says

recently, Mikhail Fedotov, chairman of the Human Rights Commission of the Russian President, announced that “de urbanization” is one of the main tasks of the Commission. Early next year (2011), the Commission is expected to submit proposals to the president on how the government should abandon the legacy of Stalinism.

the Russian State Duma recently issued a formal resolution recognizing that the Katyn tragedy was made by Stalin, marking the climax of the third “de Stalinization” movement since the end of 2009.

so far, Russia, which lacks national symbols, has complex feelings for Stalin.

an article recently published on the website of the US Foreign Policy magazine gave a detailed interpretation of this. Martha Lipman is the editor of the positive and negative magazine of the Moscow Center of the Carnegie Endowment for international peace. She has an in-depth study of the Russian issue.

amazing transformation of the Russian government

Martha Lipman’s article quoted the official statement issued by the Russian State Duma on November 26: “the Katyn tragedy was carried out in accordance with the direct orders of Stalin and other Soviet leaders.” He said this statement has a very important breakthrough significance.

in 1940, the Soviet secret police executed about 22000 poles in Katyn. This historical event has been recorded in many documents and is widely known, but this is the first time that the Russian State Duma officially acknowledged that Stalin and his government created the Katyn tragedy. Now, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev is also helping. Before his visit to Warsaw in early December, he told the Polish media that “Stalin and his followers should be responsible for this tragedy.”

in May and December this year, Russia handed over part of the documents of military prosecutors investigating Katyn tragedy to Polish officials twice.

“he committed crimes against his own people”

“on the occasion of commemorating the 65th anniversary of the victory of the patriotic war in May this year, the Kremlin cancelled the plan of Moscow municipal authorities to decorate the portrait of Stalin on the streets of Moscow. Medvedev explained in an interview with Russia’s “Izvestia”: Stalin “has committed many crimes against his people. Even if the Soviet Union has made some achievements under his leadership, his crimes against his own people are unforgivable”.

just recently, Mikhail Fedotov, chairman of the Human Rights Commission of the Russian President, announced that “de Stalinization” is one of the main tasks of the Commission. Early next year (2011), the Commission is expected to submit proposals to the president on how the government should abandon the legacy of Stalinism. The proposal will assess Stalinism legally and politically and commemorate the victims of totalitarian regimes. The first two waves of

,

,

and

the beginning and end of the first two waves of

,

,

and

the article traces the other two waves in the history of Russia (Soviet Union) before this wave of “de Stalinization”.

after Stalin’s death in 1956, Khrushchev tried to eliminate the terrorist rule in Stalin’s time. Under this rule, everyone, including ordinary people and political elites, lives in terror and always feels afraid of being arrested and sentenced for political crimes. Khrushchev’s campaign focused on criticizing Stalin (some of Stalin’s followers were prosecuted), condemning illegal repression and rehabilitating innocent victims. Although Khrushchev did not challenge the roots of totalitarianism, his great enthusiasm against Stalin aroused the concern of other members of the leadership that it might weaken the Soviet political system. Khrushchev soon stepped down and his “de Stalinization” movement ended. In the post Khrushchev era, Soviet leaders stopped condemning Stalin, but did not declare Stalin innocent. Stalin’s name was erased from the official discourse, and even the discussion of Stalin in art, literature and social thought was prohibited. The second wave of

,

,

,

and “de Stalinization” was part of Gorbachev’s reform movement, which aimed to rebuild the state structure of the Soviet Union through reform. In the late 1980s, reform permeated every corner, eventually leading to the collapse of the Communist regime of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Soviet Union. During Yeltsin’s presidency of Russia, the discourse on politics and history was completely dominated by the argument of anti communism; The condemnation of Stalin has also become a matter of course. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russia completely abandoned the totalitarian system and officially adopted the western style democratic system for governance.

officials are very tangled with Stalin.

. However, the article analyzes that this system has not been able to gain a firm foothold. During Putin’s presidency, he successfully reintroduced and consolidated the traditional centralized system. The return of unrestricted state power and the importance of domestic security institutions as the pillar of the state made Stalin return to Russia in the Putin Era again. This time, Stalin was the embodiment of the strength of the Soviet Union. The most important thing was that he defeated Nazi Germany when he was the head of the Soviet Union. Stalin came in handy because Russia was no longer a superpower. During Putin’s presidency, officials adopted vague and evasive strategies on Stalin’s terrorist rule, and the discussion of Stalin’s legacy was marginalized again.

,

,

,

although the discourse of “de Stalinization” has been marginalized, it has not been banned. Unlike the Soviet era, today’s Russia can express itself freely. Literary works describing Stalin’s reign of terror are common in bookstores and libraries, and academic research is not limited. During Putin’s presidency, some non-governmental organizations were still carrying out relevant commemoration and research work. Unofficial media published and broadcast a large number of historical facts, including a year long documentary about political prisoners’ concentration camps. Even national television is broadcasting programs based on the works of Solzhenitsyn, salamov and others, whichThese works have detailed records of Stalin’s rule.

at the same time, there are many publications and TV programs praising Stalin and his era; Obviously, this shows that the official feelings for Stalin are very contradictory, which is actually the embodiment of Putin’s own contradictory position.

article said that Putin came to bhuttovo on October 30, 2007. From 1937 to 1938, when Stalin’s rule reached its peak, more than 20000 Soviets were executed on a large scale here. “It’s crazy,” he said trembling. “It’s incredible. Why were they killed… Let’s not let this tragedy be forgotten. Hundreds of thousands or even millions of people were sent to reform through labor, shot and tortured.”

but less than two months later, Putin congratulated the 90th anniversary of the establishment of the Russian Federal Security Agency. For today’s officials and old employees of the Russian Federal Security Agency, they do not deny that the Russian Federal Security Agency is developed from the all Russia anti rebellion Committee. In those years, it was the anti Revolutionary Committee that mercilessly punished the Bolshevik “class enemies”. The article

,

,

and

analyzes that today’s Russia lacks national symbols, and Stalin is still very important to Russian leaders, even if they occasionally condemn his past repression.

,

,

,

public views are also very contradictory. The high-level feelings of

,

,

and

for Stalin are complex, and the public views on Stalin are not consistent. Russians generally have a certain understanding of Stalin’s terrorist rule, and most Russians also know that there are millions of innocent victims. A survey conducted in 2007 showed that when asked how to evaluate the events between 1937 and 1938, 72% of Russians considered it an “unforgivable political crime”. Even in public discourse, the number “37” has been associated with illegal and brutal persecution.

but some Russians still admire Stalin. About a third of Russians tend to see Stalin as a “wise leader who led the Soviet Union to strength and prosperity”. A poll conducted earlier this year showed that 32% of Russians recognized “Stalin as a criminal”, but about half refused to comment on him.

,

,

,

a step of reconciliation with the west

,

,

and

what is the reason for promoting the current wave of “de Stalinization”. Martha Lipman believes that the first and most important thing should be Russia’s new reconciliation policy towards the west, which promoted Russia to recognize the crimes committed by Soviet totalitarianism to some extent. The wave of “de Stalinization” can be regarded as a part of a more pragmatic foreign policy. If Russia wants to reconcile with the west, it must move closer to the Western point of view in the interpretation of the Soviet totalitarian system and the Soviet Union’s domestic and foreign policy.

,

,

,

of course, the change of foreign policy does not necessarily mean that there will be a situation of political liberalization in Russia. In some aspects, the current political order in Russia is not much different from that in Stalin’s regime. Its ruling style still inherits the tradition of hundreds of years. The supreme leader can make a decision, and the state has a dominant position in society.

however, regardless of the motivation of the new round of “de Stalinization” movement, officially admitting Stalin’s crime is undoubtedly a positive action.