Putin raised Russia’s status in the international community. These factors have played a great role in easing the dissatisfaction of the Russian people with corruption and improving their tolerance of corruption. In this regard, some Russian scholars pointed out that “Russia’s political stability is largely bought by money”.

Putin

“why it is difficult for Russia to curb corruption” the author of

originally published in the same boat is the deputy director of the Russian research center of the Chinese Academy of social sciences.

Russia is a country with serious corruption. In 2008, it ranked 147th (180 countries and regions in total) on the Transparency International integrity index. Corruption poses the greatest threat to Russia. In his 2008 state of the Union address, President Medvedev pointed out that corruption is the “No. 1 public enemy” of modern society.

Russia has formulated many anti-corruption plans and taken a series of anti-corruption measures.

Putin put forward two measures to punish corruption in 2002: one is to reform the administrative organs, the other is to strengthen the legal system, but the effect is very little. On December 12, 2007, the US Time magazine asked Putin, “the spread of corruption in Russia is an obstacle for you”. Putin replied: “we have not successfully solved this problem and failed to control the situation.”

after Medvedev came to power, he put forward more severe anti-corruption measures: on July 31, 2008, he signed the national plan against corruption; The anti corruption law of the Russian Federation was promulgated on December 25, 2008, which stipulates that civil servants, their spouses and children must submit income and property information; On May 18, 2009, five presidential decrees stipulated that in addition to state and local administrative officials, the staff of courts, procuratorates, police, military, security departments and electoral institutions were included in the list of applicants, and the scope of property declaration subjects was expanded to the leaders of state-owned companies; On April 13, 2010, the presidential decree of the national anti corruption strategy and the national anti corruption plan for 2010-2011 was signed, which shows that Russia has treated the anti-corruption issue from the strategic perspective of the country’s development future.

although the law does not require the president to declare personal and family income and property, Medvedev announced the personal and family property on the official website on April 6, 2009 in order to express his determination to fight corruption, and Prime Minister Putin then announced the property on April 7. Medvedev stressed that if officials refuse to provide income and property information, they will be dismissed from public office.

Russia has made high-profile and strong anti-corruption efforts and achieved some results. According to a public opinion survey, only 12% of people believed that the Russian government’s anti-corruption action was effective in 2007, compared with 21% in 2009. But on the whole, the anti-corruption action has achieved little effect. In 2009, the average price of bribes in Russia more than doubled to 23000 rubles (about US $7700), compared with 9000 rubles (about US $3000) in 2008. According to relevant Russian scholars, the amount involved in corruption is almost equal to the national fiscal revenue. So why is it difficult for Russia to curb corruption? Some main problems are analyzed below.

corruption has been institutionalized and legalized

on May 19, 2008, Medvedev pointed out at the Anti-Corruption Conference that “corruption in Russia has become an institutional problem, and we should deal with it with Institutional Countermeasures”. Institutional factors are reflected in many aspects: first, the administrative organ system has low efficiency but large power and many economic interventions, so that companies and citizens have to pay bribes to do one thing. Financial oligarchs who attempt to participate in politics combine with officials and engage in malpractices for personal gain, which has become an important hotbed of corruption. Second, there are many large national monopoly companies. Medvedev criticized Russia’s excessive re nationalization in recent years. In his 2009 state of the Union address, he pointed out that at present, the Russian government controls more than 40% of the economy. These enterprises are inefficient. In addition, they send officials as leaders of large enterprises, which is easy to form a monopoly organization integrating government and business, which is an important factor for corruption. According to a report released by the Russian business network in August 2010, bribery accounted for half of the total expenditure of Russian enterprises.

corruption is particularly prominent. According to the preliminary estimate of the Russian general Procuratorate in 2004, more than 80% of Russian officials have committed corruption. According to a survey data of the Russian public opinion foundation in September 2008, 29% of Russians have been forced to pay bribes, and 56% of entrepreneurs are often forced to pay bribes. Even among those who have never paid bribes, 44% are ready to pay bribes to public officials of the Russian government. According to the latest materials released by the Russian anti-corruption organization on August 17, 2010, the total amount of corruption by Russian officials has accounted for 50% of GDP. In addition, in Russia, 14 degrees are forged. In most educational institutions, learning institutions and colleges and universities, 80% of the working capital is not accounted for. Academic fraud has serious consequences. According to the statistics of the all Russia patient rights alliance, 50000 people in Russia die in medical accidents every year, many of them in the hands of doctors with fake diplomas. In order to obtain a fake diploma, you also have to fake grades. The starting price of fake grades in each exam is $5000. If it is a well-known university, the asking price may be as high as $40000. (Russian news, July 20, 2010) as for the corruption of the police, it has aroused public resentment. Take the traffic police as an example. The Russian newspapers and periodicals describe it this way: they often “ambush”. After catching the illegal driver, if it is not serious, the driver will “react quickly” and “private”. Corruption in the Russian judicial system is also well known (discussed below). Russian taxpayers pay three or four times as much per mile of highway as Europeans, mainly because of bribes and kickbacks. Even if the cost is so high, the quality of the project is still poor, which makes the repair necessary, so there are more opportunities for corruption. (post, May 26, 2010)

in Russia, many corrupt acts have been legalized or semi legalized, such as various tips, giving red envelopes to doctors and gifts to teachers, which are common and objective