status and status of women Indian women are hardworking, brave and wise.
They are not only an important force to promote social development in India, but also a major force in production.
However, for thousands of years, due to the rule of feudalism and imperialism and the bondage of religious ideas, Indian women have been subjected to heavy oppression, and their social and family status has been very low.
Ancient Hindu classics are like a yoke around their neck, which tightly binds them.
The famous manu code recorded feudal ethics similar to the “three obediences” and “four virtues” that bound women in China.
There is a saying that “a woman must follow her father in childhood, her husband in adulthood, and her husband in death.
A woman cannot enjoy independent status.
” In the Rama records of practice, there is a saying that “the husband is the God of the wife, and serving the husband is the highest vocation of women.
A woman without a husband is equal to a lifeless body and a waterless river.
” This is a denial of women’s independent status in society and family.
When India entered the feudal society in the middle ages, the oppression of women reached an extremely cruel level, and there was a tragic situation of his wife cremated with his dead husband.
For centuries, Indian women have lived under various laws and social customs.
They have children, do housework, serve their parents in law, take care of their husbands, and silently endure all kinds of misfortunes falling on them.
It was not until the introduction of Western thought into India in the 19th century that their situation began to change.
First, women began to have access to formal education.
During the period of British rule, due to the active efforts of progressive thinkers and social reformers in India, the Education Committee at that time proposed to improve the education of girls, and established the first girls’ school in Calcutta in 1820.
Since 1877, universities have allowed women to study.
In 1878, the first women’s University named after the famous social activist tuna was established in Calcutta.
At that time, some women with advanced ideas began to study abroad because they were not satisfied with their own study.
In 1883, a woman went abroad to study medicine, and in 1892, a woman went to Oxford University to study law.
During this period, many educational institutions were established one after another.
According to the report of the Indian Education Commission in 1882, 2697 women’s primary schools, 82 women’s secondary schools and 1 women’s University were established in India at that time, and the number of students has reached 12066.
After independence, the Indian government adopted the policy of giving priority to the development of women’s education, and the literacy rate of women has gradually increased.
According to the census, the literacy rate of women was 0.
7% in 1901 and 2.
9% in 1939.
After independence, it increased to 7.
9% in 1951 and 24.
88% in 1981.
Since 1986, the Indian government has implemented a new education policy, paying more attention to women’s education, stipulating that female students enjoy free education from primary school to high school (grade 12).
In addition, the proportion of female college students in the total number of college students also increased significantly after independence.
From 1963 to 1964, the proportion of female college students accounted for 19.
5% of the total number of college students, and from 1979 to 1980, it increased to 26%.
About 2-3% of working women have received higher education.
Secondly, women began to get rid of their shackles and gradually stepped onto the political stage.
In the late period of British rule, the upsurge of the workers’ movement and the awakening of the whole nation appeared in India, and the struggle for national independence spread all over India.
Under the political call of Mahatma, there was a climax of the women’s movement.
They broke through social resistance and took to the streets to participate in the anti British struggle.
In 1930, Indian women participated in the “salt non cooperation” movement for the first time.
During this campaign, 100000 people were arrested across the country, including 17000 women.
In 1942, they also participated in the British “get out of India” movement.
Many women were arrested, imprisoned and tortured.
In the anti British struggle, there have been many moving women.
During the anti British uprising in 1857, the name of Queen Zhang Xi, the heroine of the anti British war, was widely known not only in India, but also in China.
At the age of 12, the late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi led the “monkey army” with 6000 children to help adults fight against Britain.
Indian women have written a glorious page in their struggle for national independence.
In India under British rule, the development of capitalism and the influence of Western thought promoted the change of feudal structure.
Many social bad habits, such as veil, burial, child marriage and polygamy, began to be impacted by society.
As a result, the situation of women gradually began to change, personal property rights expanded, the feudal family began to collapse, women’s status in the family improved, and the idealistic concept of striving for women’s freedom and liberation began to appear.
As early as the 19th century, Mohan ram Roy (1772-1883), a famous social activist, spoke out to the society against the bad habit of women’s sacrifice.
He founded publications and published articles to fiercely attack this bad habit.
Mahatma Gandhi, social thinker rohia and others have also done a lot of work to oppose all kinds of social bad habits and strive for women’s liberation.
In this situation, the widow burial Prohibition Act was enacted in 1829, the widow remarriage act was recognized in 1856, the child marriage prohibition act was passed in 1939, and the Hindu Divorce Act was enacted in 1931.
After independence, in order to improve the status of women, the Indian government successively passed the “special marriage law” and the “Hindu marriage and divorce law” in 1955, passed the bill on women’s right to inherit property in 1956, and enacted the dowry prohibition law in 1961.
These legislations have laid a legal basis for women to get rid of the shackles of religious ideas and the prohibition of social bad habits.
However, these laws have not been seriously implemented.
So far, Indian women are still struggling hard for their various rights.
With the in-depth development of the anti British struggle and the awakening of the whole Indian nation, many Indian women have shown their political leadership.
In 1937, Indian provinces held provincial council elections, and the Congress Party won a majority in six provinces.
At that time, 80 women were elected as members of Parliament and provincial councillors, and some women also held the posts of deputy speaker and provincial minister.
At that time, it was also prominent in the world that so many women were elected as members of Parliament in a country.
After independence, the Indian government tried its best to take some opportunities for education and employment to make women occupy a certain position in the central part of the country in various fields such as politics, economy, science and culture.
The late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was not only an outstanding national leader, but also an outstanding international activist.
In countryThis custom is described as follows: when one or two people come to propose marriage when the parents have children, the parents should immediately promise to marry their daughter.
Otherwise, it will be difficult for the daughter to marry when she is 11 years old.
Therefore, the parents are considered to have committed religious taboos, which will affect their religious status.
Therefore, they often let their young girls marry regardless of the bad influence of brute marriage.
Devout Hindus regard religious teachings as truth.
Until now, people who advocate child marriage still believe that “the custom of child marriage is advocated by religious classics.
The laws formulated by the government can be changed, but the religious classics are eternal”.
The prohibition of child marriage law is contrary to the traditional habit of early marriage of Hindus and is considered anti religious, so it doesn’t work.
Another reason is economic considerations.
The custom of dowry prevails in India, which brings great economic pressure to parents with daughters.
If a middle-class family has several daughters, it may suffer the fate of bankruptcy.
However, “child marriage is cheap,” said a woman in Tamil Nadu.
“Child marriage is not dragged down by dowry.
It only costs 5000 rupees.
If you miss this opportunity, you have to spend 20000 rupees to get married later.”. As early as the 19th century, Indian sociologists and scholars published articles in newspapers condemning and opposing the practice of child marriage.
In 1891, the Indian government set the legal age of marriage for women as 12 years old.
In 1929, the “child marriage ban law” was passed.
In 1941, the revised marriage law raised the wax age for women to 14 years old and for men to 18 years old.
In 1973, the marriage law further I raised the marriage age for women to 18 years old and for men to 21 years old.
The Indian government enacted these laws to try to eliminate the bad habit of child marriage, but these laws did not widely ban child marriage.
According to the census, the average age of marriage between men and women was 17.
2 years old from 1911 to 1961, and the average age of marriage between men and women was 17.
2 years old from 1911 to 1961.
So far, in one-third of India’s counties, the average age of women getting married is 15.
Child marriage is more common in rural areas and relatively backward states.
56% of child marriages in India occur in Rajasthan, where the average age of marriage is 14.
5 years for women and 19 years for men.
If the statistics of remote rural areas are included, the average age of marriage is even lower.
In 1986, an Indian newspaper reported that 30% of the boys in Jaipur Municipal School, the capital of rajas, were married.
Child marriage has become an ordinary bathing practice in our country.
It has been nearly 60 years since the promulgation of the child marriage ban law in 1929.
Although the marriage age of Indians is gradually increasing, child marriage has not been eliminated.
At present, Indian progressives are still calling for changing the custom of early marriage.
They point out that early marriage and early childbirth not only make India’s population increase rapidly, hinder social progress, but also bring pain to child marriage people themselves.
New India times It was reported in 1986 that 60% of children in child marriage were dissatisfied with their marriage, and the direct victims were often women.
In order to find another lover, some husbands took concubines, some ran away from home, and even burned their wives.
65% of the burned wives were child marriages.
Indian public opinion circles pointed out that it is not enough to enact laws to eliminate child marriage.
More importantly, it is necessary to awaken the people, create social public opinion, improve women’s social and economic status, and eliminate the influence of religious views on marriage, so as to change this backward marriage custom.
(II) “man eating” dowry is still an ancient bad habit in India.
This bad habit has a long history.
According to records, in India, in the Vedic era (1700 BC to 600 BC, another is 1500 BC to 600 BC), the female family had the custom of sending dowry for the newly married daughter.
The purpose is to ensure that the daughter can live happily and happily when she comes to her mother-in-law’s house.
Normally, these dowries should be used by the woman at will, but in fact, they are gradually transferred to the husband and his family members, so that they have become a kind of contract for the exploitation and abuse of women.
In ancient times, dowry was also the capital for kings and rich people to show off their wealth.
There are many descriptions in ancient classics and ode poems.
For example, in Ramayana, one of the two famous epics, it describes the sensational dowry given by slave owner Janaka to his daughter Sida: 100000 cattle, countless wool blankets, elephants, horses, chariots, 100 virgins and 200 male and female slaves.
By the Mughal Dynasty, the custom of accompanying dowry had become popular.
At that time, in order to show off his wealth, pagwan DAS, king of Jaipur, scattered gold and precious stones on the streets of the seeing off team during the wedding celebration for his daughter.
The people who picked up these treasures were very tired.
The custom of dowry was originally popular among the high castes of Hindus, and later spread to the low castes.
In recent times, it has even become popular among some non Hindus, such as Sikhs, Jains and Christians in Kerala.
Now, dowry has actually become a disguised commercial transaction.
Even women’s education has become a factor in increasing dowry.
The more educated, the higher the social status of the marriage object is required, and the more dowry is paid.
Young men have different “social prices” due to differences in caste, education and occupation.
For example, in Orissa, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab, a young man who comes from a high caste and passes the civil service examination or diplomat examination can receive at least a dowry in kind or cash worth 100000 rupees from the woman.
The price of dowry received by enterprise managers is slightly lower, and that of engineers and doctors is lower.
When they get married, they are expected to get cars, refrigerators, televisions, record players, furnishings and furniture.
Ordinary clerks and attendants can also get dowries such as bicycles, semiconductor radios and watches.
In the city, the groom often asks for a house.
Now, dowry has become one of the important causes of women’s tragic fate.
Some women were ridiculed and tortured by their husband’s family and even burned to death after they passed the door because they had little dowry.
Others commit suicide because they can’t stand the torture and humiliation of their husband’s family.
Some have even been married for many years and are already mothers of several children.
Eventually, they were forced to die because their parents were unable to compensate for the dowry.
A few years ago, a 19-year-old newly married woman named kanchanmara was burned alive in the bathroom in the new residential area of the park in New Delhi.
It is said that her mother-in-law burned her to death with the approval of her son.
The reason is moneyMara didn’t bring the required dowry (10000 rupees in cash, plus TV and refrigerator) after passing the door.
While the poor woman was burned to death, her husband slept as if nothing had happened in the bedroom five feet away from her.
The deep influence of Hinduism makes many people think that it is natural for women to marry and send dowry.
Therefore, many people turn a blind eye to the phenomenon of asking for dowry and persecuting married women.
The relevant authorities are also unable to redress the grievances of women victims.
In recent years, the tragedy of persecution of newly married women has also intensified.
The number of murders due to insufficient dowry has increased year by year.
According to reports, there were 421 cases in the capital city of New Delhi from 1980 to 1981 and 568 cases in which brides were burned to death from 1981 to 1982.
From 1982 to 1983, the number of cases in which brides were burned increased to 610.
Such cases have occurred in various Indian states.
The Indian government announced on December 24, 1986 that in the past 22 months, 1666 women have been killed by their husbands and in laws due to insufficient dowry.
Today, dowry has become the biggest threat to Indian women like a flood.
As early as the second half of the 19th century, people engaged in the social reformist movement in India launched a campaign against the bad habit of dowry.
The most famous social activist in this movement is kosendas Mukherjee.
Mahatma Gandhi also published many articles against various social bad habits such as veil, child marriage and dowry, which bound women.
In 1928, he denounced in youth India magazine that asking for dowry was “a disgrace” and “disrespect for women”.
Since independence in 1947, the Indian government has banned dowry.
In 1961, the central government of India passed the dowry prohibition law.
State governments have also enacted their own dowry prohibition laws.
Some laws are still very strict.
For example, the dowry prohibition law enacted by the government of Orissa stipulates that violation of this law is punishable by imprisonment for one year and a fine of 10000 rupees.
The dowry law amended by Bihar government in 1976 stipulates that government employees who solicit dowry shall be dismissed from public office.
But bad habits are stubbornly followed, and these laws are just a piece of paper.
In recent years, women and women’s organizations from all walks of life in India have held countless protests against dowry and bride burning atrocities.
They held up placards, waved their arms and shouted: “abolish dowry”, “don’t treat women as victims of dowry”, “don’t trade marriage”, “women are not used to burn”, “burning the bride is a tyrant and a murderer”, and so on.
At present, the struggle against dowry has gradually developed into a movement for women’s rights.
In early October 1979, representatives of women’s organizations from 13 states of India gathered in New Delhi to make claims for their rights in education, employment, maternal and child health and welfare and participation in government work.
In February 1986, the Indian women’s Bar Association held a meeting with 200 women in New Delhi to have in-depth discussions on the prohibition of dowry law, marriage law, child marriage, women’s property rights and other issues.
The meeting pointed out that the most serious problem for women today is the tragedy caused by insufficient dowry.
The meeting called for amendments to the dowry law enacted in 1961.
N degree of public opinion has constantly called for arousing the people, carrying out a campaign against dowry in the whole society, and increasing women’s opportunities for education and employment, so as to make them economically independent.
Otherwise, the law alone cannot eradicate the bad habit of dowry.
(3) barbaric burial.
The tragic fate of Indian widows can be said to be the most tragic in the country.
Hindu religious rules and traditional customs believe that a man can remarry after losing his wife, and there is no limit to remarriage several times.
Once a wife loses her husband and becomes a widow, she loses her right to be a man.
They are regarded as a burden in the family and have to endure all kinds of cold treatment and blame from the whole family.
They have no right to happiness and any enjoyment in life.
They can’t wear fancy clothes or jewelry.
Even in some areas, widows are shaved to show that they are different from ordinary people.
Some are regarded as bad omens, and it is unfortunate and unlucky for anyone to meet them.
They can only stay at home and do heavy housework all their lives.
Many widows are unwilling to endure the abuse of their parents in law, brothers and sisters in law and the discrimination of their relatives and neighbors, while others move to both banks of the Ganges and live in lonely low thatched houses that are not adjacent to villages in the front and shops in the back.
They have no right to inherit the inheritance left by their husband, let alone remarry.
The most cruel and barbarous custom for widows is the burial of dead husbands.
After her husband died, when she burned her husband’s body, she jumped into the fire and burned herself alive.
In ancient times, it was called “martyrdom”.
People believed that widows always belonged to their husbands.
When their husbands died, they naturally should stagger away.
This is a loyal martyr.
This old feudal bad habit was abolished as early as the colonial era in 1929.
But so far, the world’s rare bad habits still occur from time to time in this ancient oriental country.
For example, in early September 1987, a widow named ROPA was buried in derala village, Rajasthan, India.
ROPA Kanwar is only 18 years old, smart, elegant and well-educated.
Her husband Kanwar died of enteritis not long ago.
After dressing up early in the morning on the day of her burial, ROPA put on the red dress she wore at her wedding eight months ago and came to the crematorium in the village square.
She sat quietly in the middle of the woodpile, picked up her dead husband’s head with both hands and gently put it on her lap.
After the ceremony host made a prayer, Kanwar’s brother lit the oiled firewood with a fire.
Suddenly, a blazing fire burst into flames, licking ROPA and his late husband like a wolf dog’s tongue.
Piled like a hill of firewood, it burned for twelve days.
On the morning of the thirteenth day, a morning sacrifice ceremony was held for the kanwars, and then “holy water” and milk from the Ganges were poured on the burning carbon fire.
When the fire was extinguished, the martyrdom ceremony came to an end.
ROPA’s burial for her husband was regarded as a feat by some people, so she was respected as a model for goddesses and women.
On the day of the funeral ceremony, 200000 people gathered here from all directions.
The place where she was buried became a place of pilgrimage for the surrounding villagers.
Eight to ten young people guard this “holy land” day and night with sharp swords.
Thousands of people wear white flowers to pay tribute to the dead test every day.
Local businessmen took the opportunity to make money and set up a pavilion to provide drinks and rest for “pilgrims”.
Many people also raise funds, quasiWan.
The magazine reported that a worker named Raja nayeg sold his eight year old daughter to a businessman for only 40 rupees.
She said, “I haven’t fed her for days, and my family is starving.
After selling her, her owner can provide her with food, and the family can live a few more days with the money from selling her.
” There are also examples of selling wives to pay debts in India, such as the KORTA people living in the Himalayas.
They belong to the Dalit class.
Because they are heavily in debt, young women are often sold by their husbands to brothels in the region to repay their debts in this way.
When these women are 35 to 40 years old, they are often redeemed by their husbands to do housework.
Researchers from Tata Academy of social sciences have investigated the origins of 350 prostitutes, of which 32.
29% were born in divine slaves and 67.
71% were non divine slaves.
Among the unmarried wives, 27.
5% were abandoned by non slaves, and 17.
93% were abandoned by unmarried husbands.
It is not difficult to see from this survey that poverty and hunger are the main reasons for Indian women to embark on the career of “selling spring”.