Salamis naval battle

battle background

Salamis naval battle is not only a part of the Greek Polish war, but also the most important war in the final stage of the Greek Polish war.

after the Salamis ancient architectural site

captured the hot spring pass, the Persian army commander drove straight into Greece and attacked Athens. However, the city of Athens was empty and had nothing. Xerxes, king of Persia, was furious and ordered to set fire to the largest and richest city in Greece. “Spekds” and “spkds” prophesied the fate of Greece all the time! According to this prophecy, some people advocate withdrawing the residents to the mountains. However, timistocli, the outstanding naval commander of Athens, had his own understanding of the ancient prophecy. He said that the future of Greece lies at sea, and the wooden wall referred to by the sun god refers to a big ship. Therefore, he suggested that all women and children should take a boat to take refuge in trosin in Lagos and Salamis island in their own country, and all men should take a warship and concentrate on salami Bay. Athens and other city states accepted his proposal.

just when the Persian army made a direct attack on Athens, the Persian Navy also bypassed the island of EuPIA, passed Attica and came to the outer port of Athens, perius. They echoed on land and water, with great momentum to swallow mountains and rivers and flatten Greece.

in the face of the water and land attack of the Persian army, the Greek joint fleet concentrated in the South salami Bay of Athens wavered. With this strength, we have no confidence in whether we can defeat the Persian army. Some city-state people intend to sail away from the bay to defend their hometown. At this critical moment, timistockley stepped forward and suggested holding a military conference to discuss the battle strategy. At the meeting, timistockley made an impassioned speech and pointed out that the warships must be concentrated in the salami Gulf to fight a decisive battle with the Persian Navy in order to win. He said that although there are many Persian warships, their hulls are bulky, so the narrow port and shallow salami bay can fully limit their advantages, and Persian sailors are not familiar with the water regime and route of the Gulf; On the contrary, the Greeks, with small size and flexible mobility, are suitable for fighting in this narrow shallow bay. In addition, the sailors are familiar with the water situation and route and can give full play to their strength. Therefore, timistocli asserted: “our fleet can win more with less in the narrow sea. If we withdraw from salami Bay and fight on the open water, all Greece will die together.” Although timistockley made a good point and the military conference was held twice, the people still couldn’t listen.

timistockley was very anxious when he saw that the fighter plane was about to lose. Suddenly, he came up with a clever plan: why not ask the Persians to help? So he called one of his personal guards and handed him a secret letter. He asked him to tell the king of Persia that the Greek Navy wanted to escape from the Gulf because of its floating heart and dare not fight. Xerxes was very happy when he saw the secret letter. He immediately ordered a tight blockade of the Bay and did not allow a ship to pass.

in the early morning of September 23, 480 BC, the Persian fleet completed the siege of the Greek fleet. At the Western mouth of the Gulf, 200 Egyptian warships arrived at the designated position on time, blocking the retreat of the Greek fleet; At the eastern mouth of the Gulf, more than 800 Persian warships lined up in three rows to seal off the sea. Xerxes was determined to win and handed over the command to Admiral alamisia. He set up a tent on a hill near salami Bay and prepared to watch the war leisurely. The historian standing beside him with paper and pen in his hand is also preparing to truthfully record the brilliant victory of the Persian Navy.

while the Greeks were debating whether to fight or escape, a general who opposed timistocli suddenly burst in through the door and shouted, “stop the debate and prepare for the battle! The Persians have completely surrounded us.” Seeing that this was the case, they decided to obey timistockley’s orders and fight the Persian Navy in the salami Gulf.

battle after

the Greek combined fleet, which was forced to a desperate situation, quickly launched an formation under the command of timistocli: the Corinthian fleet headed to the west mouth of the Gulf to withstand the impact of the Egyptians; The main fleet is divided into left, middle and right teams, which are concentrated at the east entrance of the Gulf to compete with the main force of Persia.

the Greek Navy has only 358 warships, while the huge Persian navy has 1207 warships. However, before the start of the campaign, because they were not familiar with the weather and navigation conditions, the Persian Navy encountered hurricanes twice during the siege operation. 600 warships were blown to pieces by the wind, and half of their combat effectiveness was lost.

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after the battle of

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in Salamis, the performance advantages and disadvantages of warships on both sides were soon shown. The new three-tier warship in Athens is 40 to 45 meters long, and 170 oarsmen are fixed on the upper, middle and lower decks respectively. Small size, fast speed, strong mobility and shallow draft. The Persian old-fashioned sailing warship has large volume, slow speed, poor mobility and deep draft. He used his boat’s small and fast advantage, and tactfully commanded the Athens warship to make oblique impact on the Persian warship. He used a copper cross bar with a length of about 5 meters to cut off the long paddle of the enemy, then transferred the bow of the ship to the belly of the Persian warship with a copper covered warship. In this way, the enemy ships were sunk one by one. After a fierce battle, the Persian forward fleet could not resist and was forced to retreat. The Persian warships that were being reinforced from behind did not know the situation of the war. They rushed forward with their flutes and drums. As it was sailing downwind, the backup warship with full sails rushed into the Bay and collided head-on with the retreating forward ship. Timistockley saw this and took the opportunity to command the whole army to attack in all directions. The Persian fleet was in a dilemma. It was smashed into pieces and had no power to fight back. Seeing that the defeat had been decided, the commander in chief of the Navy ALAYSIA had to retreat in embarrassment.

Xerxes, king of Persia, witnessed the course of the naval battle from beginning to end on the mountain. He was helpless to see the sinking of the Persian warship and was capturedCaptured. After eight hours of fierce fighting, 200 warships of the Persian fleet were sunk and 50 captured.

facing the reality of failure, Xerxes had to start thinking about the future of the whole expeditionary army. First, the navy was defeated and the basic logistics supply of the army was lost; Second, the Greek navy may take advantage of the victory to attack the Hellespont Strait (i.e. Dardanelle Strait) and cut off his return. So he ordered the remaining warships to quickly withdraw to the Strait of helesbon. A few days later, Xerxes led the rest of his troops back to Asia Minor, except that he left some troops to continue fighting in China and Greece.

evaluation

Salamis naval battle is a decisive battle in the Greek Polish war after the marathon battle and wenquanguan battle. Since then, Greece began to turn from defense to attack, and finally drove the Persian army out of Greece. Timistocli’s heroic and resourceful performance before and after the naval battle made him famous on the Greek peninsula. In recognition of his achievements, the Greeks awarded him a beautiful chariot and put an olive wreath symbolizing the highest honor on him. The next year, the Greek coalition forces destroyed the army left by Xerxes in Greece in platia, and almost at the same time destroyed the remaining Persian Navy there on the Cape of little amikal. In 449 BC, the Greek army completely defeated Persia on the island of Cyprus, and the two sides signed a peace treaty, ending the Greek Polish war that lasted about half a century.

ancient Greek civilization is the most important and direct source of European civilization, and the salami naval battle won everything for the Greeks. Since then, Greece has entered the heyday of history, and the Athens Empire, Parthenon temple and the “golden age” have come from here!