Section III Russian expedition to the Ottoman Empire and ten Russian Turkish wars
Russian Turkish War refers to a series of wars between Russia and Ottoman Turkey in the 17th-19th century for the Caucasus, Balkans, Crimea, black sea, etc., of which 10 are important.
in the second half of the 17th century, the national strength of the Ottoman Empire declined day by day. Czarist Russia became stronger and stronger through the Russian Polish war from 1654 to 1667. In order to meet the needs of economic development, the strategic position of the northern coast of the black sea became more and more important to Russia. After establishing its rule over Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnieper River in the Russian Turkish war from 1676 to 1681, it accelerated the implementation of the Southward Policy. The international contradictions between the two countries around the Oriental issue have become acute. Turkey attempts to retaliate against Ukraine and the countries along the Black Sea. Russia tries to consolidate its power in the Balkans and Caucasus with the support of the increasingly vigorous national liberation movement against the oppression of the Ottoman Empire carried out by the enslaved and Christian people of all ethnic groups. Under such a complex background, czar Russia and Turkey fought a series of wars.
the first Russian Turkish War (1676-1681)
the Russian Turkish war in 1676-1681 was caused by the Turkish Ottoman Empire invading Ukraine after the re merger of Ukraine and Russia. Turkey occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Polish Turkish war, and then tried to rule the whole right bank Ukraine with the support of gatmandoroshenko of Ukraine on the right bank. In 1674, gatman samoylovic of Ukraine on the left bank was elected as the general gatman of Ukraine. In 1676, doroshenko led 12000 people to occupy qijilin, the capital of gettman, in an attempt to restore his rule with the help of the Turkish army. In order to prevent this situation, under the command of samoylovic and romodavsky, the Russian Ukrainian coalition army crossed the Dnieper River in the spring of 1676, surrounded chijilin, captured the city and captured doroshenko on August 2. From 1677 to 1678, the struggle between the Russian Ukrainian allied forces and the Turkish Tatar army for chijilin continued. In 1679, the Russian Ukrainian coalition army led by samoylovic and romodanovsky repelled many attacks by the Crimean Tatars by relying on the newly built ijumlu zh à I line of defense. Because Turkey failed to achieve its goal, it was forced to sign the chisalai peace treaty on January 23, 1681, recognizing the re merger of Ukraine and Russia on the left bank.
the second Russian Turkish War (1686-1700)
the Russian Turkish war in 1686-1700 was the continuation of Russia’s struggle against the aggression of the Ottoman Empire. In 1686, Russia joined the anti Turkish alliance composed of Austria, Poland and Venice. In 1687 and 1689, more than 100000 Russian troops, under the command of Duke Golitsyn, carried out two expeditions to the Turkish dependent Crimean khanate, both of which failed because the water and food were cut off by the local Tatars and the Turkish army. In 1695, Czar Peter I led more than 30000 people on an expedition to Yasu, the Turkish fortress at the mouth of the sea of Azov. Due to the poor combat effectiveness of the troops and the lack of naval cooperation, they returned from defeat. In 1696, Peter I led more than 75000 troops to make another expedition with the cooperation of the newly formed small fleet, and finally conquered the Asian speed. Due to the outbreak of the Northern War, Russia signed the Constantinople peace treaty with Turkey in August 1700, and the Asian speed belonged to Russia.
the third Russian Turkish War (1710 ~ 1711)
after the outbreak of the Northern War, Peter I did not give up the goal of moving south. After the battle of Poltava in 1709, King Carl XII of Sweden fled into Turkey. In 1710, Turkey declared war on Russia and the third Russian Turkish war broke out. In 1711, Peter I personally marched, leading more than 40000 main forces into the lower reaches of the Danube River and surrounded by 100000 Turkish troops and 70000 Kremlin troops on the Bank of the Prut river. In the situation of running out of ammunition and food, it finally ended in Russia’s failure. Russia was forced to abandon Azov and demolish fortifications along the Azov Sea. In July 1711, Russia and Turkey signed the “peace treaty of Prut”, and the Asian speed returned to Turkey. Russia’s attempt to advance south was frustrated.
the fourth Russian Turkish War (1735 ~ 1739)
after Russia won the war of succession to the throne of Poland, Russia declared war on Turkey in 1735 with the purpose of seizing the North Bank of the Black Sea and the Crimean peninsula. On May 31, 1736, field marshal minih’s Dnieper River group army of 40000 people captured berekop, and then occupied Bachi salai, the capital of the Crimean Khanate. However, due to the epidemic of plague and the lack of food m and drinking water, the Russian army was forced to withdraw to Ukraine. The Don River group army under the command of general RASI of the Russian army, with the support of lieutenant general bredali’s Don river fleet, captured Azov on June 30, 1736. In July 1737, under the coordination of the regional fleet, the Don River group army forcibly crossed the sivash lake and defeated the army of Krim Khan in the battle on the salgil river. On July 13, the Dnieper River group army captured ochakov. In the same year, Austria joined the war, but the Austrian army was defeated repeatedly. In order to meet the Austrian army in varajia and Bosnia, the Russian army launched an attack on Moldavia in early 1739, which made a turning point in the war. In August, the Dnieper River group army defeated the Turkish army in the battle of stavuchane. At the request of the Moldavia delegation, Moldavia was incorporated into Russia. Facing the threat of Swedish invasion, Russia withdrew from the war and had to sign the Belgrade peace treaty with Turkey. According to the Belgrade peace treaty between Russia and Turkey in September 1739, Yasu was once again owned by Russia.
the fifth Russian Turkish War (1768 ~ 1774)
in 1767, Russia sent troops to invade Poland on the grounds of protecting the orthodox. On September 25, 1768, Turkey declared war on Russia with the support of France and Austria. The Russian troops launched the attack in two ways: the west road was the main direction of attack, with about 80000 people. Under the command of rumentsev, they crossed the Dniester River and pushed along the Danube River. By the end of 1771, they controlled the Principality of Moldova and valachia; The 48000 people on the East Road were commanded by dorgoruki. They marched into Crimea from Yasu to occupy the whole Crimea in June 1771peninsula. In order to cooperate with the action of the army, the Russian Baltic Fleet entered the Mediterranean Sea through the English Channel and the Strait of Gibraltar. In July 1770, it defeated the Turkish fleet in the cheshme naval battle and controlled the Aegean Sea. In 1772, Turkmenistan sought peace and failed to reach an agreement due to the harsh conditions of Russia. In April 1773, the Russian army launched an offensive in the Balkan battlefield, forcibly crossed the Danube and raided turtukai. In 1774, in order to end the war as soon as possible, Russia stepped up its offensive again. Its leading forces crossed the Balkans and threatened the Turkish capital Istanbul. In July, the two sides signed the “little kenarja peace treaty”, Turkey recognized the “independence” of the Crimean khanate, and Russia obtained the right to free navigation in the area between the Dnieper River and the Bouguer River and the Black Sea.
the sixth Russian Turkish War (1787-1792)
turkey demanded that Russia return Krim, recognized Georgia as a Turkish territory, and authorized Turkey to inspect Russian merchant ships passing through the Strait. Russia rejected the ultimatum. In August 1787, Turkey dispatched 200000 troops and a powerful fleet, including 19 battleships, 16 cruise ships and 5 light cruise gunships, to fight against Russia. On August 21, the Russian frigates moored near bukin launched an attack. On the night of September 13, 700 Turkish troops landed in jinbuen Shazui, but were defeated by the Russian army. On October 12, 5000 Turkish landing troops landed near kimboon under the cover of artillery fire, but they were attacked sharply by suvolov army and almost wiped out. In 1788, Austria joined the Russian side in the war and sent Prince kobrgski to lead 26000 troops to Moldavia. The Russian army besieged and captured the khogin and ochakov fortresses. In 1789, the Ukrainian group army fought for strongholds such as binjeri in pisarabia. On August 1, the 5000 Russian army and 12000 Austrian army under the command of general suvolov, commanded by Prince kobrgski, defeated 30000 troops in osmanbasha in foxhani. On September 22, under the command of suvolov, 25000 Russian Austrian coalition troops defeated 100000 troops of Turkish Prime Minister Yusuf in the first battle on the Bank of the lemnik river. In 1790, the Turkish commander-in-chief turned the main assault direction to the coast of the Black Sea and the Caucasus, and ordered Batar Basha to lead 40000 people to the Anapa fortress area to capture Kuban and prepare to land in Krim. Under the command of rear admiral Ushakov, the Russian Black Sea Fleet successively carried out raids in the sea battles in the sea areas of Sinop, Kerch Strait and Chandra Island, and defeated the Turkish fleet. From September 8 to 9, the Russian fleet won the first battle of Chandra island again. With the help of the fleet, the southern group army occupied the fortresses of kilia, turcha and issacha. In September, Austria concluded a separate peace treaty with Turkey, which worsened the situation of Russia. Nevertheless, Russia launched an attack on the Danube River. On December 22, 1790, suvolov’s headquarters conquered Turkey’s fortified Izmir fortress with a powerful offensive. On June 15, 1791, general Kutuzov’s headquarters forcibly crossed the Danube River and defeated 13000 Turkish troops near Babadag. On July 9, the main force of the Russian army severely damaged the Turkish army in the merchin battle. On July 3, general goodwich’s headquarters conquered Anapa in the Western Caucasus. On August 11, Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet in the Cape of Kaliya criya and won. In January 1792, Russia and Turkey signed the yassi peace treaty, and Turkey recognized Russia’s annexation of Krim and Georgia. In this war, Russia realized its ambition to dominate the Black Sea and won the unfrozen sea entrance of the Black Sea.
the seventh Russian Turkish War (1806-1812)
turkey tore up the Treaty on the free passage of Russian ships through the Strait signed in 1805 and replaced the Archduke of Moldavia and valachia without authorization. In response, in November 1806, the Russian government sent General mikhersson’s Moldavia group army of 40000 people and 150 artillery into Moldavia and varajia controlled by the Turkish puppet. The Danube Cossack army turned to Russia. On December 30, Britain sided with Russia, and its fleet tried to control the fortifications on both sides of the Dardanelle Strait and the coast of Egypt, but failed. Since February 1807, the Russian sub fleet under the command of lieutenant general shenyawen, based on the island of tenedos, blocked the Dardanelle Strait and defeated the Turkish fleet in the Dardanelle sea battle and the Athos sea battle. In the Balkan and Caucasus war zones, the Russian army also defeated the Turkish army many times. After the disintegration of the British Russian anti Turkish alliance, Russia and Turkey signed an armistice agreement in August 1807, but the war rekindled in the spring of 1809. In the Caucasus war zone, the Russian army cooperated with the Azerbaijani people’s army and the Georgian people’s army, drove the Turkish army out of Poti and sukhumikale, and captured the akhalkalaki fortress. Marshal prozorovsky led 80000 Russian troops to forcibly cross the Danube River with the cooperation of the Danube area fleet with 140 ships, and successively captured the fortresses of isakcha, turcha, Babadag, mochin, Izmer, brailov and so on. In May 1810, under the command of the new commander-in-chief, general kamensky, the Russian army occupied the fortresses of pazarjik, Silistra and Razgrad. In the battle of batina from September 7 to 8, Russia defeated 100000 Turkish troops. In September, the defenders of rushchuk fortress and jiuerjiu fortress surrendered. On October 29, 1810, the Russian army launched a sudden attack and captured lovic, but failed to stay for a long time. The city was conquered again on January 28, 1811. In early 1811, one of the Danube group armies was transferred to the western border due to the threat of Russian invasion. In the battle of rushchuk on July 4 and the battle of slobozia on December 5, the Russian army broke the ground, forced it to surrender and won the war. In May 1812, the two sides signed the Bucharest peace treaty, and Russia acquired Pisa Rabia and western Georgia.
the eighth Russian Turkish War (1828-1829)
after the outbreak of the Greek War of independence in 1821, Turkey fell into a political crisis. In 1827, after the joint fleet of Russia, Britain and France defeated the joint fleet of Turkey and Egypt in the naval battle of Navarino in order to protect the autonomy of Greece, Turkey tore up all previous agreements concluded between Russia and Turkey, and announced a “sacred war” against Russia in December 1827. On April 26, 1828, Russia declared war on Turkey. Russia will be the collection of Marshal Wittgenstein95000 regiments were transferred to the Danube war zone to meet 150000 troops of Hussein Basha, and 25000 troops of general paskovic were transferred to the Caucasus war zone factory to meet 50000 Turkish troops. Wittgenstein group army crossed the border on May 7. After a month of fighting, it occupied the principalities of the Danube River and forcibly crossed the Danube River. On October 11, the Russian army launched a joint attack from land and sea and captured Varna. Paskevich’s army crossed the border and captured Kals fortress on July 5. Between July and August, the forces of the Caucasus army, with the support of the local people’s army, occupied the fortresses of ardagan, aharzih, Poti and bayazet. On June 11, 1829, 18000 Russian troops under the command of general TIBIC defeated the Turkish army twice as strong as themselves in the battle near kulevcha, and occupied Silistra on June 30. In July, kibic led 17000 people across the Balkans to Fort Adrian. On August 20, the city’s defenders surrendered. The Russian army continued to attack south, and Istanbul was in danger. In the Caucasus, the Russian army captured Erzurum on July 9 and went out to Trabzon. The Russian army won the two war zones, the main force approached Istanbul, the fleet blocked the Bosporus Strait and the Dardanelle Strait, and cruised along the Turkish coast of the Black Sea. These circumstances forced the Turkish government to sign the fort Adrian peace treaty in September. Turkey recognizes that the Danube estuary and the vast area on the east coast of the Black Sea belong to Russia, the Bosporus Strait and Dardanelle Strait are open to Russian merchant ships, and the two principalities of the Danube are autonomous and protected by Russia.
the ninth Russian Turkish War (1853-1856)
in 1853, in order to compete for the “holy land” Palestinian jurisdiction, Russia sent troops to occupy the Turkish principality of Romania in July. With the support of Britain and France, Turkey declared war on Russia on October 16. On November 30, the Russian sub fleet commanded by admiral nakimov wiped out the Turkish sub fleet in the naval battle in Sinop Bay. The British fleet sailed into the Black Sea in April 1851. On March 27, Britain and France declared war on Russia. On January 26, 1855, the kingdom of Sardinia also intervened in the war. The war was mainly fought in balyu, Caucasus and Kerim.
in the Balkans, from November 1853 to January 1854, 140000 Turkish troops commanded by Omer Pasha and 80000 Russian troops led by gorchakov fought successively in ortenica and chetatay, and the Russian troops were defeated. In March 1854, the Russian army crossed the Danube River, broke through the Turkish defense line and occupied issacha and turcha. However, it was seriously frustrated in the siege of Silistra fortress in May. In June, the Russian army withdrew to Pisa Rabia under the pressure of Putin and Austria.
in the Caucasus, the two sides started war in November 1853. In the early stage, there were not many troops and the scale was small. The Russian army successively defeated the Turkish army’s attack near akhalzih and bashkadekrar. In the spring of 1855, muraviyov led 40000 Russian troops to besiege KARs city and capture it on November 28, but failed to recover the whole war situation of Russia.
in the Crimean region, from September 14 to 18, 1854, 62000 British and French coalition forces, led by the commander in chief of the coalition, major general Raglan of the British army and field marshal San Arnault of the French army, landed in Yevpatoria on the West Bank of the Crimean Peninsula in an attempt to attack Sevastopol south. The 34000 Russian troops led by general makikov immediately met the coalition forces and fought fiercely with the coalition forces successively in Alima River, balaclarke, Inkerman and jornaya river. After leading the encircled strongholds such as inkman, balaclarke and carmesh port, the coalition launched a long-term siege of Sevastopol, the main base of the Russian Black Sea fleet, from October 17, 1854. The Russian army and Navy were trapped for 11 months under the command of lieutenant general kornilov, the commander of urban defense. In September 1855, the fortress was finally captured by the coalition forces. Both the Russian city defense commander and the commander in chief of the coalition forces were seriously injured and died, thus determining the whole war situation. In March 1856, the two belligerents signed the Paris peace treaty, which redefined the sphere of influence of European powers in the Middle East and the Balkans. The peace treaty provides for the mutual return of the occupied areas and the joint guarantee of Turkey’s independence and territorial integrity; Neutrality of the Black Sea; Russia and Turkey cannot have fleets and bases in the Black Sea; Recognize the freedom of navigation of the Danube River under international supervision, and assign the southern part of Sarabia to sardova.
the tenth Russian Turkish War (1877 ~ 1878)
after the reform in 1861, Russia gradually healed the trauma of the Crimean War, and its economic and military strength was restored and strengthened. In April 1877, taking advantage of the upsurge of the Slavic national movement in the Balkans, Russia declared war on Turkey and dispatched more than 400000 troops to launch attacks in the Balkans and the Caucasus. In June, the main force of the Russian army forcibly crossed the Danube River and failed to conquer the strategic area of Plevna after three battles. In September, the Russian army switched to the siege method of warfare. With the cooperation of nearly 40000 Romanian troops, the besieged Turkish army was forced to surrender in December. Then, with the support of the Bulgarian army, the Russian army braved the severe cold to cross the Balkan Mountains, defeated the Turkish army by circuitous encirclement, captured Sofia on January 4, 1878, captured Edirne on January 20, and then pushed into Istanbul. Due to British intervention, the Russian army failed to control the Bosporus Strait. On March 31, the two sides stopped fire and signed the San Stefano peace treaty on March 3. Russia established a “great Bulgarian State” under its protection, and received a large area of land and huge compensation. Russia’s success caused dissatisfaction among European powers. From June to July of the same year, the Berlin Conference revised the peace treaty, and Russia only got the South bishalabia, Batumi, KARs and other places lost in the Crimean War.
through the Russian Turkish war of nearly two centuries, Russia has expanded its territory, with the southern border extending to the Black Sea, the western border advancing to the Prut River, and the eastern border crossing the Caucasus mountains. In successive years of war, the Ottoman Empire declined even more and became the object of slaughter by the great powers.
impact ` evaluation of
the war between Russia and Turkey was intermittent, with an average of 241 yearsBy 19 years, there was a large-scale war, which was the longest war series in European history. Austria, Britain, France, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and other countries also participated in it.