the experience gained by Spain in the land recovery movement made it capable of conquering and managing the new continent and Christianizing and Europeanizing it. For better or worse, the land recovery movement marked the first meeting between old Europe and the new continent, which changed the face of the world from the 15th to the 16th century.
on January 6, 1492, Granada fell, and the last Sudan surrendered to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. The movement to recover lost land came to an end.
this article is extracted from World History: Renaissance to the 16th century, published by new world press in September 2014.
the war (Granada war) was different in that the church replaced the royal family as the leading force of the war and the main source of funding for the war. Professional soldiers also participated in it. The number of soldiers participating in the war set a record, and artillery was widely used with unprecedented frequency. The above information shows that the war of Granada has shown the characteristics of early modern war. In addition, during the war of this period, in the name of fighting for the maintenance of royal authority, many early embryonic forms of modern political system emerged. For Spain, the significance of the Granada war is that the war can closely bind the Royal interests with the religious mission, which laid an important theoretical foundation for the subsequent conquest of the new world.
the war is also related to another important aspect. Throughout Europe in the 15th century, Eschatology (the idea of the end of the world) was extremely popular. At the end of the 15th century, there was a widespread saying throughout Europe, especially in Spain, that the prophet had predicted that Ferdinand was the key figure of the end of the world. In addition, the prophecy also said that Ferdinand would conquer Granada, cross the Mediterranean, defeat all Muslims, convert Jews to Christians, occupy Jerusalem and establish a new Christian empire. As Isabella’s predictions spread and spread, Isabella won. The prophecy focuses on the religious purpose of the king’s war and further explains Christopher Columbus’s earlier similar ideas. Ferdinand and Isabella also lost no time in repeatedly claiming that the war of Granada (and the subsequent conquest of America) was not just for their personal fame and wealth, but to expand the influence of Christianity and glorify the glory of God, which was a glorious cause. Therefore, many ideas put forward by the land recovery movement laid an ideological foundation for conquering the new world in the future.
the Christian conquest of Granada had an important impact on Spain. First, the war ended the movement to recover lost land. For the first time in 780 years, Christian rulers controlled the entire Iberian Peninsula. At first, Christian conquerors assured Granada Muslims that if they chose to stay in Granada, they would still enjoy property rights and freedom of religious belief; At the same time, Christian rulers also promised to help Muslims who did not want to stay in Granada leave Granada and immigrate to North Africa. Ferdinand, the first bishop of Granada from Talavera, was appointed to undertake the task of converting to Granada Muslims. He distinguished the Moorish customs from Islamic religious beliefs and planned to complete the work of converting to Muslims bit by bit through careful and patient efforts. However, due to the suppression of religious pluralism throughout Europe, including Spain, and the king’s dissatisfaction with the slow pace of Muslim conversion, the king sent bishop Cisneros of Toledo to Granada to accelerate the process of Muslim conversion. Sisneros organized the controversial baptism movement, which aroused a chain of Muslim resistance. In 1500, worried about the alliance between Muslims in North Africa and Granada Muslims, the royal family asked Granada Muslims to choose between participating in the baptism of Muslim conversion and moving out of Spain in more impolite words than in 1492. Since Christians had established the Spanish Inquisition in 1478 and Jews had been expelled from Spain in 1492, the decision of 1500 was not surprising to Muslims at that time. In the following 100 years, Christians continued to strengthen the status of Christianity as the only legitimate religion and cultural rule in the country, and issued various decrees to prohibit the use of Arab languages and characters in Granada. In 1609, even the Moriscos (converted Muslims) were expelled from the peninsula. The conquest of Granada in 1492 marked not only the end of the movement to recover the lost land, but also the end of the convinesia plan. The idea of establishing the unified status of their own religion is the goal of all European countries during the Protestant reform period and the inevitable result of the early modern religious war, which makes the Christians who conquered the Americas also require the local indigenous people to convert. At the same time, it also created the type of early modern single nation state based on Spain.
if in terms of the land recovery movement itself, 1492 is the year of its end, but in terms of its ideological development, 1492 is not the end. It is embodied in the following three aspects: first, the land recovery movement can be used as part of the plan to further enter North Africa. This statement is not new. Aragon and Portugal have been preparing for this for several years. However, after 1492, the plan was shelved due to European diplomatic action and the need to resist the Ottoman Turks. In the view of many European rulers, including the Pope, the victory of the war of Granada was a prerequisite for defeating the Turkish Empire in the future. Secondly, some practices of the land recovery movement were retained in Spain’s domestic policy in the future. The order system and the church tithe system continue to play an important role in Spain’s social economy. The taxes collected were used for the Mediterranean war, the war with Dutch Protestants and the colonization of the new world. In the field of religion, the Knights closely linked conquest and reconquest, Crusade and imperial rule. Many of the Spanish conquistadors who came to the new world described themselves as habito or members of a knight order.
Navigator Columbus met with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.
the new world was the third aspect of the continued influence of the land recovery movement. At that time, the Spanish realized that the creation of overseas Spanish imperial possessions should be the continuation of the land recovery movement, because the Spanish faced the same difficulties and problems in the new world as during the land recovery movement. Some theorists such as gomara’s Lopez The author claims that because the Spanish have a tradition of fighting pagans, they should start to solve the American Indian problem immediately after they solve the moor problem. After the conquest of Granada, the Spanish rulers found that many soldiers without war had become unwilling or unable to return to civilian life. If so, Spain’s overseas expansion will become logical. Because in this way, it can not only bring overseas benefits to the royal family, but also stabilize domestic life. It can be said that without the victory of Granada in 1492, it would be impossible for Spain to conquer the new world. People have been debating why no other European countries except Spain discovered the new continent at that time. As Derek Lomax summarized, the experience gained by Spain in the land recovery movement made it capable of conquering and managing the new continent and Christianizing and Europeanizing it. For better or worse, the land recovery movement marked the first meeting between old Europe and the new continent, which changed the face of the world from the 15th to the 16th century.