Even after half a century of
, even if it has been artificially filtered, the more than 1000 colonial archives forced to be published by the British Foreign Office are enough to put London in an “embarrassing and shameful” situation.
in 1952, British soldiers patrolled the Malayan Jungle (data picture). When
“the sun never sets Empire” collapsed, a batch of confidential files recording sensitive matters were collected by the colonial authorities and sent back to London, sleeping in the depths of the reference room of the British Foreign Office for decades. It was not until last year that several Kenyan citizens who had been abused by the colonial authorities took the British government to court that the latter, under pressure from various parties, promised to make these files public in batches.
these yellowing documents and telegrams are piled up on 200 meter bookshelves from 37 different colonies. From the East African steppe to the Malaya jungle, from the Botswana marsh to the isolated island of India ocean, the scholars who first contacted the documents believed that the record of their misdeeds on the record was enough to put London in an awkward and shameful situation even after half a century.
Kenya: Obama’s grandfather was persecuted by the colonial authorities.
according to the British guardian, in the latest batch of diplomatic documents that appeared again in April this year, a secret newspaper from Kenya attracted particular attention. The name “Barack Obama” appeared on it, which was the father of the current US president. The file points out that the US State Department told British officials in 1959 that they were worried that Kenyan students studying in the United States would leave a reputation of “extreme thinking”; Just when Obama Sr. obtained the qualification to go to the United States, his classmates became increasingly “anti American and anti white”.
British officials in Nairobi despise Kenyan students who have won scholarships, saying that they are “even inferior” to their peers who stay in Africa. They complained about the African American student foundation, which supported Obama Sr. to study business management in Hawaii, indirectly contributing to the latter’s combination with white girl Ann Dunham.
in addition, this document confirms that Obama’s grandfather Hussein Onyango was also persecuted by the British colonial authorities. He served as a cook for a British official stationed in Kenya; He spent two years in prison in Kenya for the independence movement in 1949. His family said Onyango was flogged every morning and evening, resulting in permanent physical disability. Botswana,
: once wanted to test the rift between London and overseas territories in the unmanned area by testing the deadly poison
. One of the “counts” is to use the colony as a testing ground for weapons of mass destruction. A document from Botswana showed that the British aircraft production department, which was responsible for equipment testing in World War II, had planned to test highly lethal poisons in the country.
the experimental plan codenamed “forensic” was unprecedented and first surfaced in 1943. At that time, the British High Commissioner’s office in Pretoria received a secret order to set aside an unmanned “isolation zone” of about 26 square kilometers. In South Africa, the colonial authorities were eyeing the marcardi Di salt marshes in Botswana. In July that year, a colonial official replied to his boss in London with apprehension: “your instructions have been written down and the letter will be destroyed immediately.”
according to the description in the materials, the British side finally selected the area south of Lake Nata in the east of the country for the test, because there is no water source within 24 kilometers, which is not easy to cause pollution diffusion. But in November 1943, another official pointed out that the test had to be postponed “because the rainy season was approaching”. As for whether the “forensic” plan will eventually be implemented or put in the cold, the outside world is unknown.
more files from Africa show that during the most tense period of World War II, sub Saharan Africa, which was not affected by military disasters, only maintained a superficial calm: British officials were nervous about the presence and absence of Italy and Japanese in East Africa and reported their ship activities day after night; A group of German scientists who went to Kenya to catch butterflies were also labeled “Nazi spies”.
Malaya: encircle and suppress the guerrillas
when people turn their eyes to Southeast Asia, more bloody figures are exposed in broad daylight. In Malaya in the 1950s, the theme of “eliminating guerrillas” was repeated again and again. These teams with the Communist Party as the backbone carried out a protracted jungle war to drive away the colonists, while the British intelligence tried to force them to submit by cutting off the supply of materials.
at that time, the rulers of Kuala Lumpur regarded all anti colonial forces as “terrorists”. “41 terrorists were killed in the last month of 1956. A total of 287 people were killed, 52 arrested and 134 surrendered,” Madoc, the intelligence director of the Federation of Malaya, wrote in his monthly report He continued, “despite the difficulties in creating underground organizations deep in the jungle, the Malayan Communist Party continues to engage in subversive activities in towns and villages. Therefore, it is necessary to be vigilant against the actions of opponents and adopt [anti subversive] strategies to prevent the current regime from becoming their target.”
in January of the following year, “the Anbang branch troops in Selangor were completely annihilated in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur” has become circumstantial evidence of the growing strength of the local guerrillas. The March 1957 report proudly pointed out: “according to last year’s standards, the number of terrorists eliminated is satisfactory.” The assessment in May judged that “the killing of Tan Fuliang by air raid can alleviate the plight of Beisen Meizhou for a period of time. The third independent platoon led by him has always been the main factor affecting the situation in the north of the state.” Other “anti subversive” means other than force include banning the sale of banned books from 29 publishing houses in Hong Kong and Singapore and condemning concerts held by the Malaysian Labour Party on the grounds that “there is an objection to the two songs”. Another material said that in order to prevent living things such as rice