as a samiyat writer described, there are dissidents between general obedience. This confrontation between unofficial spiritual authority and official secular authority constitutes the real drama of these totalitarian countries. This kind of drama can be performed in succession by changing different plays.

Lin Xianzhi, from Yangjiang, Guangdong. He is the author of poetry anthology camel and star, dream or sadness, prose essay anthology messenger of civilians, comment anthology Hu Feng Group Case: political and spiritual events in China in the 20th century, notes of the night watchman, self-made chart, the soul of the May 4th movement, the portrait of times and literature, the dim light at midnight, and optional anthology Nala: return after running away, Biographies include “the world”, “Lu Xun’s last ten years”, “wandering Xiao Hong”, etc. Editor in chief of a variety of books and periodicals.

underground publishing is the product of autocratic system. There is no doubt that

underground publishing products are produced in autocratic system; However, an authentic autocratic country may not have underground publications. For example, Nazi Germany burned books and persecuted Jewish writers. It was tyrannical to destroy human culture. However, because the ruling time was too short and the whole country had been in the turmoil of war, underground publications did not appear. It seems that underground publishing, like “on the ground”, needs a certain social stability.

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examine the history of publishing. At the end of the 19th century, the publishing monopoly and censorship system in Europe had basically ended. In the 1920s and 1930s, unexpectedly, another batch of underground publications emerged under the political pressure of the Soviet Union. These publications were first circulated in a small range of intellectuals in the form of manuscripts, typed manuscripts and mimeographs. Later, they were expanded from Moscow and grad to some other cities. They have the characteristics of extensive and organized activities, and therefore obtained a name called “samiyat”. Samiyat, which means “spontaneous publication” in Russian. In the mid-1950s, “unfreezing literature” appeared. In the 1960s, the situation was seriously retrogressive and began to suppress intellectuals. In 1965, two young Soviet writers, siniavsky and Yuri danier, were arrested for publishing novels in the West and sent to labor camps the following year, triggering protests at home and abroad. This year, there were more private publications, and the “samiyat” activity became particularly high. Later, many dissidents appeared in the protests of this event. It can be seen that samiyat is a cultural phenomenon on the surface. In fact, it is closely related to real politics from beginning to end.

may be the result of the Soviet dissident movement and the influence of samiyat, or the product of the inherent system. By the 1970s, a number of underground publications had appeared in Eastern European countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. In this way, the term samiyat entered these Soviet “satellite countries” and was adopted by the West, It has become a worldwide cultural term.

samiyat in the Soviet Union

in the Soviet Union, samiyat was limited to literary works at first, and poetry and novels were the most common. Later, it gradually became exposed from a somewhat ambiguous form, involving politics, religion and ideological fields, and “subversion” became more and more obvious. Take the two winners of literary awards as an example. Pasternak’s famous novel Doctor Zhivago has many translations in the West and is strictly prohibited from publication in China. Samiyat reprints it according to the original version smuggled into China from abroad; Solzhenitsyn’s first novella, Ivan Denisovich’s day, was publicly published because of Khrushchev’s special kindness. All other works were reprinted by Samia in a unique and planned way. Samiyat published many works of rebellious poets, including poems and correspondence of galanskov, who died in a labor camp at the age of 33; Mrs mandelstamm’s memoir “a glimmer of hope” first appeared on it, and then flowed abroad and gained great reputation.

samiyat is also committed to reporting domestic political events and exposing dark social realities, such as mental hospitals, reform through labor camps, the KGB, political trials, book and newspaper censorship, national autonomy, human rights and so on. In the 1960s and 1970s, Soviet dissidents appeared on the stage in the form of groups, and samiyat became their loyal and powerful partner. It regularly publishes the “chronicle of current affairs” and provides relevant reports, comments, documents and abstracts. These contents once became the only source of information for the international community to understand the domestic political struggle of the Soviet Union. In addition, publish the statements, statements and works of Sakharov, a famous scientist, founder of the Human Rights Commission and Nobel Peace Prize winner, and disclose the persecution of other dissidents; At the same time, the latest political views of a group of exiles such as Solzhenitsyn in the western media were released to the world, breaking the news blockade of the Soviet authorities. It is precisely because of the steady flow of materials from samiyat that the chronicle of human rights in the Soviet Union can be published regularly in the United States.

all these underground publications are called samiyat. Many works originally secretly sent abroad by samiyat were later transported back to China as “contraband” and reprinted and spread underground, forming a phenomenon close to “backflow”. As an ideological dictatorship country, the Soviet authorities certainly could not tolerate such underground publishing activities. In this regard, the KGB took a large-scale crackdown. Under the severe attack, samiyat’s activities gradually declined after 1975.

samiyat in Eastern Europe

at this time, underground publications in Eastern European countries appeared almost at the same time and became active rapidly. Writers from different countries influence and support each other, and often resonate on major political issues, as if there was a “samiyat community”. When the Czech Charter 77 just appeared, intellectuals in Eastern European countries immediately expressed their support; When the “77 charter faction” was arrested and interrogated by the government authorities, they immediately launched signature protests, many of which were the authors of samiyat.

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