Section II after the collapse of the

empire in Macedonia, from the 3rd century BC to the 2nd century BC, there were mainly the following countries in the eastern Mediterranean: the kingdom of Macedonia in the Balkans, the kingdom of Seleucia in Syria (also known as the kingdom of Syria), and the kingdom of Ptolemy in Egypt. They fought with each other, weakened, and Rome took the opportunity to wage war against them. The Macedonian War is a war between Rome and the kingdom of Macedonia. There are three times.


the kingdom of Macedonia is located in the Balkans, controls the Greek region and has an important strategic position. Philip V, king of Macedonia, has always had expansion ambitions. As early as after the first Punic War, Rome invaded Illyria and began to expand into the Balkans, which aroused the hostility of Philip V, king of Macedonia. Philip V closely watched the Punic War and tried to recover his control over Illyria through the failure of Rome in the war. In 217 BC, Rome was defeated miserably in the battle of Lake trasimeno. The king of Macedonia thought that the time had come and began to take military action against Illyria. In the early summer of 216 BC, a fleet was sent into the Ionian Sea and went north almost to Apollonia, but as soon as they heard that the Roman warships were coming, they hurried back to Macedonia. During the Second Punic War, Philip V reached an agreement with Hannibal of Carthage to jointly oppose Rome and march into Italy. Therefore, the first Macedonian War broke out.

Macedonian cavalry


(1) the first Macedonian War (215-205 BC)

in the summer of 215 BC, Macedonia formed an alliance with Hannibal, and Philip V sent envoys to Hannibal’s camp to conclude the alliance treaty. It stipulated that Macedonia must form an alliance with Carthage to fight against Rome, while Carthage recognized Philip V’s rights over the coast of Illyria, corqila, Apollonia, epidanus and other cities. The Macedonian envoy was captured by the Romans when he left Hannibal’s camp in Italy. The Roman Senate learned the contents of the treaty and took necessary preventive measures in time to closely monitor the Adriatic Sea.

in the summer of 214 BC, Philip V organized an army to appear in the Adriatic Sea to prepare for the siege of Apollonia. The Roman commander Marcus Valerius levinus led his army to come for assistance, strengthened the defense of Apollonia and cut off Philip V’s retreat at sea. Finally, without the help of Carthage, Philip V had to burn his fleet and return to Macedonia from land.

Rome also used diplomatic means to attack Macedonia. In 212 BC, levinus negotiated secretly with the head of etoria to form the Rome etoria alliance. Both sides opposed Philip V on land and at sea. Etoria was responsible for land and Rome was responsible for sea. During the joint conquest, etoria acquired the land, Rome acquired the booty, and did not contract with Philip V alone. In this way, Philip V was surrounded by enemies in the Balkans and the anti Macedonian alliance expanded rapidly.

in 207 BC, Rome invested all its strength in order to deal with Carthage, so it could not give any help to its Greek allies. The situation was favorable to Philip v. Philip V launched a fierce attack on the etorians and highlighted their borders, forcing the etorian alliance to conclude a separate peace treaty with Macedonia.

the Macedonian War

later, the development of the situation was unfavorable to Hannibal of Carthage. Although Hannibal and Philip V had long been allied, due to the vigorous activities of Rome, they launched a diplomatic offensive and formed an anti Macedonian alliance, including the etoria alliance, bergaman, Elis, mandinia and Sparta. Therefore, the anti Malay alliance delayed Philip V from entering Italy, and Hannibal failed to receive practical assistance from Macedonia. Rome concentrated its main forces on Hannibal and sent only a small number of troops to contain Macedonia and avoid large-scale conflict with Macedonia. Philip V never dared to send troops to Italy in order to consolidate Macedonia’s control over Greece. There were only sporadic fighting between the two sides. In 205 BC, a peace treaty was concluded between Rome and Macedonia. Rome retained the territory of Illyria, and Philip V obtained part of the land on the mainland. The so-called first Macedonian War came to an end.

(2) the second Macedonian War (200-197 BC)

the second Macedonian War broke out shortly after the end of the Second Punic War. In 203 BC, King Antioch III of Syria and King Philip V of Macedonia secretly colluded to sign a treaty on military action against Egypt in an attempt to take advantage of the internal chaos and weakening of external forces in Egypt to carve up Egypt’s territory in Syria, Asia Minor, the Aegean Sea and the Strait. The next year, the kings of the two countries acted separately. Antiochus III’s army broke into southern Syria and reached Phoenicia and Palestine, while Philip V conquered the Aegean islands and cities along the coast of Asia Minor that were already subordinate to Egypt. However, pagama and other city states located in the northwest of Asia Minor did not want to fall into the hands of Macedonia, so they united to attack Macedonia. After the war, they gradually felt that their strength was insufficient, so they had to ask Rome for help.

at this time, Rome was expanding its power. It took this opportunity to defeat Macedonia and conquer the whole Greece. In addition, during the Second Punic War, Macedonia formed an alliance with Carthage against Rome. Rome has always been bitter about it. Now is the time to retaliate and punish Macedonia. Therefore, Rome agreed to the assistance request of pagama and other city states.

in 200 BC, Rome began the war against Macedonia after the rejection of an ultimatum to Philip v. The Roman army first landed in Illyria on the East Bank of the Adriatic Sea. In the first two years of the war, the two sides had each other’s victory or defeat, and no decision was madeSexual victory. Therefore, the Romans actively launched a propaganda offensive under the banner of striving for freedom for Greek city states, making some city states in central Greece stand on the side of Rome, and even Syria remain neutral. In 198 BC, flaminilas served as consul of Rome and was sent to Greece as commander in chief. He asked Macedonia to withdraw from all Greek territory, withdraw from Greece and compensate for the losses. Rejected by Macedonia, the war began.

in the spring of 197 BC, Philip V led the army to go near Goutou mountain in Thessaly area and met the Roman army. It was foggy at this time. Both armies could not see the reality of each other, and Philip V was forced to fight. The Macedonian army used the square array of Alexander in those days, with wide front and large depth, which is suitable for fighting in flat and open terrain, while the Roman army formed an array in chess grid formation, which is not affected by the undulating terrain, and the matching of various forces and weapons is appropriate to form echelons at all levels, which is convenient for alternating operations and is very flexible. After the battle, the advantages of the Roman army were brought into full play. All echelons attacked in turn and played alternately, making the Macedonian army tired of coping. In addition, the terrain is uneven and fluctuates greatly. The left and right sides of the square array are gradually separated, so it is impossible to maintain a line. Then, the Roman army took the war elephant as the vanguard, and then the army led by flaminilas attacked the Macedonian army, quickly defeated the right wing of the other army, and Philip V was forced to lead the remnant back. He soon sought peace from Rome, so the two sides concluded a peace treaty. Philip V abandoned Asia Minor, the Aegean Sea and all parts of Greece, handed over all the fleets, paid huge compensation, and sent his second son as a hostage to Rome. From then on, Rome became the master of Greece. The second Macedonian War ended.

(3) the third Macedonian War (171-168 BC)

after the death of Philip V, his eldest son berxiu succeeded to the throne in 179 BC. Bersius was very hostile to the Romans. He organized a broad anti Roman alliance. Fearing that Macedonian power would grow again, Rome declared war on Macedonia in 171 BC. The third Macedonian War began.

at first, the development of the war was very beneficial to Macedonia. Macedonia has organized unprecedented food reserves, weapons, equipment and personnel. Specifically, Macedonia has 19000 infantry, 4000 cavalry and 10000 mercenaries; Its food and money are enough to support the above-mentioned troops for 10 months, and all kinds of equipment are enough to use three times its troops. In addition, Macedonia is also supported by Illyria and epinus on the East Bank of the Adriatic Sea. Rome was not fully prepared, so it used negotiations as a cover, bought time and made full preparations for the war, and soon changed its disadvantageous position. Then, the Romans used various means to make all Greek city states either take refuge in Rome or declare neutrality, resulting in the almost complete isolation of Perseus.

in the summer of 171 BC, the Roman army landed in Apollonia on the west coast of Greece. The force has two legions, 12000 infantry and 600 cavalry, and 16000 coalition infantry and 600 cavalry. After landing, it will act in two ways, leaving a force to prevent Macedonia from attacking from the West; The rest of the troops crossed the Pindus mountains to the East and marched towards Larisa in sesali. On the way, they met with the Macedonian army, and the Roman army was defeated. After the retreat to Rome, the two sides retreated into the small confrontation in the area of Olympus, and the two sides retreated to Olympus in the East.

in early 168 BC, the Roman Senate authorized baunus to direct the war against Macedonia. Baunus led 14000 infantry and 1200 cavalry to the camp on the elpias river. Then ordered the soldiers to dig wells and prepare water, rectify military discipline and formulate a new battle plan. When everything was ready, baunus led some soldiers to attack the Macedonian army outpost on the North Bank of the elpias River, and concentrated the fleet in a posture ready to detour back to the north of the Macedonian army from the sea; Another part of the troops, about 8000 infantry and 200 cavalry, took the fleet as the cover to make an illusion of getting ready to board the ship. In fact, they gathered their troops and took advantage of the night to go south along the sea, take the west side of Olympus, go around to the rear of the Macedonian military camp in the north of the mountain, and invited two businessmen to guide them. Unexpectedly, on the way, a soldier fled and leaked the military information to Macedonia. Macedonia immediately organized 12000 infantry to block, but was defeated by Roman soldiers. Upon learning of this, he immediately led his troops to retreat in the direction of pidna in the north, and settled down in the southwest of pidna and stood in a tight array.

the two armies of Rome met and chased berxiu, and soon rushed to the vicinity of the Macedonian barracks. Baunus immediately organized troops to set up camps and gave propaganda speeches to soldiers who advocated an immediate attack on the enemy, so that they could rest, prepare patiently and wait for the aircraft to fight. At 3 p.m. on June 21, a horse in the Roman army broke free from the reins and rushed to the river to the other bank. Three Roman soldiers tried their best to chase him. However, two Macedonian soldiers also went to catch horses, and one of them was killed by the Roman soldiers. The Macedonian outpost soldiers refused to accept it and wanted to avenge it. The Roman soldiers did not show weakness and went to confrontation. Baunus had to take advantage of this opportunity to order an attack on Macedonia. Both sides quickly deployed their forces. In Rome, the two Roman legions were the main force, which was deployed in the center. The left wing was the cavalry and the Greek coalition, and the right wing was the Latin coalition. On the Macedonian side, the phalanx is in the center, the mercenaries are on the left, and the Thracian infantry and cavalry are on the right. The whole square array consists of 16 columns. The first five columns and the last column are well-trained soldiers, and the middle is soldiers with low training quality. The whole formation is dense and the shields are connected. Spearmen hold a 6-meter-long spear, which can only be waved with both hands. Therefore, there are soldiers with protective shields between the spearmen.

Macedonia attacked first. The square infantry armed with spears and lined up in a neat line approached the Romans. The other party was deeply frightened and unable to break through the heavy barriers composed of Macedonian spearmen. The Roman Legion was forced to retreat and ran up the mountain in disorder. The other two wings follow. The Macedonian phalanx continued to pursue, the terrain became uneven, and the Macedonian phalanx was buried in a deep ditchThe canyon was separated and a gap appeared. Baonusi, who was retreating, saw the gap of the other party and immediately ordered to stop retreating, separate the troops and turn to the attack. Each hundred member team of the Roman Legion quickly broke into the gap of the enemy, making the square lose its advantage and be beaten passively; The other two wings also opened fire on the two wings of the Macedonian army, cutting off the connection between the two wings of the other party. The Macedonian army was attacked on all sides, and its spears and axes could not play a role in the chaotic crowd. The phalanx was dispersed, the infantry were defeated, and the cavalry fled. Berxiu fled, surrendered and was captured and died in a Roman prison. Rome lost hundreds of people, and more than 10000 wounded or disabled people; On the Macedonian side, 20000 people were killed and 10000 captured, and the third Macedonian War ended.


after the end of the third Macedonian War, Macedonia was divided into four small countries, each of which established its own parliament and government. Exchanges and trade between small countries and between them and other countries are prohibited. Rome’s brutal rule over Macedonia aroused the resolute resistance of local residents. In 149 BC, Macedonia broke out an anti Roman uprising again. The leader of the uprising was andresk, who called himself Philip, the son of Perseus. With the support of Byzantium and other Greek cities, he defeated the Roman army many times and advanced to thesaria. Later, the uprising was suppressed due to the betrayal of traitors. Since then, Macedonia has become a province of Rome.

influence ` evaluation of

the victory of Rome’s expedition to Macedonia is the result of Rome’s flexible use of diplomatic and military means, which can be regarded as a model in world history. In diplomacy, Rome attacked Macedonia’s allies, made the rulers of Greek city states stand on Rome’s side, or at least remain neutral, and completely isolated Macedonia; Militarily, the Macedonian army made several strategic mistakes: it was well prepared and powerful at first, but Rome was not ready at all. At this time, instead of taking decisive action, he defended passively and waited for the enemy to attack. When he defeated Rome near Larissa in Thessaly and caused a new wave of sympathy for Perseus in Greece, he did not take this opportunity to turn to the attack and expand the results. When the Macedonian phalanx crossed the lawkas River, deterred baunus and caused chaos after the withdrawal of the Roman army, berxiu did not resolutely stop the advance of the phalanx. Instead, cavalry and light infantry pursued the enemy, but let the phalanx continue to pursue. Finally, it was blocked by the uneven terrain, so that the defeated Roman army had the opportunity to turn to the counter attack. The Macedonian phalanx is only suitable for fighting in the plain, not in the highlands and mountain roads. The flexible Roman Legion finally defeated the Macedonian army near the highlands.