In 1931, the Republic of Spain was established, which was its second republic.
Spain’s left-wing elements, that is, Republicans, prefer public ownership and can tolerate regional autonomy.
The right wingers prefer private ownership and demand a “unified Spain”.
This year, the left-wing government promised to retire elderly military officers, help the poor and deprive the Catholic Church of part of its property.
The new government sent several senior officers home to provide for the elderly, including a senior officer named Franco.
Franco is a professional soldier who has commanded many campaigns to suppress the Moroccan rebellion, thus becoming a national hero of Spain.
In 1931, he was not an old general, so he never thought of going home to provide for the aged.
Leftists have reformed the country in two years, but without success, including the reform of allowing senior officials to go home to provide for the elderly.
So in 1933, the right came to power.
Franco actively supported the right wing and began to suppress strikes and rebellions everywhere, thus obtaining rich political capital.
The first Republic of Spain the first Republic of Spain (from February 11, 1873 to December 29, 1874) is the first Republic in Spanish history.
Its official name is the first Republic of Spain.
In 1936, left-wing Republicans and anti fascists returned again.
Right wingers, fascists and anti Marxists strengthened their support for the opposition party, which led Spain to anarchism.
That summer, a right-wing officer assassinated a left-wing officer.
The right-wing congressman will be kidnapped and killed immediately.
This is obviously contrary to the constitution.
The people on the right held a funeral procession.
As a result, the police shot at the funeral procession and killed two people on the spot.
Three days later, on July 18, 1936, General Franco stood up and made a “Declaration”.
He said he would take over the Spanish regime.
The Spanish Civil War began.
General Franco always advocated the speed of soldiers.
Shortly after the “Declaration”, he rushed from Morocco to southern Spain and began to advance to the capital Madrid.
Franco initially believed that this would be a short battle between Madrid and the military government.
He never thought that this battle would become a lasting war.
Franco was impulsive, so did the fascists abroad.
German provided tanks, artillery and 100 fighter planes, while Italian Mussolini sent tanks, artillery and an army of about 50000 people.
The Republican Government of Madrid, hearing that the other party’s strength is so strong, naturally also actively seeks external help.
They asked the Soviet Union and the third world for support.
The Soviet Union’s aid was to sell weapons to the Spanish government through trade with a third country, requiring all payments to be made in gold.
At the beginning of the war, more than half of Spain’s gold was secretly transported to the Soviet Union in October 1936.
On the one hand, it was used to buy weapons and on the other hand, it meant to be entrusted for custody during the war.
Because the Republican Government publicized the fight against fascism, people all over the world who were deeply afraid and hated fascism rushed to Madrid and asked to fight with the Republican government against Franco.
This is the famous “international column”.
In a short time, the column has gathered about 45000 members from international countries.
Among them, about 10000 are French.
In North America, some 1600 Canadians and thousands of American citizens responded to the campaign.
At the beginning of the war, the international column did give Franco a problem.
The battle on the HARAMA River south of Madrid showed Franco that the international column was not a mob.
Franco’s army suffered heavy losses in this battle.
However, with the progress of the war, the defects of the international column were exposed.
The command of this coalition army was extremely chaotic, because the language was not clear, and the soldiers could not understand the orders of some officers.
Soldiers’ weapons and equipment are also outdated.
In particular, the volunteers of the international column were annoyed that they had to fight a battle hardened army equipped with tanks and heavy weapons.
The 600 British volunteers suffered only the main impact of the initial attack, hundreds of people died and almost all the officers were lost.
Franco later mobilized Hitler’s “vulture squadron” to launch a fierce attack on grbaka on April 26, 1937.
Military experts say this is the first saturation bombing of a city target in the world.
The Germans attacked on market day.
At that time, shoppers were bustling in the central square.
The Germans first used strong bombs, then incendiary bombs, and then machine guns.
A war reporter said: “in this city, soldiers are collecting charred bodies.
They sob like children.
There are flames, smoke and rubble everywhere.
The smell of charred bodies is disgusting.
Houses collapse and become hell.
” The international column lost the initiative on the battlefield and the rear support was completely cut off.
From the beginning, many western countries refused to help the legitimate Spanish government and banned the sale of weapons to Republicans.
Unable to buy advanced weapons, the Republicans had no chance of winning.
In October 1937, Franco had occupied the northern industrial zone and turned his attention back to Madrid.
In July of the following year, when a Republican attack failed, most international volunteers realized that it was a losing war.
In December 1938, Franco won.
He declared that the Republicans were “criminals” and that there was no “possibility of pardon and reconciliation” for them.
In March 1939, the Republican faction of nearly 300000 people had a serious internal struggle.
The Republican faction fought fiercely for four days, and the winning party shot and killed the opponent’s officer.
The Republicans finally collapsed, which gave Franco an opportunity.
On March 28, his army entered and occupied Madrid, and the war ended.
In those three years, Madrid was the center of world attention, and batches of international volunteers came here.
But suddenly, everything disappeared.
Everyone left Spain, leaving devastation and countless bones.
In the civil war, 640000 Spaniards died.
The New York Times reporter Matthews, who has personally experienced the Spanish Civil War, has a book reviewing the civil war, called “half Spain is dead”.
The title of the book comes from the epitaph written by the famous critic Lara for Spain before the Second Republic: “half Spain is buried here, and she died in the hands of the other half Spain.
” [cool review].