” in Cologne Cathedral, and so on.

The significance and position of Romanesque art in the history of medieval art in Europe can be seen from the following aspects: 1 Romanesque art came into being in the mature stage of European feudal society.

In terms of scale and style, it reflects the cultural achievements of the previous stage of European feudal society.

As far as the development of Christian art is concerned, some people take early Christian art as the representative of the early stage, Gothic art as the model of late mannerism style, and Romanesque art according to the formula of early stage – prosperous stage – late stageArt is regarded as a model of its heyday and has important value.

This statement is not meaningless.2. Romanesque art reflects the religious art style in the period of feudal economic stability.

It is not only religious, but also has a certain broad significance, because it mainly faces the majority of believers who lack culture, and most of its authors are folk craftsmen.

Therefore, it must also have a considerable element of popular character.3. Romanesque art and Byzantine art not only have a certain inheritance relationship in time, but also are relatively similar in concept.

In this sense, it plays a connecting role and plays an important role in medieval art.