Seizure of British spy

in Tibet — British troops invaded Tibet twice from 1888 to 1904.

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. Since the middle of the 13th century, snowy Tibet has been an integral part of Chinese territory, and Tibetans are one of the ethnic groups with a long history in China’s multi-ethnic family. However, with the overall crisis in the border areas of the late Qing Dynasty, the holy land of Tibet could not avoid facing the fate of being ravaged together with the difficult motherland. Between 1888 and 1903-1904, Britain launched two wars against Tibet in order to separate Tibet from China and turn it into a “buffer zone” to protect the northern border of British India, so as to seize more colonial interests. ***

Tibet is located in the southwest border of China. It is the main body of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau known as the “roof of the world”. Although it belongs to the alpine region of the plateau, it has a vast territory and rich resources. It borders Xinjiang and Qinghai in the north, Sichuan and Yunnan in the East, Kashmir in the West and India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and other countries in the south. It has a very important strategic position. Britain has placed central and southern China under its control and has been trying to invade Tibet. Since the 17th century, in order to open the door to Tibet, Britain has continuously sent spies to sneak into Tibet, collect intelligence, secretly draw maps and investigate customs. In the second half of the 19th century, Britain successively incorporated Nepal, Kashmir and Bhutan into its colonial sphere of influence, set up a military base in Darjeeling, built a road to Tibet, and prepared to invade China’s Tibet.

in 1876, after the British forced the Qing government to sign the Yantai treaty, they sent people to Tibet many times to collect intelligence and bribe Tibetan traitors on the basis that the treaty allowed the British to “travel” into Tibet. In order to prevent the British armed invasion, the local government of Tibet sent 200 troops to set up a garrison in Longtu mountain. However, Britain unreasonably asked for the withdrawal of the card within a time limit, and sent hundreds of troops to attack Longtu mountain on March 20, the 14th year of the Qing Dynasty (1888). The Tibetan military rose up to resist with crude weapons. On the 24th, the British army captured Longtu mountain, and then occupied Natang. The local government of Tibet mobilized tens of thousands of militia and Tibetan army to gather in East Asia to prepare for a counter offensive. However, the Qing government obstructed and did not allow the Tibetan army to attack. On September 24, more than 2000 British troops captured Juana and occupied zelila, Yadong and other places. The first anti British war between the army and the people of Tibet failed.

in 1890, the Qing government signed the Sino British conference Treaty on Tibet and India with Britain, recognizing that zhe Mengxiong, formerly a Chinese dependent country, was protected by Britain, and the top of the mountain along zelila was designated as the border between Tibet and Philosophy, which made China lose a large area of territory. However, Britain was not satisfied with this and continued to engage in conspiracy activities to separate Tibet from China. In order to relieve the worries of large-scale invasion of Tibet, Britain tried to win over Nepal and Bhutan. Nepal and the local government of Tibet signed a treaty as early as 1856, stipulating that Nepal has the obligation to provide assistance if Tibet is invaded by foreign enemies. Therefore, the British government believes that in order to invade Tibet, it must “cooperate with the Nepalese court”. The British governor general in India kosson invited the Nepalese prime minister to New Delhi for “talks” and forced him to agree to cooperate with Britain. In addition, in order to eliminate the possibility of joint resistance between the kingdom of Bhutan and Tibet, Britain also sent special personnel to Bhutan to force Bhutan to sever its normal relations with China.

in 1903, when Britain used tsarist Russia to invade Northeast China and intensified the contradiction between Japan and Russia, it finally launched a large-scale invasion of Tibet on the pretext that two spies were detained by the Tibetan local government.

in June 1903, British major Rong Hepeng led 200 soldiers to enter ganba (now Gangba) in Tibet in the name of negotiation. The local government of Tibet sent 700 troops to ganba for fortification. In mid December, under the command of commander McDonald, more than 2000 British troops crossed the zelila pass and occupied chunpi (now Southeast Asia) and parry (now Northeast Asia) military strongholds leading to Gyangze. 3000 Tibetan troops rushed to qumeixianjiao and Gulu (both located in Yadong Jiangzi channel) to fortify. In March 1904, more than 1300 of the main force of the British army was pushed forward to Jiangzi by the three way of pun La (today’s altiera). When they approached the Tibetan army positions near the point of “Mei Mei”, one side pretended to “negotiate” and secretly deployed troops to seize the mountain top, and suddenly attacked. The Tibetan army fought with the enemy by relying on the retaining wall. 700 officers and soldiers including laidingse, the front-line commander, died heroically. The British Army immediately occupied Gulu city.

Jiangzi Zongshan site

on April 5, 1904, British troops invaded Jiangzi from Gulu. The Tibetan army resolutely resisted and took the initiative to attack the well-equipped invaders without fear. On April 13, the Tibetan soldiers and civilians of the Zong (county) government, who stuck to the top of the mountain of Jiangzi Zong, were forced to retreat after repelling many attacks by the British army, and Jiangzi fell to the enemy. In order to reduce the pressure of transportation, the British army left 500 people to camp on the Bank of the Nianchu River, and most of them returned to chunpi. The local government of Tibet mobilized 10000 people of the people’s army to gather near Gyangze. On May 4, the soldiers and civilians in Shigatse learned that most of the British troops in Gyangze were invading Carola, and immediately put 1500 people directly into Gyangze to control the urban area and launch a siege on the British camp. On June 23, the British government sent more than 10000 reinforcements from India, carrying 12 guns and several machine guns, and arrived in Gyangze via chunpi. On June 26, British reinforcements and Tibetan soldiers and civilians fought village by village and house by house. On June 6, the British army was forced to retreat to Tibet, and the British army was forced to break through the siege of Jiangmin. On August 3, British troops entered Lhasa.

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invading troops carried out wanton looting after entering Lhasa, and the treasures and cultural relics of the Potala Palace were looted. The aggressor’s crimes further aroused the resistance of the Tibetan people. The lamas of various monasteries and the scattered Tibetan army continued to give a heavy blow to the aggressor army. At this time, the British army is facing heavy snow and mountain closure, and it is difficult to supply, so it is eager to seek negotiations. On September 6, under the threat of the British Invaders, the local government of Tibet was forced to sign the Lhasa treaty with Britain, which humiliated the right of national mourning, making Tibet actually a British colony. Later, due to the opposition of the Chinese people and the pressure of world public opinion, China and Britain signed a new contract in April 1906, and Britain recognized Tibet as an integral part of ChinaThe plot to turn Tibet into a colony failed.

two wars of aggression, the British expanded their influence in Tibet. The emergence of the pro British faction in the upper class of Tibetan monks and customs in history began from then on. In addition, after the war of aggression against Tibet, the British imperialists realized that they could not conquer the plateau by force, so they cultivated Pro British forces in the upper class of Tibetan monks and customs, incited and encouraged Tibet to confront the central government, and tried to use this method to separate Tibet from China and turn it into a sphere of influence or vassal of Britain, Become a “buffer zone” to protect the northeast border of British India. All this is exactly the means used by the imperialists in those days. The crime of aggression committed by the imperialists in those years, the plot of encouraging and encouraging “Tibetan independence” and its doomed failure are clear facts that are obvious to both China and foreign countries, and also bring a profound warning to the world today.