history

repressive policies against intellectuals come from his distrust of various experts and old intellectuals. Fundamentally speaking, it comes from his theory that “the more knowledge, the more reactionary”. Stalin divided the old intellectuals into “three parts”: one part was “the most influential and skilled”. After the October Revolution, they first “opposed the Soviet regime” and “slowed down”, so they were “crushed and dispersed by the organs of the Soviet regime”. Later, the “majority of them who missed the net” became “secret agents and spies”, that is to say, They have the most knowledge and skills and are also the most reactionary; The “other part” is “the old intellectuals with poor skills and a large number of people”. They “have been standing still for a long time”, which is very vacillating politically; The third part is “general intellectuals with worse knowledge and skills”, while they “have moved closer to the people and supported the Soviet regime”.

“the more knowledge, the more reactionary”, actually comes from the mahaiskism produced in the Russian workers’ movement at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Stalin deduced this theory from mahaiskism, pointing the spearhead of the struggle at the most famous and knowledgeable experts, professors and intellectuals. These people were the hardest hit, arrested and detained the most, so that when the war was coming and during World War II, they had to gather these experts and professors in prison and establish various “prison research institutes” and “prison design centers” to order them to engage in research and design work in prison. These respectable scientific and technological experts, as “Prisoners”, have made great contributions to military science. At that time, various “prison research institutes” became a way and way for Stalin to develop science and technology.

Stalin’s cultural policy reached the peak in terms of closure and centralization of power, leaving a heavy memory for the people of that era.

appeared in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Stalin launched a “great transformation” in the field of ideology and culture. This shift from a relatively loose cultural policy, starting with the anti “right” struggle from 1928 to 1929, carried out continuous cleaning and suppression of intellectuals in various fields and departments, and intimidated, awed and subdued the ideological and cultural circles with the force of thunder. In the process of “great transformation”, almost all previous cultural and artistic factions and groups, and more than 90% of Humanities and Social Sciences groups, were dissolved.

the Great Purge of cultural circles

in the 1930s, the ideology and culture of the Soviet Union became more closed and more centralized. The inspection system of books and newspapers has also changed from the supervision of the government administrative system to the system of direct supervision and inspection by the party. The resolution on permission to publish new magazines issued on January 18, 1929 stipulates that all major magazines can be published only with the approval of the Political Bureau and the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party; The publication of “all other magazines” should also “consult with the central propaganda and encouragement department and the Ministry of newspapers and periodicals” when the General Administration of publication performs the approval procedure.

in the 1930 resolution of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on the General Administration of publishing, Once again, the authority of the General Administration of publishing has been weakened: a system has been established in which party organs send “special commissioners” and political editors to the General Administration of publishing: “Confirm that the special commissioner system is the basic link for the implementation of prior inspection in the fields of books, newspapers, documents and radio broadcasting. Under the premise of ensuring the necessary number of special commissioners of the General Administration of publishing, it is required to implement all prior inspection of all publications within the publishing house.” Moreover, it was publicly stated in the document that party staff should be used to replace professional prosecutors: “in local newspapers, Special Commissioners can be appointed as part-time editors of newspapers”. Until the Gorbachev reform in the mid-1980s, this situation basically did not change.

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the book and newspaper inspection system implemented by the Soviet party is actually a multi-level, comprehensive and highly centralized book and newspaper inspection system. This inspection system should go through five filtering mechanisms at five levels: the first level is self inspection, that is, the author carries out self-examination before and during writing according to the ideological standards formed by previous “great criticism” and ideological rectification movements; The second level is the ideological and political review in the process of editing manuscripts; The third level is that the editorial department or publishing house sends it to the superior special inspection organ, that is, the General Administration of publishing, for pre inspection and post inspection; The fourth level is through the punitive inspection of state organs. The specific implementation organ is the political supervision department of the political security bureau system, and later the fifth Bureau of the KGB; The fifth level is the final ideological review under the leadership of the party. What are the standards for literature review of

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? The Communist Party of China (Bolshevik) has even banned those who “violate” proletarian ideology, “those with idealistic tendencies”, “those who praise the old way of life and have bourgeois moral elements”, and even “thoughtless” books and newspaper works. Due to the different understanding of inspectors, these standards not only have vague connotation, but also can have unlimited extension. In addition, if the standard of “hostility” is also turned to the party, it can be derived to crack down on dissenters and “opposition” in the party. This will inevitably turn the monitoring of books and newspapers into blocking the information of society and books and newspapers in the party, or even into blocking people’s tongue and words, curbing the normal democratic life in the party, and becoming an airtight cultural autocracy.

launched the “Bolshevism movement” in 1925, advocating “100% purity of ideology” and “100% Bolshevism”; By the 1930s, Stalin further put forward to guard against the “unhealthy emotions” of the “middle-class residents”, “overcome the remnants of capitalism in the economy and people’s consciousness”, fight against “non proletarian thought”, and so on. It can be imagined how narrow the scope of domestic and foreign publications that can be published and circulated has been.

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are implemented for literature information and News Books and newspapersCombination of pre inspection and post inspection. Before publication and printing, the manuscript should be sent to the inspection organ for examination and approval. After publication and distribution, the publication should also be checked and approved by the mail, customs and national security departments one by one. According to the above-mentioned ideological and political standards for book and newspaper information, no matter which link or department is blocked, it is impossible to pass. In the Soviet Union, the team of such inspection institutions was very large. Take the General Administration of publishing as an example, its staffing is increasing. By 1938, it had grown to 15 departments. In this year, there were 525 prosecutors from the two departments of pre inspection and post inspection. By 1940, there were nearly 5000 prosecutors in the Russian Republic alone.

after 1927, the Soviet Union compiled a catalogue of newspapers and periodicals in major capitalist countries and strictly controlled them. On average, about 15% ~ 20% of the publications are confiscated every year, with philosophy and religion accounting for the most, or even 40%, and politics and history accounting for an average of 23%.

not only investigated the current publications, but also carried out a large-scale inventory of the books in the library. On January 10, 1936, the then director general of the General Administration of publication issued the order on removing foreign documents from libraries and libraries and forbidding the dissemination of foreign documents in the Soviet Union. Within two weeks, the inspectors and representatives of the Ministry of internal affairs carefully checked the collections of major libraries. Thousands of foreign books, newspapers and periodicals found in the inventory are classified into special collections and are strictly prohibited from lending.

with the strengthening of control, it is more and more difficult to order foreign literature, especially humanities books. Almost all foreign language and Russian expatriate publications were automatically moved to the special library, and many of them were completely destroyed. A person in charge said in a report in the 1930s: “at present, we have destroyed 10% of foreign documents, worth 250000 US dollars.” In 1938 alone, 869 English magazines, 5451 newspapers, 640 French magazines, 33620 newspapers, 7620 German magazines, 3450 newspapers, more than 5000 magazines in other languages and nearly 5000 newspapers were destroyed.

Stalin’s suppression of scientific and technological experts and intellectuals began with the “shaht case” in 1928. Then Stalin declared at the plenary session of the Central Committee in April 1929 that “now there are” shahts “in all our industrial departments”. From then on, a campaign to catch “accomplices” has been launched in all industrial and agricultural departments. Later, the struggle against “enemies of the people” and “dissidents” was launched in the ideological criticism movement.

Stalin’s repressive policy against intellectuals comes from his distrust of all kinds of experts and old intellectuals. Fundamentally speaking, it comes from his theory that “the more knowledge, the more reactionary”. Stalin divided the old intellectuals into “three parts”: one part was “the most influential and skilled”. After the October Revolution, they first “opposed the Soviet regime” and “slowed down”, so they were “crushed and dispersed by the organs of the Soviet regime”. Later, the “majority of them who missed the net” became “secret agents and spies”, that is to say, They have the most knowledge and skills and are also the most reactionary; The “other part” is “the old intellectuals with poor skills and a large number of people”. They “have been standing still for a long time”, which is very vacillating politically; The third part is “general intellectuals with worse knowledge and skills”, while they “have moved closer to the people and supported the Soviet regime”.

“the more knowledge, the more reactionary”, actually comes from the mahaiskism produced in the Russian workers’ movement at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Stalin deduced this theory from mahaiskism, pointing the spearhead of the struggle at the most famous and knowledgeable experts, professors and intellectuals. These people were the hardest hit, arrested and detained the most, so that when the war was coming and during World War II, they had to gather these experts and professors in prison and establish various “prison research institutes” and “prison design centers” to order them to engage in research and design work in prison. These respectable scientific and technological experts, as “Prisoners”, have made great contributions to military science. At that time, various “prison research institutes” became a way and way for Stalin to develop science and technology.

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use Stalin’s above methods and ways to develop science and technology, use Stalin’s ideological model to cast culture, and the developed ideology, culture, science and technology are not creative at all. At best, they are only imitations of gourd paintings. The task of the academic community is only to explain Stalin’s remarks and the party’s resolutions and policies, without the right to put forward their own views. Imagine that if only one or several people in the country can think, and if others think independently, they are in danger of being criticized, imprisoned or even losing their heads. What else can we say about the creativity of science and culture.