Introduction to slave society: a society in which people exploit people after the collapse of primitive society. It is mainly characterized by the possession of slaves by slave owners and the practice of super economic slavery. In the slave society, slave owners dominate the economy and superstructure, and the mode of production of slave possession determines the basic development direction of the whole society. Slave societies first appeared in Egypt, West Asia, China and India, and then in Greece and Italy. At the end of the primitive society, due to the development of social productivity and division of labor and the improvement of labor productivity, workers can produce surplus products, which makes enslavement of others profitable. In this case, the first form of human exploitation in human history appeared, that is, slave possession. The earliest slave owners were clan nobles differentiated from the primitive society. The earliest slaves were foreigners captured in the clan war. With the disintegration of primitive society, the polarization between the rich and the poor within the clan tribe has intensified, and the slavery of the rich clan aristocrats to the poor clan members has also deepened day by day. Its main form is debt slavery. The poor clan members who are unable to pay their debts are often sold by the creditors to other clan tribes as slaves. In addition, punishing criminals, piracy, human trafficking, slave trade and domestic slaves are also important sources of slaves. With the increasingly fierce contradiction and struggle between slaves and slave owners, the slave state, as a tool for the slave owner class to suppress slaves and other exploited people, came into being. The countries that first appeared in Asia, Africa and Europe in human history are all slavery countries. Class structure and class struggle in slave society, residents were divided into free people and slaves; Within the free people, it can be divided into slave owners who own slaves and workers who do not own slaves; The slaves were divided into several groups; There are still many transitional classes between freemen and slaves. Within the free people, there was a struggle between the civilians who faced the danger of becoming slaves and the slave owners and nobles; There are obvious opposites between free people and slaves, between slave possession countries and enslaved foreigners or subjects. The struggle of slaves against slave owners and the struggle of enslaved clans and tribes against conquerors are often manifested in large-scale uprisings. But the way that slaves resist slave owners is more often to slow down, escape, destroy production tools or kill individual vicious slave owners. In the struggle against exploitation and slavery by slave owners, slaves sometimes acted jointly with civilians among free people. Disintegration with the improvement of labor tools, the accumulation of production skills and the development of division of labor, the production relationship of slave possession is increasingly in contradiction with the further development of social productivity. At the end of the society, a group of land owners were oppressed by the majority of the slave class, and gradually became the same as the slave class. Through long-term revolutionary changes in different forms, various slave ownership countries have gradually embarked on the road of feudalization. Large landowners have evolved into feudal owners, and slaves and free people have transformed into serfs. The feudal production mode dominated by the exploitation of serfs gradually replaced the production mode dominated by slave ownership. Compared with the primitive society, the slave possession society is a great progress. It breaks the narrow relationship between clans and tribes in primitive society, which is conducive to the expansion of social production scale, the development of physical labor and mental labor division, and creates conditions for the further development of human material civilization and spiritual culture. Background more than 2000 years ago, Rome was a slavery society. When the Romans conquered other countries, they turned the local residents into slaves. Slaves are called “talking tools”. They are the owner’s property and goods. They have no rights. Even their children belong to the owner. Slaves are not protected by law, and slave owners can kill their slaves at will. Slave owners let slaves wear shackles to do all kinds of hard labor. They selected the strongest and bravest to be gladiators and put them in the Colosseum to force them to fight with wild animals or attack and kill each other for their own entertainment. This kind of fighting is extremely barbaric and cruel. The result of the fight is that all the gladiators die or leave the last one. Spartak and ten other slaves in this article are gladiators. The Spartak uprising took place in Rome in the late 1970s BC. In 73 BC, two hundred gladiators in kapua fled to Mount Vesuvius because they couldn’t stand the dark life and held an uprising under the leadership of Spartak. Many slaves joined Spartak from all directions. The forces of the uprising developed rapidly and formed an uprising army of 70000 people. In 71 BC, the rebels fought a decisive battle with the Roman army. The rebel army was poorly armed and tired. It could not stop the crazy attack of the Roman army, so it failed. Spartak fought bravely until his death. The slave uprising led by Spartak was the most glorious struggle of the oppressed class in ancient history. This uprising dealt a serious blow to the rule of slave owners. Spartak’s heroic deeds will always be praised by people. Marx, the revolutionary mentor, once praised Spartak as “the most magnificent young man in ancient history”. Spartak was praised as “one of the most outstanding heroes in the largest slave uprising”. On the further development of productivity in slave society (1) reason: slave society replaced primitive society and created necessary conditions for the development of productivity. The main reasons are: ① a large number of labor force are preserved. Under the slavery system, prisoners of war are no longer killed, but become slaves and save a large number of labor force. Workers are the human factor in productivity. Save a large number of labor force, it is possible to create more wealth for the society, which is conducive to the development of the whole social economy. ② large scale production and labor cooperation. Slave owners possess a large number of means of production and slaves. If they concentrate in their own manors and workshops, it is possible to organize large-scale production, so as to improve production efficiency and complete huge projects. ③ the development of division of labor and cooperation. A large number of slaves carry out simple division of labor and cooperation in large-scale production labor, which makes the division of labor between different departments and within the same department more and more detailed, the labor skills and proficiency of workers continue to improve, and the labor productivity also increases rapidly. All these have promoted the further improvement of the level of social productivity。 ⑵ performance: ① the wide use of metal tools (signs) after entering the slave society, mankind has made great progress in all fields of social production, especially the metallurgical technology has been greatly improved, and metal tools have been widely used. Metal tools are widely used in production and are the main symbol of the development of productive forces in slave society. ② development of handicraft industry metal smelting is an important sector of handicraft industry. In slave society, metal tools are mainly used in handicraft industry. The handicraft industry in slave society was an important window to show the development of production at that time. It is mainly reflected in the complete industry, large scale, fine technology and so on. ③ the development of Commerce and the prosperity of cities with the development of handicraft industry, commodity exchange became more and more frequent. Finally, in the slave society, there were businessmen who specialized in commodity trading to make profits. Their emergence promoted the development of production. The development of Commerce has promoted the prosperity of the city. (3) conclusion (the main standard to measure the progress of social system): facts have proved that since the establishment of slavery basically adapted to the requirements of the development of productive forces at that time and greatly promoted the development of productive forces, the replacement of primitive society by slave society is a great progress in the development of human history. It can be seen that the main criterion for judging whether the transformation of one social system into another is historical progress or retrogression lies in whether the production relations of the new society adapt to the development of productive forces at that time. The slave society replaced the primitive society and greatly promoted the development of productive forces. Therefore, this is a great progress in the development of human society. The emergence of words in slave society: ⑴ process: the emergence of words has experienced a long process. P21. It is generally recognized that there is no fixed shape between the characters and pictographs. It is generally recognized that there is no fixed shape between the characters and pictographs. Due to the needs of managing the country, business, labor and developing science and culture, hieroglyphics developed rapidly in slave society. Most ancient civilizations in the world have created their own hieroglyphs. ⑵ significance: since the slave society, mankind has a written history. The emergence of characters enables the inheritance, accumulation and dissemination of human production experience and natural knowledge, and prepares the necessary conditions for the development of science and culture. The emergence of words is a sign that mankind has entered the era of civilization. Since the slave society, mankind has had a written history. Division of labor and opposition between mental labor and physical labor in slave society: ⑴ division of labor between mental labor and physical labor ① possibility of division of labor: with the improvement of social productivity and the emergence of class oppression, the majority of slave labor can provide more surplus products, which enables some people in society to get rid of physical labor and specialize in mental labor. Others can only engage in manual labor. They are mainly slaves. Therefore, there is a division of labor between manual labor and mental labor in slave society. ② inevitability of division of labor: in slave society, manual workers are deprived of the right to education. In slave society with low productivity level, it is necessary to experience this division of labor in order to enter the era of civilization. This division of labor is not only the objective requirement of the development of social productive forces, but also creates preconditions for the development of science and culture. ③ progressive division of labor: the division of mental labor and physical labor was an important aspect of social division of labor at that time. It not only meets the objective requirements of the development of social productive forces, but also creates preconditions for the development of science and culture. It can be said that in the slave society, without the division of mental and physical labor, there would be no great achievements in modern science and culture. Therefore, in the slave society, the division of labor between mental and physical labor is a historical progress. ⑵ the opposition between mental labor and manual labor. We should also see that in the slave society, the achievements of mental workers in science and culture can not be separated from the activities of manual workers. Without the hard work of manual workers to produce various means of living, mental workers cannot survive, let alone invent and create; Without the manual labor of slaves and craftsmen, only the design of mental workers will not create any civilized achievements; Without the production practice of slaves and other workers, mental workers will lose the rich creative source of science and culture. Therefore, in the final analysis, any achievement of mental workers is based on the work of the majority of manual workers. After the separation of mental work and manual work, engaging in mental work became the privilege of slave owners, and slaves were deprived of the right to receive scientific and cultural education. Slave owners separated from manual labor and regarded manual labor as a humble thing. They also used their scientific and cultural knowledge to strengthen their rule over slaves. In this way, the opposition between mental labor and physical labor is formed. In class society, this opposition reflects the class opposition between the exploiting class and the exploited class. The most barbaric exploitation and oppression system: analysis of key issues 1. About the barbaric exploitation of the slave class by the slave owner class, the slave society has brought mankind into the era of civilization and promoted the great development of social productive forces, which is a great progress in history. But at the same time, slavery is also the most barbaric system, which can be clearly illustrated by the characteristics of slavery production relations and the experience of the majority of slaves. (1) the different positions of the slave owner class and the slave class in the relations of production: the slave owner class owns all the means of production and the slave itself; Slaves are free and are the private property of slave owners. Status and mutual relations: there is a naked relationship of exploitation and exploitation between the slave owner class and the slave class. Slaves are deprived of all rights and engage in the most intense and onerous work under violence. Product distribution: the slave owner class owns and controls all the labor achievements of slaves and lives a luxurious parasitic life; Slaves could only obtain very little means of subsistence to sustain their lives. (2) characteristics of slavery production relations from the above contents, we can see that the characteristics of slavery production relations are: slave owners own the means of production and completely own slaves; Slave owners and slaves areThe relationship between naked exploitation and being exploited. Slaves have no personal freedom and work completely under the compulsion of slave owners; All the products created by slave labor were owned and controlled by the slave owner, who only gave the slave the minimum means of living. 2. About the cruel oppression of the slave owner class on the slave class (1) political rule: ① national institution of slavery. In order to maintain the slave system, slave owners continue to strengthen the military, prisons, courts and other state institutions to rule slaves and suppress the resistance of slaves. ② slavery is the most inhumane oppression system, which is prominently manifested in the use of slaves as human sacrifice or human sacrifice. ③ slave owners often take pleasure in destroying the lives of slaves. (2) ideological rule: in order to maintain their rule, slave owners also deceived and paralyzed slaves ideologically. They fabricated all kinds of fallacies and said that slavery existed forever, so as to make slaves content with the status quo, obey fate and refrain from resistance. In short, the majority of slaves were bound by tangible and intangible chains, suffered cruel exploitation and oppression, and lived the darkest and most miserable life. 3. On the hindrance of slavery production relations to the development of productive forces in the later stage of slave society (1) the inherent limitations of slavery production relations: deliberately not using advanced tools in slave labor is the inherent limitations of slavery production relations. Reason: slave owners do not care about the improvement of production technology; The resistance of slaves to forced labor. This led slave owners to use only crude and indestructible means of production for slaves. Example: the use of metal tools from the perspective of the types of bronzes, most of them were production tools in the early stage, and more ritual weapons and weapons in the later stage. The types of tools focus on handicraft production. Stone tools are still mainly used in agricultural production, both in China and Europe. In the development of metal products, the production of production tools is ignored. The production of metal tools is not mainly for the development of production, but subject to the consumption needs and ruling needs of slave owners. It should be noted that the limitation of slavery production relations always exists in the slave society, but it has not become the dominant production relations in most of the early and middle stages of the slave society. Only under the conditions of the later stage of the slave society can slavery production relations become an obstacle to the development of productive forces. Therefore, The process in which the limitations of slavery production relations are increasingly exposed is the process in which slavery production relations change from promoting the development of productive forces to hindering the development of productive forces. ⑵ the development of productive forces and the relative backwardness of production relations in the later stage of slave society, and the limitations of slavery production relations were fully exposed after the emergence of new production tools. The emergence of new production tools is a sign of the development of productive forces to a new level, but more advanced production tools can not be widely used in slave labor, which proves that slavery production relations have become a shackle of production development. In this sense, the date of the emergence of new production tools is the time when slavery production relations are declining. Productive labor is the foundation of social existence and development. In the later stage of slave society, slaves hated labor and slave owners despised manual labor. Many fields are deserted, the handicraft industry is declining, business is stagnant, the population is decreasing, the economy is depressed, and there has been a serious decline. According to the principle of the interaction between productivity and production relations, production relations must meet the requirements of the development of productivity. When the productive forces develop to a certain extent, the old relations of production will no longer meet the requirements of the development of productive forces, but become an obstacle to the development of productive forces. The decline at the end of the slave society is an important manifestation that the production relations of slavery are gradually incompatible with the development of productive forces. Under such circumstances, new relations of production that meet the requirements of the development of productive forces are ready to emerge, the slave society has come to an end, and the feudal system is ready to take over Few countries in the world have experienced slave society. Is there a stage of development of slave society in China? Since the 1980s, this has been strongly questioned by scholars such as Huang Xian [, Zhang Guangzhi and Chao Fulin, the representatives of the non slavery school. There are more and more supporters and greater influence.