The world economy is an organic whole in which the economies of all countries and regions in the world are interconnected and penetrated through the international flow of commodities and various factors of production on the basis of international division of labor and world market.
It is a global economic system beyond the nation-state.
The world economy is the product of the development of social productive forces to a certain historical stage, so it is also a dynamic historical category.
After the Second World War, driven by the new scientific and technological revolution, the world economy entered a period of rapid development, and the world economic pattern also experienced a development process from American hegemony to multi polarization.
Since the 1980s, with the disintegration of the bipolar pattern, the international economic competition has become more intense, the trend of world economic globalization and regional collectivization has continued to develop in depth, and the knowledge economy has also begun to take shape.
The world economic pattern refers to the structural state formed by the mutual relationship between the economic forces playing the main role in the world economic system, or the strength comparison relationship between them.
Countries or economic organizations that play a leading role in the world economic system and determine the world economic pattern must have strong economic strength, advanced scientific and technological level and strong international competitiveness and influence.
Only with these conditions can it have a great impact on other countries and the world economy, and affect the development of the world economy to a certain extent.
The world economy is the foundation of international politics, and its development and evolution has a significant impact on the international political pattern. I. The rapid development of the world economy after the war is unprecedented.
This development is global.
The economies of developed capitalist countries, socialist countries and developing countries have achieved great development, and its speed is particularly remarkable.
Moreover, the growth of the world economy after the war has lasted for a long time, which is unprecedented in the history of human economic development.
The second world war involved many countries in the war and caused unprecedented damage to the national economy.
At that time, it was estimated that the recovery of the world economy would be a long-term task.
However, unexpectedly, the economies of major countries in the world have basically recovered in about 4-5 years and entered a sustained development process.
From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, the world economy has experienced the “second golden age” in the history of capitalist economic development.
The economic prosperity of developed capitalist countries is unprecedented, far better than the “first golden age” from 1850 to 1914.
During this period, the average annual growth rate of GNP in developed capitalist countries reached 4.9%. From 1950 to 1973, the average annual growth rates of Japan and Federal Germany were 9.
4% and 6% respectively.
During the same period, the average annual economic growth of developing countries was 5.
4%, which was significantly higher than that of developed capitalist countries in the same period.
The economy of socialist countries grew at an average annual rate of 5.
8% from 1950 to 1980, the highest in its history.
Since the mid-1970s, the economies of various countries have encountered some difficulties in varying degrees.
The growth rate has slowed down significantly, and the world economy has entered a low-speed growth stage.
However, even in the period of low growth, the overall growth rate of the world economy is still faster than that in various pre war periods.
The two oil crises in 1973 and 1979 and the two most serious economic crises after the war in 1973-1975 and 1979-1982 made the developed capitalist countries end the stage of rapid economic growth and enter the state of “stagflation”.
From 1973 to 1983, the average annual growth rate of GNP in developed capitalist countries fell to 2.5%. After 1983, economic growth picked up slightly, higher than the average annual growth rate of 1.
9% from 1913 to 1950.
In developing countries, although affected by the economic depression of developed capitalist countries, they still maintained a high economic growth rate in the 1970s.
Throughout the 1970s, the average annual growth rate of GNP reached 5.1%. After the 1980s, due to the mistakes of economic policies of developing countries, natural disasters and the deterioration of the international economic environment, such as the intensification of trade protectionism in developed capitalist countries, the decline of raw material prices in the international market and the increase of international commercial loan interest rates in developed capitalist countries, the economies of developing countries in Latin America and Africa fell into relatively serious external debt In the food crisis and the resulting economic crisis, the development rate generally declined, and some countries even experienced zero growth and negative growth.
However, from the perspective of developing countries as a whole, the average annual economic growth in the 1980s exceeded 3%, higher than that of developed capitalist countries and higher than that of any historical period in the colonial era.
The economy of socialist countries has entered a period of low-speed growth since the middle and late 1960s due to the constraints of rigid system.
There are many reasons for the universal and rapid development of the world economy after the war, which are mainly contributed by the following factors: first, a lasting and generally peaceful international political environment.
Despite the rapid division of the post-war world into two camps headed by the two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union, unprecedented arms race and all-round competition, and continuous local wars and regional conflicts, due to the existence of nuclear deterrence and other reasons, the world war never broke out, and there was no direct conflict or war between major powers, The international political environment is basically stable.
The overall peace situation has provided a favorable international environment and a solid foundation for the smooth development of the world economy.
Second, the impetus of the third scientific and technological revolution.
After the war, the third scientific and technological revolution marked by the development and use of electronic computers, space technology, biotechnology, laser technology and new energy and new materials began in the United States in the 1940s and then rapidly expanded to other countries in the world.
It is a scientific and technological revolution with the fastest development, the largest scale, the widest scope and the deepest influence.
It has greatly promoted the development of the world economy after the war and profoundly changed the face of the world economy.
First, new science and technology have promoted the improvement of labor productivity.
According to statistics, more than 80% of the increase in industrial labor productivity in developed capitalist countries after the war was achieved by adopting advanced science and technology.
Secondly, new science and technology has promoted the continuous emergence of new products and industries.
After the war, a series of new industries, such as atomic energy industry, electronic computer industry, semiconductor industry, aerospace industry, laser industry and new material industry, emerged one after another under the promotion of the scientific and technological revolution, and increasingly replaced the old industries as the leading industries of the economies of all countries.
Scientific and technological revolution not onlyA large number of new products and industries have been created, and traditional industrial sectors have been transformed with new technology and equipment, so that old industries have regained vitality and continue to become the pillar of economic growth.
For example, in the automotive industry, after the introduction of automatic control system and robot, the products are constantly updated and the output increases sharply.
Third, the adjustment of production relations and the liberation of productive forces around the world.
With the rise of the national liberation movement after the war, more than 100 countries got rid of the rule of imperialism and colonialism, achieved political independence and embarked on the road of developing national economy.
Some other countries have established socialist systems and achieved rapid development in the initial stage.
After the war, the developed capitalist countries also constantly summed up experiences and lessons, adjusted economic policies, and improved the conditions for the development of productive forces.
They adjust the ownership structure internally, implement welfare policies and systems, and strengthen the state’s macro-control ability of the economy through fiscal, tax and monetary means.
The establishment of international economic coordination mechanisms or bilateral and multilateral economic policy cooperation has basically created a macroeconomic environment and international system conducive to the economic development of post-war developed capitalist countries.
Fourth, the expansion of the world market and the development of economic internationalization.
The rapid growth of post-war international trade, the rise of multinational corporations, the deepening of international division of labor, the rapid growth of transnational investment, the active international financial transactions, the strengthening of international coordination, and the establishment and increasing role of various international multilateral economic organizations, such as the world bank, the general agreement on tariffs and trade and the International Monetary Fund, have effectively promoted international economic integration, And promoted the prosperity and development of the world economy. II. The evolution of the world economic pattern after the war.
The imbalance of economic development in different countries and regions is an absolute law, which is determined by many factors, including the country’s cultural tradition, political and economic system, development strategies and policies, national quality, resource conditions and geographical location.
With the world economy generally developing at an unprecedented speed after the war, different countries and regions have made different achievements, especially the uneven economic development of some big countries, which has led to the transformation of the world economic pattern.
(1) the world economic structure dominated by the United States from the early postwar period to the late 1960s.
Since modern times, European countries have established a world economic system centered on Europe and the rest of the world as the periphery by means of colonial rule and overseas trade with advanced industry, technology and strong economic strength.
Although the central position of Europe was challenged due to the development of capitalist economy in the United States and Japan after the 19th century, its economic central position remained unchanged until the outbreak of World War II.
The Second World War not only interrupted the normal development of the world economy, but also caused great damage.
In particular, it dealt the greatest blow to the traditional European powers.
It impacted Europe’s world central position with unprecedented strength and made profound changes in the original world economic system.
At the end of the war, Germany, Italy and other defeated countries were almost in ruins, the national economic foundation was seriously damaged, the society was in turmoil, and their colonies, foreign markets and overseas investment were lost.
Although Britain and France are victorious countries, they are already covered with bruises and devastation.
Their degree of damage is no worse than that of the defeated countries, and their world economic and political status has declined sharply.
The Soviet Union made great contributions in the anti fascist war, but at the same time, it also paid a huge sacrifice and price.
Only the United States made a fortune in the war, and its homeland was basically not damaged by the war.
On the contrary, in the early stage of the war, the United States used the “lease act” to earn money from both sides of the war.
According to statistics, the industrial production capacity of the United States increased by 1.
2 times during the war, the volume of physical exports increased by 2 times, and the capital output increased by 34.1%. At the same time, a large number of funds and excellent scientists from Europe flowed into the United States in order to avoid the war, which provided financial and technological guarantee for the development of the American economy after the war.
Therefore, in the early post-war period, the economic strength of the United States occupied an absolute dominant position.
In 1948, in the capitalist world, the United States accounted for 56.
6% of its gross industrial product, 32.
5% of its export trade and 74.
6% of its gold reserves.
It became the largest capital exporter in the world, and New York became the only financial center in the world.
At the same time, the United States enjoys an economic scale and market unmatched by any other country, its scientific and technological level is far ahead of other countries, and its per capita GNP is much higher than that of other old capitalist countries.
The United States rising in the new world has always had the ambition to lead the world.
It makes full use of its absolute dominant position in the world economic system and begins to build the post-war world economic and political order according to its own ideas before the end of the war, so as to seize world hegemony.1. In the field of international finance, led the establishment of the International Monetary Fund and the world bank and established an international monetary system centered on the US dollar.
In July 1944, led by the United States, the “United Nations Monetary and financial conference” was held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, with the participation of 44 anti fascist countries.
The meeting adopted the plan proposed by the United States and adopted the final resolution of the United Nations Monetary and financial conference, as well as the two annexes to the agreement of the International Monetary Fund and the agreement of the international bank for reconstruction and development.
These three documents are collectively referred to as the Bretton Woods Agreement.
There are two main contents: first, the dollar is directly linked to gold.
Members of the International Monetary Fund must confirm that the US government’s $35 is equal to the legal price of an ounce of gold and assist the government in maintaining the official price level of gold.
The U.S. government undertakes the obligation of governments or central banks to exchange dollars for gold to the United States at the official price of gold.
Second, the currencies of IMF member countries are linked to the US dollar, that is, it is stipulated that the currencies of all countries shall establish a fixed price comparison relationship with the US dollar.
Since the US dollar has the status and value equivalent to gold and has become the standard for the valuation of currencies in various countries, it has become the “world currency” in circulation in various countries, thus establishing the central position of the US dollar in the financial field of the capitalist world after the war.
In order to maintain the normal operation of the monetary system, according to the agreement, a permanent international financial institution, the International Monetary Fund, was established in December 1945.
It maintains the international financial and foreign exchange trading order and supervises and intervenes in the domestic economic affairs of Member States by financing and providing loans to Member States.
February 1946, ChinaThe international bank for reconstruction and development (IBRD), the world bank, was established to meet the financial needs of some member states for economic development through the organization and issuance of long-term loans.
Because the United States enjoys superior rights in these two institutions, with 27% and 23.
81% of the voting rights respectively, in fact, the United States controls the decision-making and development of these two important international economic organizations.
Although the Bretton Woods Agreement damaged the interests of some old imperialist countries, it played a great role in promoting the stability of the world economy and the rapid growth of international trade after the war.2. In the field of international trade, we signed the general agreement on Tariffs and trade and actively promoted the liberalization of international trade.
In the early post-war period, the major capitalist countries maintained high tariff barriers, which not only hindered the development of international free trade, but also was unfavorable to the foreign economic expansion of the United States.
Because of the unprecedented strength of the US economy, the rapidly expanding industrial production capacity in the war urgently needs to seek the international market.
Therefore, the United States first proposed to establish an international trade organization, reduce tariffs and realize trade liberalization.
On October 29, 1947, 23 countries including the United States, Britain and France signed the general agreement on Tariffs and trade (hereinafter referred to as the agreement) in Geneva.
The agreement puts forward the principles of market economy, reciprocity and mutual benefit, non discrimination, diminishing trade barriers, fair trade and the unity and transparency of trade policies.
The participating countries have made efforts to reach mutually beneficial agreements, and advocated substantial reductions in tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of discriminatory treatment in international trade.
The agreement is the predecessor of today’s World Trade Organization (WTO).
Formally, it is only an international multilateral agreement on Tariffs and trade norms, not an international organization in a strict sense.
However, since its establishment, it has been playing the role of an international economic organization.
The agreement was originally drafted according to the will of the United States and became a tool for the United States to expand exports and economic expansion at that time.
However, it is undeniable that the spirit of free trade and the established world trade system it advocated provided a favorable international environment for the great development of international trade after the war.
Since 1947, the general agreement on Tariffs and trade and the Bretton Woods Agreement have jointly built a global multilateral economic system with foreign exchange liberalization, capital liberalization and trade liberalization as the main contents.3. Implement the economic aid plan and strengthen control over the world.
The foreign aid plan of the United States after the war mainly has two parts: one is the “Marshall Plan” to aid Western European countries, and the other is the “fourth point plan” to infiltrate the economic and political affairs of Asian, African and Latin American countries.
The first is the Marshall Plan.
In the early post-war period, the economy of Western Europe was full of holes and the political situation was also in jeopardy, while the global strategy of the United States needed a stable and strong Western Europe as an ally.
In this case, in June 1947, US Secretary of state Marshall put forward the “European recovery plan”, which was later called the “Marshall Plan”.
The main contents are as follows: the United States allocates funds to assist western European countries to revive the post-war economy, but the recipient countries must buy a certain amount of American goods, dismantle tariff barriers, cancel or relax foreign exchange restrictions, accept the supervision of the United States on the use of American aid, supply strategic materials produced by their own countries and colonies to the United States, and protect the right of private investment and development of the United States, At the same time, reduce trade with socialist countries and exclude progressive forces from the government.
By June 1952, the United States had allocated a total of US $13.
15 billion to Western Europe through the “Marshall Plan”, of which about 110 were loans and the rest were gifts.
It promoted the economic recovery of Western Europe, made American capital and commodities enter the Western European market, strengthened the political and economic control of Western European countries, and made them accept the leadership of the United States, so as to bring Western Europe into the strategic track of the United States against the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
The second is the “fourth point plan”.
In January 1949, in his inaugural speech, US President Truman proposed the “technical assistance plan for backward areas”, that is, the “fourth point plan” (the first three points are the problems of the United Nations, the Marshall Plan and NATO), which is a supplement to the “Marshall Plan”.
Its main purpose is to try to curb the breeding and spread of communism in these places and strengthen the economic expansion of the United States in the third world through the economic and political penetration into Asia, Africa and Latin America.4. Strengthen the economic and technological blockade against the socialist camp.
After World War II, a large number of Asian and African countries and Cuba in Latin America embarked on the path of socialist development.
In January 1949, at the initiative of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union and some socialist countries in Eastern Europe established an economic mutual assistance committee to fight the Marshall Plan.
Subsequently, Albania, East Germany and China joined one after another, forming a socialist economic system led by the Soviet Union.
Western countries led by the United States are very afraid of the development and growth of socialist countries.
The “containment” strategy of the United States, which lasted throughout the cold war period, is manifested in the strict economic and technological blockade against socialist countries in the economic field.
On March 26, 1948, US President Truman announced strict control on the export of goods to the Soviet Union.
In November 1949, under the proposal of the United States, the Paris Coordinating Committee (hereinafter referred to as Batumi) for economic blockade against socialist countries was established, which includes almost all western developed countries.
Batumi stipulated that three types of materials were prohibited from being sold to socialist countries, namely cutting-edge technology products, military weapons and equipment and rare resources, with a total of more than 2800 kinds, accounting for 50% of all the types of commodities circulating in the international market at that time.
In June 1950, shortly after the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States manipulated the United Nations to adopt a resolution condemning the people’s Republic of China as an “aggressor”, setting off a frenzy of economic blockade and sanctions against China.
In 1951, the U.S. Congress passed the Bartel act, also known as the Embargo Act, which stipulated that any country participating in Batumi would not receive U.S. assistance and other concessions if it sold embargoed goods to socialist countries, forcing other countries to act together with the United States.
Due to the embargo imposed by Batumi, the normal international economic and trade relations between socialist countries and developed capitalist countries were destroyed, and the connection between the two economic systems was almost completely interrupted during this period.
So far, the world economic pattern in the early post Cold War period showed that the United States was in sole charge of the capitalist world economic hegemony, and the unified world economic system was completely divided into two independent economic systems.
(II) multi polarization of world economic pattern after 1970sExhibition.
This is an important force driving the transformation of the world’s political and economic pattern.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the economic growth rate of developing countries was higher than the world average.
In the 1970s, a number of newly industrialized countries and regions emerged, including Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong and, known as the “four little dragons of Asia”.
In addition, the economies of Brazil, Argentina and Mexico in Latin America are also rising rapidly.
However, due to the poor foundation, weak foundation and unreasonable international economic order, the economic improvement of developing countries is not great on the whole.
(III) new changes in the world economic pattern since the late 1980s.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the drastic changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe led to major changes in the world political pattern, which also deeply affected the world economy and made major adjustments.1. The Soviet Union lost its status as a world economic power.
In the 1950s, the economic competition between the East and the West was roughly equal.
The western economic development had the advantage of quality, the Soviet economy had the advantage of quantitative growth, and the speed of Soviet economic development was very fast.
In the first 10 years after the war, the average annual growth rate of Soviet national income reached more than 11%.
From 1956 to 1960, the average annual growth rate of Soviet national income also reached 9.2%. However, after the 1960s, the western economy developed rapidly driven by the new scientific and technological revolution, but the economic growth rate of the Soviet Union slowed down.
In the 1970s, the western economy overtook the Soviet Union.
In the 1980s, the western economy grew at a low speed, while the Soviet economy showed a trend of stagnation.
In the late Brezhnev period, the annual economic growth rate of the Soviet Union was less than 2.
3%, and there was negative growth in some years.
In 1987, Japan replaced the Soviet Union as the world’s second largest economy.
After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited the political and economic heritage of the former Soviet Union.
Due to Russia’s implementation of “shock therapy” and its attempt to rapidly privatize and marketize its economic system, the result is the complete chaos of the national economy and the failure to restore normal economic order for a long time.
Russia’s economic status has rapidly slipped into a third rate country and completely lost its status as an economic power.
There are many reasons for the decline of the world economic status of the Soviet Union and the final disintegration of the country.
The main reasons are as follows: the first is the disadvantages of the over centralized planned economic system.
The highly centralized planned economic system is conducive to the concentration of limited resources for key construction.
It has enabled the Soviet Union and other socialist countries to tide over economic difficulties and quickly recover.
However, with the deepening of socialist construction and the transformation of the world theme from war and revolution to peace and development, the highly centralized planned economy has gradually exposed its disadvantages.
It can not effectively allocate resources reasonably and lacks economic efficiency, which hinders the further development of productive forces.
The second is the closed economic development model.
Due to the blockade of western countries and the wrong theoretical guidance of “two parallel world markets”, the Soviet Union actually engaged in construction behind closed doors, divorced from the general trend of integration and internationalization of world economic development.
The closed construction mode divorced from the world economic system has brought great damage to the Soviet economy.
The third is the neglect of the worldwide scientific and technological revolution.
The Soviet Union attached great importance to the development of science and technology and made amazing achievements in a short period of time.
However, on the one hand, the Soviet Union only paid attention to the development of military science and technology, did not pay much attention to the world trend of science and technology, especially ignored the development of computer and information technology.
On the other hand, it is also the most serious problem, that is, the Soviet Union did not timely translate the achievements of the scientific and technological revolution into productive forces and apply them to production, resulting in the backwardness of labor productivity.
Fourth, the Soviet Union’s policy of competing for hegemony with the United States brought down the Soviet economy.
In order to carry out an arms race with the United States, the Soviet Union spent a huge amount of money, which not only exacerbated the difficulties in the development of the national economy, but also caused the abnormal development of the Soviet economy, exacerbated the inherent contradictions of the Soviet national economy, and finally triggered an economic crisis, which weakened the Soviet Union’s ability to update and develop the economy and led to the stagnation and retrogression of the Soviet Union’s economic development, And eventually led to the general outbreak of various political, social and national contradictions, leading to the disintegration of the Soviet Union for 70 years.2. The rapid rise of East Asian economy in the 1960s and 1970s, Japan created a miracle of economic development, followed by the Asian “four little dragons”.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the economies of ASEAN countries and China also developed rapidly, and the status and weight of East Asia in the world economy increased rapidly, which is one of the important changes in the world economic pattern.
In terms of economic growth rate, from postwar to 1994, the average annual economic growth rate of 10 countries and regions in East Asia (China, Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan and Hong Kong) was more than 7%, far exceeding the average growth rate of the world economy in the same period.
The annual average growth rate of the world economy was 3.
1% in the 1980s and 2.
3% in the first four years of the 1990s.
Many countries experienced negative economic growth.
East Asia has a thriving economy, with a growth rate of more than 7%.
The rapid economic development has led to the increasing proportion of the gross national product of East Asian countries and regions in the world.
In 1960, the GNP of Asian countries accounted for only 4% of the world.
In 1995, Asia was equally divided with North America and Western Europe, and the GNP of the three countries accounted for 14% of the world respectively.
In terms of manufacturing strength, the quality and competitiveness of industrial manufactured products in East Asia are getting higher and stronger.
It has changed from the import area of industrial manufactured products before the war to one of the most important export areas in the world.
East Asia is the most important steel and shipbuilding industry base in the world.
In terms of sales, East Asia accounts for 7 of the world’s top 10 electrical appliance companies.
Top 10 auto companies, 4 in East Asia.
Among the six major computer companies, there are three in East Asia.
East Asia was the world’s largest mining company, with 14 unknown companies in 1950.
In terms of international trade, the total import and export volume of the 10 East Asian countries and regions has been growing in double digits since the war, with an average annual growth rate of more than 10%.
In 1960, the total import and export volume of the 10 East Asian countries and regions (excluding Vietnam and Brunei) was only about US $24.
By 1993, it had risen to more than US $180 billion.
By the early 1990s, Japan, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore had all entered the ranks of the world’s top 15 trading entities, with the focus of world trade to the WestThe Pacific is tilted.
The financial strength of East Asia is also rising rapidly.
In 1969, East Asia accounted for only 20 of the world’s 100 major banks, with total assets of US $102 billion, accounting for 17.
2% of the total assets of 100 major banks, 17.
7% less than that of the United States.
At the end of 1992, among the world’s 100 major banks, there were 31 in East Asia, with total assets of US $6639 billion, accounting for 43.
8% of the total assets of the 100 major banks, 39% more than that of the United States.
Two of the world’s four major financial markets are in East Asia, namely Tokyo and Hong Kong.
China’s Shanghai, Taipei and Singapore are also striving to become new world financial centers.
East Asia has the largest foreign exchange reserves in the world.
Japan, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore all have huge foreign exchange reserves.
According to the statistics of the International Monetary Fund, at the end of 1995, 10 countries and regions in East Asia had more than 40% of the world’s foreign exchange reserves, with a total amount of 592 billion US dollars.
In 1997, the Asian financial crisis broke the economic development of Southeast Asian countries and Korea, and also caused different economic impact on Japan, Hongkong, Taiwan, Singapore and Chinese mainland.
The economic growth slowed down in general, and the national wealth suffered huge losses.
However, after a certain period of adjustment, the economy of East Asia has regained the momentum of rapid growth, especially the sustained and rapid development of China’s economy, which has effectively driven the economic growth of East Asia.
East Asia, together with North America and Western Europe, has become one of the three major economic strategic regions in the world.
The seven most powerful economic entities in the world are countries in these three strategic economic regions, including China and Japan in East Asia, the United States and Canada in North America, and the other three countries are Western European countries.
The rise of East Asian economy has fundamentally reshaped the geographical plate of the world economy.3. Changes in the internal contradictions of the world economic system since the postwar, under the strong cold war atmosphere and political background, the world economy has formed two mutually isolated and antagonistic systems.
The East-West economic contradiction and the North-South contradiction have become the main contradiction in international economic relations.
Due to the needs of the cold war, the economic contradictions between western developed countries have been covered up.
With the end of the cold war, the contradictions within the world economic system have also changed.
The merger of the two major economic systems of the East and the West into a unified world market has exposed the inherent economic contradictions between western countries.
At the same time, the contradiction between the north and the South has intensified.
First, due to the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the drastic changes in Eastern Europe, these countries have implemented a capitalist parliamentary election system politically, and have rapidly shifted economically to a market economy based on the private property system.
The socialist economic system no longer exists, and the previously divided capitalist world economic system has been reunified.
Therefore, The economic contradiction between the East and the West no longer exists.
Second, the end of the cold war turned the competition between countries to the competition of comprehensive national strength with economy and science and technology as the core.
The covered internal contradictions between western countries, especially economic contradictions, quickly surfaced and rose to the main contradiction in international economic relations.
After the cold war, especially the Clinton administration paid special attention to economic development and listed economic development as the primary position of its three strategies (economy, security and democracy).
Therefore, the United States launched fierce economic competition with Japan and Europe.
The United States was particularly worried about Japan’s aggressive development momentum in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
It put pressure on Japan many times to open its domestic market for the development of the American economy.
Trade disputes between the two countries continued.
In order to gain an advantageous position in economic competition with Japan and Western Europe, the United States has also stepped up the organization of the North American free trade area centered on it.
In recent years, the international financial turmoil is a manifestation of the intensified competition between the United States, Japan and Europe.
Third, since the 1980s, the gap between the north and the South has widened and the contradiction between the north and the South has further intensified.
Since the early 1980s, the economic development rate of developing countries has generally declined, and the economic situation has fluctuated.
The deterioration of the terms of trade and the heavy debt burden are the main reasons for the economic difficulties of developing countries.
In the early 1980s, the prices of primary products in the international market continued to decline, while the prices of industrial manufactured products in developed countries continued to rise.
Due to the poor trade situation and the increase in debt service, the balance of payments deficit of developing countries has increased and they are burdened with a heavy debt burden.
In 1980, the debt of developing countries was more than 630 billion US dollars, reaching 1.
4 trillion US dollars at the end of 1992.
At the same time, agricultural development in developing countries is slow, food shortage is serious and food crisis is serious.
Therefore, the average economic growth rate of developing countries in the 1980s was only 3.
1%, far lower than the level of nearly 6% in the previous 15 years.
In 1991, the average growth rate further decreased to 2.4%. This has led to a decline in the proportion of the third world economy in the world economy and a further widening gap between the north and the south.
According to the statistics of the United Nations report, developed countries, which account for 15% of the world’s population, account for 70% of the world’s total income, while developing countries, which account for 77% of the world’s population, account for only 20% of the world’s total income.
Among them, the poor countries, which account for half of the world’s population, account for only 5.
6% of the world’s total income.
In 1989, the per capita GNP of developing countries was only 98% of that in 1980.
The income gap between the richest and poorest people in the world has increased from 30 times in the 1960s to 90 times in the 1990s.
The number of least developed countries in the world also increased from 24 in the early 1970s to 48 in 1992.
After the collapse of the bipolar pattern, the strategic position of developing countries has declined, and developed countries have paid more attention to assistance and investment to developing countries.
Instead, they have vigorously engaged in “human rights diplomacy” against developing countries politically and stepped up interference, control and subversion against developing countries, resulting in political instability and ethnic and tribal contradictions in some developing countries, It has seriously affected the economic construction of these countries.
Economically, trade protectionism in western countries is becoming more and more serious, and the national economic development of developing countries is further restricted.
With the deepening of economic globalization and integration, the speculative capital of developed countries has taken advantage of the favorable opportunity of developing countries to actively introduce foreign capital and open their financial and capital markets to disrupt the financial order of developing countries.
The East Asian financial crisis in the second half of 1997 is a typical example.