The war in Panama has just been extinguished for a few months, and the Middle East, known as the “land of trouble”, has soared again.
However, this time, it is not a competition between Arab countries and Israel, but a fratricidal war between Arab brotherly countries – Iraq invaded Kuwait and the multinational force led by the United States sent troops to intervene.
This is the largest war in the world since the Vietnam War – the Gulf War.
The Euphrates River in the Persian Gulf is the famous birthplace of ancient Babylonian culture.
Since ancient times, Arabs have lived here for generations.
This place is a boundless desert.
Desert means poverty, but here is a treasure, but it has not been found in the past.
At the beginning of the 20th century, it was found that there was a large amount of oil on both banks of the Euphrates River, accounting for half of the world’s total reserves.
So, in just 20 or 30 years, this place has changed from an unknown desert to a rich place.
Among the world’s eight largest oil storage countries, the Gulf region in the middle and east of the Euphrates River accounts for five.
The oil here is continuously supplied to some of the world’s economic powers, and also controls the economic lifeline of these powers.
The world’s economy will be affected by what happens in the Gulf region.
It is a place full of troubles.
The border problems left over from the colonial period have kept the Middle East in constant flames of war for decades.
Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait was only one of several Middle East wars.
The war began on August 2, 1990.
At 2:00 a.m. on the 2nd, 1.
9 million Kuwaiti people were still sleeping, with bright moon and few stars and silence.
At this dead quiet moment, with the order of Saddam Hussein, 100000 well-equipped Iraqi troops with the Republican Guard as the main force quickly crossed the 125 kilometer long Iraq Kuwait border under the opening of 350 T-72 tanks.
In an instant, fighter planes and helicopters soared into the air, armored vehicles and fire cannons were dispatched, and many fuel supply vehicles and water supply vehicles pressed against the rear array and rushed into the hinterland of Kuwait.
Although Kuwait, with only 18000 square kilometers of land and 20000 troops, is much richer than Iraq, it is not an opponent of the Iraqi army when fighting.
In only 10 hours, the Iraqi army occupied Kuwait City.
Why did Iraq use force against a neighbouring country? For debt, oil, or territory? In the 1980s, Kuwait provided the strongest human, moral and economic support to Iraq, which was also the strongest in the 1980s.
The two good brothers before the war have been more intimate after eight years of war.
However, after all, the eight-year war left Iraq with a debt of up to $70 billion, with $30 billion owed to the Gulf States, including $12 billion from Kuwait.
The closest brother has become the most terrible creditor, which cannot but be a heavy burden for Iraq.
Iraq has both the largest oil reserves and abundant freshwater resources.
Before the Iran Iraq war, the per capita annual income was US $2000 and the national foreign exchange reserve exceeded US $35 billion.
During the eight-year war, Iraq was cut off from the sea and Syria closed the oil pipeline through its territory.
The export volume of oil decreased from 3.
2 million barrels a day before the war to 600000 barrels a day.
The sharp decline in oil revenue, coupled with Iraq’s purchase of weapons and equipment costs as high as $102 billion, has led to a huge fiscal deficit in Iraq for years.
In the face of assistance from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other countries, Iraqis have their own explanations.
At a press conference held by Iraqi Foreign Minister Aziz in 1983, when a foreign reporter asked the foreign minister how he viewed the Gulf countries’ assistance to Iraq, the foreign minister raised his voice and said: “if Iraq is fighting for itself, then this assistance is enough.
if Iraq is fighting for the Arab nation, then this assistance is not enough!” A person working in a Kuwaiti news agency once revealed that Iraq’s debt to Gulf countries, including Kuwait, has become dead debt, and the Gulf countries have long lost hope.
In that case, why should we turn against each other? The source believes that the cause and purpose of the koi conflict lie in oil.
Kuwait is rich in oil deposits, amounting to 94.
5 billion barrels, accounting for 10.
4% of the world’s total reserves.
If Iraq controls Kuwait’s oil, it can control 20% of the world’s oil.
Iraq covets Kuwait’s rich oil resources and strategic islands.
In this person’s view, the Iraq Kuwait war is a war for oil.
In fact, only Iraqi President Saddam Hussein knows the real purpose.
Saddam Hussein, a military born president who has led the army to fight for more than ten years, has a resolute character, says nothing, and sometimes does things recklessly.
At the meeting of the “Arab Cooperation Committee” in early 1990, he said to the rich Kuwaitis that shocked the participants.
He said: “I need $30 billion.
If I don’t give it, I’ll get it myself.
” Kuwait, a small bullet country, borders on the Persian Gulf and is adjacent to Iraq and Saudi Arabia.
It is extremely rich in oil reserves.
It is generally estimated that Kuwait’s actual oil reserves are much larger than the published figures, and may surpass Saudi Arabia to become the world’s largest oil producer.
There are at least three super large oil-bearing structural layers in Kuwait, which are shallow buried, easy to exploit, thick oil layer and high quality, and communicate with neighboring Saudi Arabia and Iraq oilfields.
The whole structure is in the shape of a pot bottom, and Kuwait’s geographical location is just at the bottom of the pot.
That is to say, the more oil is extracted, the more underground oil from neighbouring countries will flow to Kuwait.
Saddam believed that after eight years of Iran Iraq war, Iraq “fought for the Arab world”, and Kuwait and Saudi Arabia were protected by Iraq.
During the war, all of Iraq’s oil flowed into the barrel and became a bomb that could never be recovered.
The oil from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia has become a large amount of money beyond his reach.
The war was like a nightmare, turning the ambitious Saddam into a “poor man”, while the rich, such as SA in Kuwait, deposited huge amounts of money in Western banks.
Faced with these realities, Saddam found it difficult to find a psychological balance.
He did not care about the $70 billion heavy debt, nor did he care whether his Arab brothers praised or belittled him.
Instead, he was angry that he could no longer become the overlord of Arab countries.
However, Iraq also has something that can make Saddam arrogant, that is, he has a team that has experienced 8One million troops with rich combat experience in the war of 1911.
It also has the latest weapons, such as many “frog”, “silkworm”, “Scud” and “Saddam” missiles, the most advanced dual chemical weapons, and so on.
Therefore, the Iraqi President and commander in chief of the three armed forces started the idea of “Arab rich” – Kuwait.
Kuwait belonged to the Ottoman Empire of Turkey in the 16th century.
A hundred years later, it was part of Iraq and declared its independence in 1961.
Shortly after independence, Iraq made territorial claims to Kuwait, which was abandoned due to British intervention.
Whenever Saddam mentioned this period of history, he was always bitter about the West.
As soon as the Iran Iraq war ended, he began his old dream of great unification and longed to become a “national hero” of the whole Arab world.
No wonder Saddam said in a meeting with Austrian reporters 23 days after the Iraqi army captured Kuwait: “there is no Kuwait.
It is fabricated by the US intelligence agencies.
This country was established to deprive Iraq of its access to the sea.
” Saddam also said: “the territory of Iraq is from the northern border to the sea to the south of Kuwait.
” Although Saddam coveted Kuwait, he had to find an excuse or choose an auspicious day to use force.
This opportunity is just around the corner.
In December 1988, Iraqi intelligence agencies provided Saddam with an important message: there was a rift in the Kuwaiti Dynasty, the people were increasingly dissatisfied with the Sabah Dynasty, domestic contradictions were becoming increasingly acute, and the political situation was unstable.
This information came not from grapevine news, but from an internal affairs report of Kuwait’s “diwania”.
On August 2, 1989, Iraqi aircraft, tanks and artillery entered Kuwait.
The news of Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait spread all over the world, and the international community condemned it with one voice.
On the same day, in the United Nations building in New York, the Security Council held its first emergency meeting on Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.
The five permanent members unanimously adopted Security Council resolution 660, which calls for the immediate withdrawal of Iraq’s troops and the restoration of Kuwait’s sovereignty.
On August 6, the Security Council adopted resolution 661 imposing a comprehensive embargo on Iraq.
The United States has huge economic interests in the Gulf region, and has always been extremely concerned about the situation in this region, where its reconnaissance satellites are always staring at.
Of course, Saddam’s mobilization of heavy troops to the Koei Iraqi border cannot escape the “golden eyes” of the United States in space.
But the Americans judged that Iraq would not really use force against Kuwait.
Facts have proved that the American judgment is very wrong.
Therefore, when the war broke out, Steven Mann, the director of the Security Bureau sitting in the monitoring center of the national security agency, quickly dialed the White House and reported the frustrating news to President Bush.
Hearing the news, Bush immediately ordered his subordinates to urgently convene members of the National Security Council to the White House to discuss countermeasures.
People at the Pentagon command center of the US Department of defense were also surprised by Iraq’s sudden attack on Kuwait.
Powell, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, issued several orders: six US warships anchored at Manama port in Bahrain immediately set sail from the port to prevent sudden attacks by the Iraqi air force.
The “independence” aircraft carrier cruising in the Indian Ocean approaches the Gulf of Oman and is ready to perform new tasks at any time.
The US military base on Diego Garcia island in the Indian Ocean has entered a first-class combat readiness state, and the B-52 bombers on the base are ready to attack at any time.
The naval base in suza Bay, Greece has entered a high state of combat readiness.
Senior Pentagon officials are divided when discussing the battle plan.
Defense Secretary Cheney was cautious in dealing with the Gulf crisis.
He initially advocated “surgical” military action with air strikes as the main means.
Cheney told his assistant, rear admiral Owens, that this was just an immature idea and asked him to consult widely with the generals of the Joint Chiefs of staff.
That afternoon, Powell held a joint chiefs of staff meeting to discuss possible military actions in the Gulf region in the future.
The representatives of the air force and the Navy Secretary of operations were on one side and the representatives of the army and the Marine Corps were on the other.
The two sides had a heated debate on whether to adopt the “surgical” plan.
After waiting for their full comments, Powell said: “The surgical plan, no matter who proposed it, overstates the strength of the air force and navy.
Iraq is not Panama.
To drive Iraq out of Kuwait, it must have the participation of ground forces, and it is a huge force.
Of course, I do not advocate the premature use of force against Iraq, but should patiently implement and wait for the effect of the containment policy against Iraq.
” President Shi’s current policy towards Iraq includes a dual plan of containment and attack.
As the Pentagon, we have to provide the president with a careful plan of military countermeasures.
To this end, I advocate that all services should work together to make military plans for air, sea and land attacks as soon as possible.
I feel I am in a dilemma, but I must be responsible for all military actions of the United States.
” On the evening of August 4, defense secretary Cheney, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff Powell, commander of the US Central Military Region Norman schwa C í Kopf and other senior military generals flew to Camp David at the same time to be summoned by President Bush.
They stepped out of the plane and sat down at the president’s 25 foot conference table without etiquette or greetings.
Central Intelligence Director Webster first reported the latest information: the number of Iraqi troops entering Kuwait has reached 100000, and some elite troops are gathering at the KOSHA border.
The Saudi National Guard, which could resist the possible invasion of Iraq, has only one battalion.
Then Powell, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, made a speech.
He put forward the 90-1002 operation plan for the U.S. military intervention in the Gulf crisis, which was later known as the “Desert Shield”.
According to this plan, the US military will send 250000 troops of land, sea and air force to the Gulf.
This is the largest military action plan of the United States after the Vietnam War.
For Powell, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, this is an ambitious military plan full of pleasure and imagination.
Powell said that general schwa C í Kopf, commander of the Central Military Region of the United States, will be sent as the commander-in-chief of the U.S. troops stationed in the Gulf region.
In the view of the United States, the Central Military Region is actually a strategic reserve force that can be sent to any region in the world at any time.
As the commander-in-chief of the three armed forces in wartime, Bush could not help weighing the effectiveness of this planweight.
He glanced at the military generals around him and determined that they were already in mind.
Because in the early 1990s, the Soviet Union as a military force against the United States seemed to have ceased to exist.
Iraq chose this opportunity to use force against Kuwait.
In addition to its regional ambitions, of course, it also has a test of the future national defense strategy of the United States.
Now the United States can no longer consider the constraints of the Soviet Union’s military power, but it can’t allow it to dominate a small Iraq.
Powell seemed to have guessed Bush’s mind.
Before the president made a decision, he elaborated on the 90-1002 plan in detail.
He said: “This plan has both containment and operational plans.
It is more beneficial to the United States for the Iraqi army to move its troops to the front.
We have the ability to send air forces to that area as quickly as possible.
The navy is moving to the Gulf, some forces are in place, and some ships are going there.
Within a month, we hope to have a large army field force stationed Saudi Arabia – it’s our ideal military base.
” Powell also pointed out that “maintaining such a huge military force in the Gulf cannot be delayed for too long.
There will be great difficulties in terms of economic burden and logistical support.
” In his plan to march into the Gulf, Powell has taken into account the difficulties that the Gulf crisis will bring to the United States, which Bush secretly appreciates.
He liked the style of the general with black blood and preferred his strategic vision.
At this time, Bush turned his attention to Norman Schwarzenegger C í Kopf.
When discussing major decisions, Bush likes to listen to the opinions of all parties, even those contrary to him.
Norman introduced Iraq’s total military strength, weapons and equipment, strategic missiles and various defense forces.
Finally, he summarized: “Iraq’s strength obviously lies in its large-scale ground forces and chemical weapons.
They used chemical weapons in the Iran Iraq war, even against their own citizens Kurds.
” “How long will it take to complete the deployment of US forces in the Gulf?” Bush asked This seems to be the president’s biggest concern at the moment.
“It will take 17 weeks to transport all the containment forces stipulated in operation 90-1002 – a total of 200000 to 250000 people from the marine, air force and Marine Corps to that area.
” Norman answered skillfully.
“If we want to drive all the Iraqi troops out of Kuwait, that is, the United States will confront Iraq in an all-round way in the air, on the ground and at sea.
Are these troops sufficient?” The president continued.
Norman realized that it was enough to use this military force as a “containment” force.
It seems that the president is going to attack the prestige of Iraq’s so-called military power.
He thought for a moment and said: “250000 people are just a kind of containment force.
There is still a difference between combat power and offensive capability.
The ideal offensive and defensive ratio of the army is often 3:1, 4:1, or even 5:1.
If offensive operations are launched, the United States will be the offensive side.
The U.S. military needs to deal with 100000 troops in Iraq, which is far from the traditional proportion.
However, the U.S. military is well equipped and can also launch attacks.
On combat capability Generally speaking, to drive Saddam out of Kuwait, it needs 500000 troops.
It will take 8 to 12 months for these troops and logistical supplies to be delivered in place.
” Bush finally frowned.
8-12 months is too long for the US economy to endure such a long war.
Powell seems to have thought of joining the president, but he doesn’t want to do anything to please the president.
Therefore, he said that Saddam had 1 million troops after all, and the US expeditionary force must not be taken lightly.
Because the declaration of war on Iraq under the condition of insufficient preparation for ocean transportation of troops and supplies is obviously a blind move in military affairs.
Powell does not want the military to make things easy and make the president fantasize.
At the same time, the US military must not underestimate the possible use of large-scale chemical weapons in Iraq.
Therefore, Powell put forward a plan that the United States can send troops in two stages: the first stage is to mobilize troops and gather forces to curb the Iraqi army’s aggression against Saudi Arabia and protect the two most important holy places of oil and Islam there: Mecca Muhammad’s birthplace and Medina Muhammad’s Mausoleum.
In the second stage, after the troops and supplies are fully and complete, a thorough military attack on Iraq will be carried out.
President Bush was obviously persuaded by Powell and Norman, but he did not make it clear that he could immediately implement the 90-1002 battle plan.
That night, Bush returned from Camp David and got off the helicopter on the lawn in front of the White House.
Bush went to the microphone and commented on his diplomatic activities.
“At present, no one has publicly accepted the plan that Iraq will not withdraw all its troops from Kuwait, and no one has agreed to establish a puppet regime in Kuwait,” he said “Are you going to take military action?” Asked a reporter.
“It’s possible for you or me to discuss what military plan exists, but I can assure you that I won’t take the same action.
” When the reporter further asked whether to take military action, Bush said angrily, “wait and see, you will understand!” Then he waved his arm and said, “we can’t tolerate Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, and we can’t tolerate it.
” The president has now clearly and definitely set forth a new goal, not only to prevent Iraq’s attack on Saudi Arabia, but also to repel the aggression against Kuwait.
It seems that President Bush is in favor of the “Desert Shield” action plan.