Since the 1980s, with the deepening of the political and economic system reform in the world, especially in socialist countries, the market economy has become a universal economic operation mode in the world, the unified capitalist world market has been formed, and the vigorous development of the scientific and technological revolution dominated by information technology has effectively promoted the process of economic globalization, The trend of regional economic collectivization has also accelerated.
At the same time, the knowledge economy supported by information, science and technology and knowledge has begun to take shape.
These new characteristics and trends will have a far-reaching impact on the future development of world economy and politics. I. globalization of the world economy economic globalization is the basic feature and trend of contemporary world economic development, and also constitutes the basic background of today’s world political and international social development.
The so-called economic globalization refers to the increasing scale and form of cross-border flows of goods, services, production factors and information, which has deepened the degree of economic interdependence among countries.
This is also the deepening interdependence and mutual penetration of the economies of countries driven by the continuous scientific and technological revolution and the internationalization of production, A historical process in which various barriers that hinder the free flow of factors of production in the world are constantly weakened.
Since the 1980s, the media, academia and government agencies have increasingly frequently used the concepts of global economy, global politics, globalization and global village.
Economic globalization has become a topic of increasing concern and discussion.
Former UN Secretary General Gary pointed out in his 1992 UN speech: “first, true globality has come.
” (I) performance of economic globalization 1 Globalization of national economy.
Globalization is based on the globalization of national economy.
As the national economies of all countries in the world are organically integrated and the integrity of the world economy is enhanced, more and more countries are integrated into this system, which is the result of national economic globalization.
Of course, for the already global world economy, globalization can also contain another meaning, that is, the world economy is not equal to the global economy, and the original world economic system is not a world economy that includes all the national economies of the world.
After economic globalization, the scope of the world economy is wider, and it will be more and more equal to the real global economy.
The globalization of the world economy includes both quantitative and qualitative changes.
That is, while the world economy includes more countries, the economies of various countries are not only generally connected and communicated with each other, but more closely integrated into an indivisible whole.2. The rapid development of multinational corporations.
Multinational corporation is the product of capital output after the capitalist mode of production developed to the monopoly stage.
Its emergence has greatly deepened the economic interdependence and connection between countries and regions.
Until the late 1970s, the number of multinational corporations was not too large, and concentrated in western developed countries.
After the 1980s, multinational corporations entered a stage of vigorous development.
The continuous emergence of transnational corporations in developing countries has also led to the two-way flow of capital, that is, capital flows back and forth between developed and developing countries, rather than one-way flow from developed countries to developing countries as in the past.
There is no doubt that the development of multinational companies and developed countries no longer promotes the development of global production and sales, which is no longer caused by the trend of globalization.3. Global expansion of capital and financial activities.
Since the 1980s, there have also been some characteristics different from those in the past.
First of all, the flow of international capital is no longer just the output of “relatively excess capital” from developed countries.
Developing countries are also investing more and more overseas.
The two-way capital flow has become a common phenomenon in international economic life, and almost all countries have become the main body of both attracting overseas funds and investing abroad.
The cross and frequent capital flows make the capital movement and financial activities more and more globalized.
Secondly, the form of international capital flow is no longer dominated by direct investment, and the proportion of indirect investment in the form of securities is increasing.
At present, the proportion of direct investment has dropped to 25%, and the capital flow caused by indirect investment has risen to 75%.
This has not only internationalized the production capital of various countries, but also internationalized and globalized the loan capital and capital in the circulation field, and greatly improved the degree of economic globalization.
The result of the globalization of loan capital and financial capital must be the internationalization and globalization of financial market.
Since the 1980s, the integration of global financial markets has greatly accelerated.
Not only the foreign exchange market, but also the securities market has rapidly moved towards globalization.
More and more companies have issued stocks and bonds in multiple markets.
Even in the securities markets of developing countries, the number of foreign companies listed on the stock market is also increasing.
All this will inevitably make all aspects of economic life, that is, not only production, but also the circulation, appreciation and consumption of monetary capital, develop in the direction of globalization, laying the foundation for a real global economy.
(2) the driving force of economic globalization.
The development and progress of society are always the result of historical synergy, as is the acceleration of the process of world economic globalization.
Among them, the third scientific and technological revolution, the expansion of the world market and the changes of national policies should be the main driving forces and factors for the development of economic globalization.1. The third scientific and technological revolution is the technological and material basis for the development of world economic globalization.
If the first two scientific and technological revolutions promoted the internationalization of the capitalist economy and promoted the formation of the world market, the extensive application of the achievements of the third scientific and technological revolution with microelectronics and remote communication technology as the core has become the technical and material basis of economic globalization.
The development of modern means of transportation and communication brought about by the third new technological revolution, especially the wide application of satellite communication, fax technology and microelectronics technology and the opening of the international Internet since the 1980s, has provided a new world for global commodity exchange and provided realistic basic conditions for the further refinement and cooperation of the global international division of labor.
Due to the convenient transportation and the almost unlimited quantity and low cost of information transmission, international production, investment and consumption have become more and more popular and common, which has promoted the rapid development of world economic globalization.2. It provides a broad space for the development of the globalized world economy.
From the development history of the world market system, before the 1970s, the truly global world market had not yet been establishedWay to avoid.
Therefore, all countries should have sufficient understanding of the huge economic risks and security problems brought about by globalization.
While actively seeking to participate in the world economy and seize development opportunities, they must actively adopt economic security policies to pursue advantages and avoid disadvantages.
In the process of economic globalization, the key is to have an opening strategy that can not only give full play to comparative advantages, but also prevent and control risks.
Over the past 20 years, under the guidance of theory, China has implemented the correct opening-up strategy, actively participated in international division of labor and cooperation, effectively promoted the upgrading of domestic industrial structure, created a large number of new employment opportunities, improved the operation efficiency of the national economy, enhanced the comprehensive national strength, and enabled China to play a greater role in international economic and political affairs.
Of course, with the improvement of openness, the impact of international market fluctuations on domestic economic operation is becoming greater and greater.
The Asian financial crisis in 1997 had a considerable negative impact on China’s economic development.
With China’s accession to the world trade organization, the operation of China’s economy will be more deeply integrated into the world economic system, followed by more incalculable risk factors and opportunities.
Therefore, we must strengthen the research and response to the economic risks brought by economic globalization in order to pursue advantages and avoid disadvantages and accelerate the take-off of China’s economy. 2. Regional collectivization of the world economy in the field of contemporary world economy, another general trend that goes hand in hand with economic globalization is regional collectivization of the world economy.
The so-called regional collectivization of the world economy means that some countries and regions in the same region combine these national economic systems through certain agreements or treaties to form trade groups or economic communities in order to strengthen cooperation within the region, complement each other’s advantages, and improve foreign economic competitiveness, so as to achieve the purpose of common development.
Since the mid-1980s, this phenomenon has developed rapidly, has a profound impact on the evolution of the world economic pattern, and has become a new trend in the development of international relations.
(I) form and development process of regional economic collectivization 1 According to the different degree of integration development within various regional groups, regional economic groups are usually divided into four forms: free trade area, customs union, common market and economic union.
These four forms of regional economic groups are ranked from low to high in the degree of internal cooperation.
Free trade area refers to the reduction of tariffs, the elimination of non trade barriers and the provision of trade preferences among economic entities participating in regional economic groups, so as to promote the free development of commodity exchange within regional groups.
However, for commodities from countries and regions outside the region, members of the free trade area have not formulated a unified tariff policy.
Customs union refers to the economic and trade entities participating in economic integration, which, in addition to providing trade preferences to each other, implement unified tariff rates and common tariff policies for goods outside the region.
Compared with the free trade area, it is more closed, but the degree of cooperation has deepened.
The common market means that the economic units participating in the common market provide economic and trade preferences to each other, coordinate economic and trade policies with each other, and realize the free circulation of goods, personnel, funds and services in the common market.
Compared with the free trade area and customs union, the scope of economic cooperation within the common market is broader, which has gone beyond the scope of pure circulation and trade.
Extensive cooperation has also been achieved in the field of production and related fields, and the degree of integration among member units is deeper.
The degree of integration of the economic alliance is further than that of the common market.
It has established an authoritative community organization within the alliance.
The internal members transfer some economic powers to the community organization, which enjoys them uniformly, and has the power to formulate unified economic policies to a certain extent.2. The development process of regional economic collectivization the development of regional economic collectivization began in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
In January 1949, the economic mutual assistance committee established by the Soviet Union and socialist countries in Eastern Europe is the first regional economic grouping organization in the world after the war.
In February 1950, the process of Western European Union was initiated by French Foreign Minister Schumann.
The 1960s and 1970s were a period of great development of regional economic groups.
Mainly, the majority of developing countries began to establish regional economic groups in order to develop their own economy, enhance international competitiveness and resist the economic exploitation of western developed countries.
According to statistics, from the 1960s to 1980s, more than 20 regional economic groups and organizations were established all over the world, such as ASEAN and the Gulf Cooperation Council in Asia.
Permanent Consultative Committee of the Maghreb, East African community and West African community in Africa.
Latin American Free Trade Association, Central American community, Caribbean Community and Rio de Janeiro group in Latin America.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the changes in the world political pattern promoted the development of regional economic collectivization.
At the end of the cold war, the East West confrontation ceased to exist and a unified capitalist world market was formed, which made it possible for the establishment and development of APEC, the eastward expansion of the EU and the expansion of ASEAN.
After the end of the cold war between the East and the west, the economic contradictions between the western developed capitalist countries have increased to cope with the increasingly fierce world economic competition.
They have adopted the form of regional economic collectivization to develop their own economy and strive to occupy a dominant position in the world economic competition, thus promoting the development of regional economic collectivization.
In the 1990s, the formation of three economic regional groups in North America, Europe and the Asia Pacific has greatly affected the evolution of the world economic pattern.
Relevant statistics show that at present, there are 26 regional economic collectivization organizations in the world, including more than 150 member countries, covering Europe, North America, Latin America, Africa and Asia.
These regional economic groups have different levels and scales, and the contents of cooperation are different.
In addition to international trade, they also involve capital, technology, labor services, personnel flow and the coordination of fiscal and credit policies.
The trend of regional economic collectivization has had a significant impact on the development of the world economy.
It has promoted the free circulation of production factors across national borders, optimized the allocation of various production factors including capital, technology, resources and labor force, and rapidly expanded the market, giving full play to the effect of economies of scale and promoting regional economic growth.
It reduces or abolishes tariff and non-tariff barriers within the region, produces trade creation effect and trade conversion effect, and greatly promotes international trade within and outside the regionIndonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines and Brunei) will realize the free flow of goods, personnel, capital and labor services and establish a free trade zone.
In 1994, the six ASEAN countries decided to accelerate this process, shorten the time for the establishment of a free trade area from 15 years to 10 years, and achieve this goal ahead of schedule in 2003.
With the accession of Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia in recent years, ASEAN countries have finally achieved the goal of “ASEAN at the Tenth National Congress”.
In Northeast Asia, the Northeast Asian national economic zone plan, which is participated by China, Japan, South Korea, Russia and North Korea, has been launched.
China, Japan and South Korea have strengthened cooperation to jointly promote the development of the “Bohai Sea Economic Circle”, “Yellow Sea Economic Circle” and “sea of Japan economic circle”, as well as the development of the “golden four corners” economic cooperation zone between China, Laos, Vietnam and Myanmar.
Second, the knowledge economy is beginning to take shape.
The “knowledge economy” was put forward by the United Nations research institutions and the organization for economic cooperation and development in 1990 and 1996 respectively.
They believe that the so-called knowledge economy is an economy based on the production, distribution and use of knowledge and information.
It is a concept corresponding to agricultural economy and industrial economy.
It refers to an economic form just emerging when human society enters the computer information age.
This concept comes from the understanding of the role of knowledge and science and technology in economic growth, and summarizes the latest characteristics and development trend of the current world economy.
(I) connotation and characteristics of knowledge economy 1 The connotation of knowledge economy knowledge economy itself is a new thing, and there is no unified conclusion on its concept and definition.
As for its connotation, we think it should be understood mainly from the following aspects.
First of all, the resource base of knowledge economy is knowledge and intelligence.
The biggest difference between knowledge economy and agricultural economy and industrial economy is that its resources are mainly represented by knowledge and intellectual resources, which generally exist in the form of intangible assets, rather than funds, equipment, raw materials and other natural resources, but human knowledge and intellectual resources, and the role of natural resources retreats to the second place.
Through the development and utilization of intellectual resources, we can create wealth and make up for the shortage of natural resources.
Science and technology have become the decisive factor in economic development.
Secondly, contemporary high-tech industry is the pillar of knowledge economy.
The contemporary high-tech industry relies on high technology as the most important resource.
It is a typical knowledge intensive industry.
It itself is a knowledge industry.
According to the classification of the United Nations Organization, today’s high technology can be divided into eight categories: Information Science and technology, life science and technology, new energy and renewable energy science and technology, new material science and technology, space science and technology, marine science and technology, high and new technology beneficial to the environment and management (Soft Science) science and technology.
High tech industries based on eight categories of science and technology resources jointly constitute the pillar of knowledge economy.
The development of knowledge economy is actually the development of high and new technology.
The competition of comprehensive national strength in the world is essentially the competition of knowledge industry, and finally manifested as the competition of knowledge and talents.
Thirdly, scientific and technological progress and innovation are the driving force and source of the development of knowledge economy.
The consumption of knowledge economy refers to the use of knowledge, which mainly refers to high and new technology and new knowledge generated through information.
Although knowledge will not disappear due to use and consumption, it will be old and replaced by newer knowledge.
The essence of knowledge economy is to use knowledge and intelligence to develop natural resources, and the wealth created will greatly exceed the material wealth created by the development of scarce natural resources by traditional technology.
Therefore, scientific and technological progress and innovation are the fundamental driving force and soul of knowledge economy.2. Characteristics of knowledge economy as an emerging economic form or economic model, compared with traditional economy, knowledge economy has the following main characteristics: first, the informatization characteristics of knowledge economy.
Knowledge economy is the economic form of information society and the product of the full development of microelectronic technology and information technology.
In today’s world, information technology is widely infiltrated and used in the whole society.
The impact of information technology on politics, economy, society, culture, morality and so on is comprehensive and all-round.
The information industry has become the main economic sector of the national economy, and information and knowledge have become important resources and wealth.
The gap between countries, regions and enterprises is mainly reflected in the differences in the production, dissemination and use of information and knowledge.
Economic development is increasingly inseparable from the development and application of information technology.
Every link of social reproduction is accompanied by information flow, information acquisition, processing, transmission, storage and use, which leads to the informatization and digitization of the whole social economy.
Second, the network characteristics of knowledge economy.
With the rapid development of information technology, the face of the world economy has fundamentally changed.
“Network economy” has become an important form of knowledge economy.
Informatization has established a bridge between enterprises and the market.
Enterprises can quickly and accurately understand the market dynamics and customer needs.
The traditional large-scale marketing and promotion are being replaced by flexible and efficient information services.
The networked personal computer has become the main role of information formation, processing and transmission, which improves the level of information exchange and coordination and cooperation between people, and enables the network composed of many computers to complete the role of the best media in commercial activities.
Enterprises can easily exchange information with almost all major companies in the world through the Internet.
They can also introduce their company to all Internet users through the network to publicize the company’s products and services.
Third, the intelligent characteristics of knowledge economy.
Intelligence is the condensation of intelligence, which is manifested in the creativity and expansion ability of specific talents and technologies.
Its main form is specific knowledge and its development and application.
Knowledge economy is an economic form with the possession, allocation and use of intellectual resources as the most important factor.
In the development of industrial economy, the investment of a large number of tangible assets such as capital and equipment plays a decisive role, while in the knowledge economy, the investment of intangible assets such as intelligence, knowledge and information plays a decisive role.
Applying knowledge to provide intelligence and adding creativity has become the core issue of knowledge economy activities.
The redistribution of wealth and power depends on the possession of information, knowledge and intelligence.
Fourth, the sustainable development characteristics of knowledge economy.
The wealth created by traditional industry is based on the assumption that natural resources are inexhaustible and the environment is eternal.
Therefore, industrial economy has great influence on natural resourcesThe limitations of heavy dependence and consumption are destroying the earth we rely on in an accelerated way, endangering the long-term development of mankind.
Knowledge economy is an economy that promotes the coordinated and sustainable development between man and nature.
The guiding ideology of the development of knowledge economy is to make scientific, reasonable, comprehensive and efficient use of existing resources, and develop unused natural resources to replace the nearly exhausted scarce natural resources.
(2) the development of knowledge economy the high-tech revolution in the 1980s, including information technology, aerospace, biotechnology and new materials, is changing the basic form of the contemporary world economy, that is, the transition from traditional industrial economy to knowledge economy.
After the cold war, the role of military power declined, and the focus of international competition shifted to the field of economic science, which further accelerated the pace of economic knowledge.
Since the early 1980s, the average growth rate of U.S. investment in computer and communication has reached more than 20%.
In 1990, the investment of the United States in this field exceeded that in other industries for the first time, marking the development level of American knowledge economy.
The United States took the lead in entering the information society through the construction of “information highway”.
According to the analysis, developed countries will successively realize the transformation from industrial economy to information economy in the first half of the 21st century.
After that, some industrialized countries will follow.
In order to meet the arrival of knowledge economy, developed countries have formulated the development strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education.
The United States regards maintaining its scientific and technological advantages as the task and responsibility of American society, and emphasizes strengthening education.
In the draft budget for the fiscal year 1999 proposed by US President Clinton, national scientific research funds accounted for 45% of the total expenditure, including the development of the second generation Internet with us $5 billion, and the expenditure on education increased by 130%.
The EU published its agenda 2000 in July 1997, proposing to “give top priority to knowledge”.
The report towards a knowledge-based Europe published in the same year stressed the importance of strengthening science, technology and education.
The “basic plan for science and technology” adopted by Japan in 1996 has shifted from emphasizing “the country of technology” to “the country of scientific and technological innovation”, and began to pay attention to basic scientific research.
At the same time, other countries have also put forward their own development strategies, actively develop their own knowledge economy, and strive to occupy the commanding heights in one aspect.
For example, Singapore proposes to develop its own knowledge economy by improving human quality.
South Korea proposed to establish a “brain power”.
India has become a rising software industry power.
Malaysia is also building a multimedia super corridor.
Under this background, the ability of knowledge innovation has become the fundamental weapon for a country to maintain its economic competitiveness and comprehensive national strength.
Facing the powerful challenge of knowledge economy, we should base ourselves on our national conditions, concentrate our economic and scientific and technological advantages, implement the transcendence strategy in some important industries related to the national economy and people’s livelihood and national security, and maintain the long-term, high-speed and sustainable development of China’s economy through knowledge innovation.