in the cold war period after the end of the Second World War, the Soviet Union and the United States launched a series of competitions and competitions, but also opened the prelude to the space race.
In the space race, the Soviet Union was all the way ahead.
On October 4, 1957, after the first man-made earth satellite of the Soviet Union “tourist 1” was launched into space, on September 12, 1959, the “dream 2” satellite was launched, and man-made objects appeared on the moon for the first time.
At 9:07 a.m. on April 21, 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Gagarin (1923-1968) flew “Dongfang 1” into space.
After flying in earth orbit for 100 minutes, it returned to the ground safely, successfully realizing the first circumspace flight in human history.
Stimulated by the space race, the president of the United States put forward the requirement of “sending a man to the moon within 10 years and returning him safely” in 1961.
Accordingly, the United States formulated a huge “Apollo moon landing program”.
This is an extremely complex system engineering, which requires the development of a powerful rocket to push the 45 ton effective carrier of Apollo out of the earth’s gravity.
Highly accurate spacecraft and control equipment.
All parts are highly reliable.
To provide astronauts with suitable living environment and working conditions for a long time.
Have accurate and reliable communication and tracking equipment.
We should fully understand the situation of the moon itself in order to choose a good landing site, etc.
In order to implement this plan, the United States mobilized 120 universities, 20000 enterprises and 4 million people at a cost of $24 billion.
Finally, the plan is coming true.
On July 20, 1969, hundreds of millions of viewers around the world sat in front of the TV, waiting for this great moment to come.
At 9:32 a.m. on July 16, the US Apollo spacecraft and its 36 story Saturn 5 rocket launched from the 39A integrated launch pad at Cape Kennedy.
On board were civil aviation captain Neil Armstrong and two air force officers, Colonel Edwin aldrin and Lieutenant Colonel Michael Collins.
The third stage of Saturn sent them into an orbit 110 miles high.
After checking all the working systems for two and a half hours, they launched the third stage rocket again, which enabled them to obtain a speed of 24245 miles per hour, break away from the earth’s atmosphere and move towards the moon 250000 miles away.
At 50000 miles from the earth, Collins manipulated the command module called Columbia to face the front of the lunar module called eagle.
After the successful docking, Saturn’s third stage was abandoned.
On the second day of the voyage, they started the engine of Columbia.
Armstrong and Aldrin climbed the pipeline between the two vehicles and entered the lunar module eagle.
That evening, the astronauts entered the lunar gravity field.
By this time, they were less than 45000 miles from the moon, and the speed was getting faster and faster.
On the afternoon of the third day, they reduced their speed to 3736 miles per hour and entered an orbit around the moon.
At 3 p.m. on the fourth day, the lunar module separated from Columbia.
They launched a spacecraft and flew towards the quiet sea of the moon.
They entered a low orbit 9.
8 miles from the moon’s surface and flew on a terrible lunar wilderness full of mountains and craters.
At this time, a computer in Houston began to flash on their meter and give them an alarm.
Now that they were so close to their destination, of course they couldn’t turn back, so they flew forward according to the instructions of a young guidance officer in Houston.
Armstrong held the manipulator, and Aldrin kept reading out the speed and altitude displayed on the instrument loudly.
They had some trouble at the last moment of decline.
When Armstrong found that they would fall in the vast inaccessible Western crater, the distance between the eagle module and the moon was less than 500 feet.
Armstrong steered the eagle module out of the crater, but the unscheduled extension meant that the fuel was running out.
Armstrong must make an immediate decision to either turn that way or risk a crash.
At that moment, two white lights appeared on the instrument panel in front of Armstrong, showing the words “contact with the moon”.
The eagle module has landed.
“Houston, this is the Jinghai base, and the eagle module has landed,” Armstrong said He said this sentence on Sunday, July 20, 1969.
It was 4:17:42 p.m. Eastern time.
After checking the instrument for three hours, the two astronauts asked Houston if they could get off the plane now without the scheduled four hour break.
Houston replied, “We support your action.
” So they put on a $300000 special spacesuit to reduce the pressure in the lunar module.
Armstrong turned his back outward and began to slowly descend from the nine step ladder.
On the second step, he pulled a rope and opened the lens of the TV camera, so that 500 million people could see him carefully descend to the desolate surface of the moon.
Armstrong’s nine and a half B boots touched the surface of the moon.
“It’s a small step for one person, but it’s a huge leap for mankind as a whole,” he said The time is 10:56:20 p.m. Armstrong shuffled back and forth on the ground.
He said, “the surface of the moon is thin and powdery.
It sticks to my sole and upper layer by layer like charcoal powder.
I step less than an inch deep, maybe only 18 inches, but I can see my footprints on the fine sand like ground.
” Armstrong picked up some of the fine powder and put it in the trouser pocket of his spacesuit.
19 minutes after Armstrong got off the cabin, aldrin came up to him and said, “beautiful, beautiful, magnificent and desolate scenery.
” Armstrong drove a stake into the soil and mounted the television camera on it.
The spider like eagle capsule is 60 feet away from the camera and is in the center of the TV image.
Behind it is the eternal night in outer space.
The gravity here is only 16 times that of the earth, so TV viewers saw the two people jumping around like antelopes and heard Aldrin say, “when I want to lose my balance, I find it very natural and easy to restore my balance.
” He raised an American flag three feet long and five feet wide.
It was tied to the flagpole with wire.
Aldrin walked towards itCourtesy.
They also kept a container containing telegrams sent by the leaders of 76 countries and a stainless steel veneer marked with the following words: “people from planet Earth first set foot on the moon here in July 1969.
We came here peacefully on behalf of all mankind.
” They collected about 50 pounds of rocks for scientific research and measured the temperature outside their spacesuits: 234 degrees Fahrenheit in the sun and minus 279 degrees in the shade.
They put out a long strip of metal foil to collect solar particles, set up seismometers to record lunar vibrations, and set up mirrors to send the results to telescopes on earth.
They returned to the eagle cabin in the middle of the night.
After a total of 21 hours and 37 minutes on the moon, he started the engine and left the moon.
At 1:56 p.m., Collins made “Columbia” face the earth and started the engine to free the command module from the gravity of the moon.
The return journey took 60 hours.
That night, the astronauts sent a picture of the earth itself 175000 miles away on television.
They sailed at 24602 miles per hour and re entered the earth’s atmosphere 57 miles above the Pacific Ocean.
At the most critical moment of this stage, the baffle of the spacecraft was scorched by the high temperature of 4000 degrees.
The clouds surrounded the command cabin, so the radio connection was interrupted for three minutes.
The radar on the waiting U.S. aircraft carrier hornet has detected that the descending Columbia spacecraft is 13.
8 miles away, landing rapidly under three 83 foot orange and white parachutes.
The command module splashed down on the sea, causing a six foot high wave and overturned.
The three men in the command cabin tried to inflate the side air bag and restore its balance.
The helicopter from the hornet hovered over them and guided the ship to its destination.
President Nixon waved binoculars under the bridge.
The band on the ship “hornet” played “Colombia, you are the Pearl of the sea”.
Throughout the United States and many foreign cities, church bells ring everywhere, air horns sound, and car drivers sound their horns.
After the successful landing on the moon, the Apollo program conducted 16 more flights, including 5 successful landings on the moon.
A total of 12 astronauts left their own footsteps on the moon.
They stayed on the moon for 300 hours and explored for 80 hours.
Various scientific instruments such as automatic lunar seismograph, laser reflectometer and solar wind tester have been installed, five nuclear power scientific experimental stations have been established, and 384.
6 kg of rock and soil have been transported back from the moon.
Apollo’s successful landing on the moon has greatly promoted the development of a large number of science and technology and management science, such as electronic science and technology, electronic computers, automatic control, remote control, shake sensing, materials, mechanics, engines, energy and so on.
The success of Apollo landing on the moon has epoch-making significance in the history of human civilization.
It brought human civilization into extraterrestrial space for the first time, showed the great achievements of human civilization and opened up the era of human space.