From the early 1960s to the early 1970s, after a long-term contest and struggle, various political forces in the world underwent drastic differentiation and reorganization, resulting in significant changes in the international form.
The internal forces of the two camps in the East and the West changed and eventually broke down.
At the same time, with the upsurge of the national liberation movement, the third world, as an eye-catching force, stepped onto the world political stage.
All these are jointly promoting the evolution of the post-war world pattern. I. The Rise of third world forces and their international status the third world generally refers to the sum of developing countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and other regions that originally belonged to colonies and semi colonies and then gained independence.
It is an emerging world political force gradually formed and developed after the war.
“Third world” has the same basic meaning as “developing country” and “national independent state”, and is widely used in contemporary world politics and economy.
As the vast majority of third world countries are distributed in the southern hemisphere, they are also known as “southern countries”.
Because developed countries are mainly distributed in the northern hemisphere, they are called “northern countries”.
Therefore, “North South relations” refers to the relations between developing and developed countries.
The cooperation among developing countries is called “South South cooperation”.
(I) the rise of the third world began in the second half of the 1940s.
The struggle for national independence and liberation first rose on a large scale in Asia.
In the 1950s, the national liberation movement in Africa flourished and reached a climax in the 1960s.
By the end of 1960s, 104 Asian, African and Latin American countries had gained independence.
They quickly stepped onto the international political stage, jointly formed the third world and became an emerging force that can not be ignored in world politics.
In order to safeguard their own interests and play an independent role in the international arena, Third World countries gradually move towards international cooperation by establishing world or regional international organizations and holding international conferences.
In April 1955, 29 Asian and African countries held a meeting in Bandung, Indonesia.
This is the first international conference independently convened by Asian and African countries without the participation of Western imperialist countries.
The meeting smashed the imperialist sabotage scheme, sought common ground while reserving differences, and achieved a complete success.
The ten principles of peaceful coexistence adopted by the conference have become the basis for dealing with mutual relations between countries in the future.
The conference adheres to the principles of anti imperialism, anti colonialism and safeguarding national independence, and strengthens mutual ties and cooperation, which is the symbol of the rise of the third world.
The emergence of the non aligned movement has further strengthened the strength of the third world.
Its founders are Yugoslav President Tito, Indian Prime Minister Nehru and Egyptian President Nasser.
In September 1961, the first summit of non aligned countries with the participation of 25 countries was held in Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia.
This conference marks the birth of the non aligned movement with independence, non alignment and non bloc as its basic principles and purposes.
The non aligned movement has no headquarters, no permanent institutions and no written statutes.
Its main form is the convening of a conference of heads of state and government of non aligned countries in 43 years.
The non aligned movement has always regarded the opposition to imperialism, colonialism, hegemonism and expansionism as its principle and goal, opposed group politics and arms race, especially nuclear arms race, and called for the establishment of a new international political and economic order.
The non aligned movement has played a unique role in the international political field and strengthened the unity and cooperation of the third world countries themselves.
In April 1964, at the first United Nations Conference on Trade and Development held in Geneva, 77 developing countries and regions issued the “77 United Nations Declaration”, calling for the establishment of a fair and reasonable new international economic order.
Since then, these countries have been called the group of 77.
Its membership has been expanded to more than 120 countries, but its original name is still used.
The main activities of the group of 77 are to hold a ministerial meeting before each United Nations Conference on Trade and development and the conference of the industrial development organization to unify positions, study countermeasures and coordinate preparations for the discussion of relevant issues at the United Nations Conference.
The group of 77 has played an active role in the establishment of a new international economic order and has made great contributions to promoting South South cooperation and North South dialogue, safeguarding the economic interests of developing countries and easing and improving North South relations.
In addition, developing countries have also established some regional and professional international organizations.
Among them, the organization of African unity, the association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and the League of Arab States have a great influence.
They have become important political forces in various fields and regions and have a great influence in international politics.
The most famous is that the organization of petroleum exporting countries used its own resource advantages to launch oil diplomacy, which caused two world oil crises and seriously hit the arrogance of western developed countries.
(II) the international status and historical role of the third world forces the rise of the post-war national liberation movement and the rise of the third world are major events in the world’s modern history and are of great significance to the development of world politics.
It completely destroyed the colonial system of Western imperialism since modern times, fundamentally changed the face of world politics, promoted the progress of world history, effectively impacted the bipolar pattern of the United States and the Soviet Union dominating the world, and promoted the process of multi polarization of the world political pattern.1. The rise of the third world has promoted the development of world history.
The modern history of the world is the history of European powers striving for hegemony and colonizing the world.
The rise of the third world has completely broken the imperialist colonial system, ended hundreds of years of colonial rule by European powers, greatly promoted the process of world historical development, and had a significant and far-reaching impact on world politics and economy.
As an important international force, the third world has stepped onto the international stage, breaking the situation that Western powers monopolize international affairs and dominate the world for the first time in history, and bringing about profound changes in the whole world situation that are conducive to the people of all countries, world peace and human progress.2. The rise of the third world has effectively promoted the transformation of the world political pattern.
The Yalta system formed after the war laid the foundation of the bipolar pattern.
The rise of the third world and the struggle for unity have led to major changes in the international political structure and the balance of power, constantly impacting the bipolar pattern controlled by the United States and the Soviet Union.
Since the 1950s, in order to oppose the sharp confrontation between the two military blocs of the East and the west, ease the tense international situation and oppose the fierce competition between the two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union, the third world countries have carried out unremitting struggle.
The third world is concerned about containing the US Soviet aggressionThe Sino Japanese military treaty controlled the western capitalist world and established an imperialist camp headed by itself.
However, “the imbalance of economic and political development is the absolute law of capitalism”.
By the 1960s and 1970s, the balance of power within the western capitalist camp had changed significantly.
From 1948 to 1970, the average growth rate of industrial production in major Western capitalist countries was 4.
6% in the United States, 14.
5% in Japan, 7.
9% in Federal Germany and 5.
9% in France.
The proportion of American industrial production in the industrial production of the capitalist world decreased from 54.
6% in 1948 to 37.
8% in 1970, Japan increased from 1.
2% to 9.
5%, Federal Germany increased from 3.
9% to 10.
1%, and France increased from 4.
6% to 6.5%. It is obvious that the strength of the United States has declined relatively, while the strength of Japan and Western Europe has risen rapidly.
National strength is the most basic and important basis for a country to formulate its diplomatic strategy.
With the enhancement of the strength of Japan and Western European countries, they are no longer willing to be the vassal of the United States.
They are bound to get rid of the control of the United States, implement a more independent foreign policy and play a greater role in the international arena.
In 1958, he became the president of the Fifth Republic of France, strongly demanded the establishment of France’s independent great power status, resolutely implemented its independent foreign policy, opposed the United States’ hegemony within the Western alliance, and demanded to share the leadership of the Western alliance with the United States.
Charles de Gaulle’s wish was resisted by the United States, so the contradiction between the United States and France intensified.
Since 1955, France has taken a series of bold measures to gradually withdraw from the NATO military integration organization.
In 1965, it withdrew the headquarters of the NATO military command from France and expelled the US military from France.
At the same time, de Gaulle put forward the idea of establishing “European Europe”, seeking to build Europe into a third force between the United States and the Soviet Union.
To this end, France has managed to improve its relations with the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries and established diplomatic relations with China, which is the first Western power to establish diplomatic relations with China.
After more than 20 years of efforts after the war, West Germany’s economy has recovered and developed rapidly.
In October 1969, the Brandt government of West Germany launched the “New Oriental Policy”.
The main content is to reconcile with the East, recognize democratic Germany as a sovereign state and the current situation of its postwar borders, and fully realize the normalization of relations with the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries.
The New Oriental policy is a rebellion against the United States, which has changed the route of West Germany completely following the American policy and has a relative independence.
In the 1960s, Japan began to implement “Asian independent diplomacy” to recover the Ogasawara Islands and Okinawa from the United States.
In 1972, Tanaka cabinet implemented the policy of “multilateral independent diplomacy”, which changed the passive situation completely subject to American diplomacy.
In 1972, China and Japan first established diplomatic relations, and Japan gradually reduced its dependence on the United States.
Within the Western camp, the strengthening of the independence tendency of Western Europe and Japan and the development of the struggle against American control show the differentiation of the imperialist camp, which, together with the rise of the third world and the rupture of the socialist camp, constitute an important political force impacting the bipolar pattern. IV. the struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union for world hegemony is a special phenomenon in the development of world history after World War II.
Their struggle for world hegemony is not to redistribute colonies, but to dominate the world.
Therefore, there has been a confrontation between the two major military groups and a fanatical arms race in the nuclear age.
The so-called superpower refers to a country with absolute economic, political and military strength and great influence on the political development of other countries and the world.
After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union became two superpowers that dominated the world pattern with their strong strength.
The struggle for hegemony between the two superpowers after the war became the main feature of international politics at that time.
Due to the development and changes of the international situation and the growth and decline of the strength of both sides, the situation of the United States and the Soviet Union competing for hegemony is also changing.
(1) before the 1970s, the United States fought for hegemony by attacking the Soviet Union.
In the early post-war period, Yalta was not completely satisfied with the United States’ attempt to break the military system of Eastern Europe.
The Truman government carried out the “containment” policy and put forward the “liberation” policy during the period.
Its purpose is: on the one hand, to limit the power of the Soviet Union within the scope of its control, and at the same time, to “expel the influence of the Soviet Union from its existing control”.
In 1953, the United States formulated a “large-scale retaliation strategy” to vigorously develop nuclear weapons and strategic air force to deter the Soviet Union.
At the same time, it adopted the method of “peaceful evolution” and applied both soft and hard to the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries.
During Khrushchev’s administration, the Soviet Union began to compete with the United States for world hegemony.
After the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Khrushchev pursued the strategy of “US Soviet cooperation and dominate the world”, strengthened control over socialist countries, brought the national liberation movement into the strategic track of the Soviet Union, and competed and colluded with the United States.
In 1958 and 1961, the Soviet Union created the “Berlin Crisis” twice, and in 1962, concocted the “Cuban Missile Crisis”.
However, because the strength of the Soviet Union was still weaker than that of the United States, the Soviet Union finally made concessions.
(2) in the 1970s, the Soviet Union fought fiercely for hegemony against the United States.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the strength of the United States was gradually declining, and this trend became more obvious in the 1970s.
The economy of the Soviet Union developed rapidly and the gap with the United States narrowed greatly.
At the same time, the military strength of the Soviet Union has expanded rapidly, its strategic nuclear power has been equal to that of the United States, and it has an advantage over the United States in conventional military strength and conventional weapons.
With its rapidly increasing economic and military strength, the Soviet Union turned to the offensive strategy in the 1970s.
Since the Soviet army invaded Czechoslovakia in 1968, the Soviet Union began to implement a strategic offensive and launched an attack on the sphere of influence of the United States and the West in some important parts of the world.
The Soviet Union’s strategic focus was on Europe and formed an advantage over the US military in Western Europe, forcing the United States not to act rashly.
In other regions, it expanded aggressively.
In Africa, Cuba sent troops to interfere in Angola’s internal affairs.
In the Ogaden war, he supported Ethiopia, won the horn of Africa, expanded to North and South Yemen and entered the Gulf of Aden.
Cuba continues to expand its influence in Latin America and expand its influence to the “backyard” of the United States.
In Asia, they supported India’s dismemberment of Pakistan and Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia.
In December 1979, he openly sent troops directlyThe invasion of Afghanistan reached the peak of external expansion.
The long-term struggle for hegemony has seriously weakened the strength of the United States.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the dollar crisis broke out, and the United States abandoned the Bretton Woods system with a fixed exchange rate between the dollar and gold.
From 1973 to 1975, after the oil crisis, the American economy entered a relatively stagnant period of “stagflation”.
At the same time, due to the anti war demonstrations in the United States and the fierce competition and mutual attacks within the ruling group, the domestic contradictions are sharp, which has seriously affected the decision-making ability of the United States.
In 1969, President Nixon made a major adjustment to the global strategy of the United States and implemented the corresponding strategic contraction.
Put forward the Nixon Doctrine centered on the three principles of “partnership”, “strength status” and “negotiation”.
The main contents are: establishing partnership with allies, requiring allies to bear responsibilities and share the burden of the United States.
With strength as the backing, build a strong military force as the basis to compete with the Soviet Union.
Using “negotiation” as a means to carry out the “triangular strategy” of U.S. – China cooperation to contain the Soviet Union.
Under the guidance of Nixon Doctrine, the United States took a series of major diplomatic actions: in 1973, the United States withdrew its troops from Vietnam and withdrew a large number of troops stationed in Japan, South Korea, Thailand, the Philippines and Japan, reducing its total military strength in Asia to 240000.
Improve relations with China, normalize relations between China and the United States, change “large-scale retaliation strategy” to “realistic deterrence strategy”, and change “two and a half wars” to “one and a half wars”, that is, prepare to fight a big war in Europe with the Soviet Union as the opponent and a local war in Northeast Asia and the Persian Gulf of the Middle East.
They negotiated with the Soviet Union and reached dozens of agreements.
Maintain strategic balance as much as possible.
In April 1974, it signed the Declaration on North Atlantic relations with NATO countries and some member states of the European community to strive to improve relations with allies.
Nixon Doctrine advocates to realize the military objectives of the United States and the responsibility of leading the world at the lowest cost.
Its essence is the product and manifestation of the decline of American hegemony.
It is an expedient measure for the United States to seek hegemony in the world, but it is unable to do so.
It marks the transformation of the United States from strategic attack to strategic defense.
(3) in the 1980s, the United States regained its strategic initiative to ease relations with the United States and the Soviet Union.
After Reagan was elected the new president of the United States in 1981, facing the crazy strategic attack of the Soviet Union, he gradually changed the strategic contraction policy in the 1970s, took a tough stance again, and implemented the general foreign relations strategy of “seeking peace with strength”.
The United States promulgated the “economic recovery plan” to revitalize the U.S. economy.
Strengthen military deployment in Japan, South Korea and Western Europe, and strengthen the competition for the third world, trying to push the Soviet forces back to their homeland.
In March 1983, Reagan dished out the “Star Wars” plan to establish a military advantage in multi-level weapons based on near earth and outer space, and use military industry to drive civil industry, so as to set off a new and larger arms race to bring down the Soviet Union.
The implementation of these measures reversed the defeat of the United States in the 1970s and curbed the expansion momentum of the Soviet Union.
In the 1980s, the development of the Soviet Union went from bad to worse.
The old extensive economic system has increasingly become an obstacle to economic development.
The concept of the leading group is rigid, conservative and does not think of reform, which has a great impact on economic development.
Moreover, in order to compete for hegemony, the Soviet Union invested a lot of resources in military expansion and preparation, which affected the development of civil industry and agriculture in the Soviet Union.
These contributed to a serious decline in the economic development of the Soviet Union, and the gap between the Soviet Union and the United States began to widen.
In the early 1980s, the top leaders changed frequently, the domestic political situation was unstable, and there were many problems in the ideological and political field.
Therefore, in the first half of the 1980s, the Soviet Union was forced to turn to defense and lost many times in the competition with the United States.
When the country was pregnant with a profound crisis, Gorbachev was promoted to the new leader of the Soviet Union in March 1985.
At the beginning of taking office, he put forward the thought of “reform and new thinking”, emphasized fundamental reform at home, peddled a series of diplomatic “new thinking” abroad, and began a major diplomatic Transformation: abandoning the confrontational policy with the United States and seeking to ease tensions with the United States through dialogue.
Willing to make concessions in the dialogue and determined to get rid of the cold war.
Relax control over Eastern Europe and other socialist countries.
Shrink the strength from the third world, shorten the front and reduce the burden on the Soviet Union.
As the United States could not bear the burden of the arms race, it quickly seized the favorable opportunity to negotiate with the Soviet Union.
From the Geneva summit in November 1985 to the Helsinki summit in September 1990, eight US Soviet summits, 46 foreign ministers’ meetings and many military leaders’ meetings were held in five years, and the China missile defense treaty, the agreement on the destruction and non production of chemical weapons and the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe were reached.
Among them, the February 1989 US Soviet summit in Malta was the most important, which was widely regarded as a sign of the end of the cold war.
With the improvement of the relationship between the two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union, the world situation showed signs of easing in the late 1980s, and the main hot spots generally cooled down.
In August 1988, the Iran Iraq war, which lasted for eight years, ended.
In December of the same year, the civil war in Angola ended.
In February 1989, all Soviet troops withdrew from Afghanistan.
In September, Vietnam withdrew its troops from Cambodia. V. the end of the bipolar pattern in the late 1980s and early 1990s the collapse of the Yalta system and the end of the bipolar pattern began with the drastic changes in Eastern Europe in the second half of 1989.
The drastic changes in Eastern Europe changed the socialist nature and social development direction of these countries, leading to the reunification of the two Germany in October 1990.
In June and July 1991, the mutual association and Warsaw Treaty Organization were dissolved one after another, and the Yalta system collapsed in Europe.
At the end of 1991, the red flag fell to the ground in the Soviet Union and the Soviet Union completely disintegrated, marking the end of the cold war and bipolar pattern that lasted nearly half a century.
While pursuing new diplomatic thinking, Gorbachev stepped up the implementation of domestic reform.
In April 1985, Gorbachev put forward the “accelerated development strategy” and specific economic reform measures, but with little effect.
In order to get rid of the passive situation, from June 1988, Gorbachev shifted the focus of Soviet reform to the political system and proposed to establish “humane and democratic socialism”.
The main content of abolishing the party’s multi-party political leadership is to abolish the party’s multi-party political leadership.
At the same time, the economic system reform has gradually shifted to non nationalization and privatization to establish a “pure market economy”.
Bush administration in the United StatesTook the opportunity to launch the “beyond containment strategy”, the core of which is peaceful evolution.
While not giving up the military containment of the Soviet Union, we should use political, economic, cultural, ideological and other means to separate Eastern Europe from the influence of the Soviet Union, force the Soviet Union to reduce its military forces, cooperate with the United States to resolve regional conflicts around the world, and encourage the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries to develop in the direction of “political diversification” and “economic privatization”, Finally, it melted into the western political and economic system.
In the above-mentioned international environment, from 1989 to 1991, the Communist regimes of the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries collapsed one after another.
From 1989 to 1990, the political situation in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, democratic Germany, Bulgaria and Romania was turbulent.
In just a few months, the Communist parties of these countries lost power.
A number of bourgeois political parties came to power, the state system was changed into a parliamentary democracy with multi-party participation, the public ownership was abandoned economically, privatization was implemented, and the socialist country transformed into a capitalist country.
Subsequently, similar changes took place in Albania and Yugoslavia.
The crisis in East Germany gave West Germany an opportunity.
With its strong economic strength, West Germany tried its best to influence the situation in East Germany and move towards reunification.
In September 1990, the Treaty on the final settlement of the German problem was signed and the two Germany were reunified.
The division of Germany is the concentrated expression of the Yalta System in which the United States and the Soviet Union divided Europe.
Its unification has become another major event in the collapse and disintegration of the Yalta system.
The political changes in Eastern European countries have gradually lost the political foundation of the Warsaw Treaty Organization.
On April 1, 1991, the Warsaw Treaty Organization was officially dissolved, and the confrontation between the two major military groups in Europe came to an end.
In June 1991, the “economic mutual association” also came to the end of history.
Gorbachev’s reform line not only did not promote the revitalization of the Soviet Union, but also triggered the country’s political, economic, social, ethnic relations and ideological crisis.
On August 19, 1991, some traditionalists who supported socialism and safeguarded the legitimate status of the Communist Party launched the “August 19 incident” to save the situation.
Due to inadequate preparation, it eventually failed, the situation turned sharply, and the Soviet Communist Party no longer existed.
At the same time, the alliance quickly disintegrated.
On December 21, 1991, the 11 member republics of the former Soviet Union held a meeting and adopted the Almaty declaration, which officially announced the establishment of the “Commonwealth of Independent States”, completely ending the history of the first socialist country founded by Lenin.
The disintegration of the Soviet Union also meant the end of the bipolar pattern.