World politics is a global political issue.
It is not as chaotic as our intuitive impression, but a complex large-scale system, in which there is a stable relationship structure, that is, the world political pattern.
Like the international community, the world political pattern is also a dynamic historical category.
It has its own historical process of formation, development and evolution.
Although the world political pattern is constantly developing and changing, it has relative stability in a certain historical period, because the power balance structure between big countries has relative stability.
It is the dual characteristics of change and relative stability that make the development of world politics show phased characteristics.
Contemporary world politics has basically experienced the evolution process from the bipolar pattern after the end of World War II to the coexistence and competition of unipolar and multipolar trends after the cold war.
In the past, the change of world political pattern was the result of systematic war.
World War II ended the hegemony of the British Empire and the history of European powers striving for hegemony in the world since modern times, and gave birth to a new contemporary world political pattern, that is, the bipolar pattern of the opposition between the two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union.
The world political pattern experienced nearly half a century of development and evolution until the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the end of the bipolar pattern.
During this period, the content and development of world politics were directly or indirectly dominated and regulated by the bipolar pattern. I. establishment of Yalta System in world history, after the end of any major regional or World War, the victorious country must determine the new regional or world order in the form of certain treaties or agreements, including territorial division, war compensation and international rules of conduct, and the second world war is no exception.
To be exact, Yalta system refers to the general name of the political understandings, agreements and arrangements reached by the heads of the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain and other allied countries on the post-war territory and sphere of influence, as well as the framework and principles of the world order at a series of summits dominated by Yalta conference in the late stage of World War II.
Yalta system constructed the foundation of the new world order at the beginning of the end of World War II.
The second world war lasted six years and involved a population of 2 billion.
It was the largest and most destructive war in human history.
The direct result of the war was the defeat of the three fascist countries of Germany, Italy and Japan.
Britain and France, two traditional European powers, were also greatly weakened, marking the end of the world pattern dominated by Britain, France and Germany and centered on Europe since modern times.
The rapid rise of the United States and the Soviet Union has greatly changed the comparative relationship between the powers.
In the later stage of the war, with the increasingly clear outcome of the war, the task of constructing a new world political and economic order has been put on the agenda of the victorious country more and more urgently.
From November 28 to December 1, 1943, the heads of state of the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain and Churchill held their first meeting during World War II in Tehran, the capital of Iran.
On February 4-11, 1945, the heads of state of the three countries held the second meeting in Yalta, Crimean peninsula of the Soviet Union.
From July 17 to August 2, 1945, the heads of state of the three countries (the late British head of state was the new prime minister Attlee) held their last meeting in Potsdam, southwest of Berlin, Germany.
The three conferences conducted fierce bargaining on how to accelerate the defeat of German Fascism and the arrangement of the post-war world order.
Finally, they reached a series of declarations, announcements and agreements, and established the Yalta system.
Its main contents are as follows: first, we must completely defeat German Fascism, disarm Germany, eliminate fascism and militarism, punish war criminals, dismantle all military facilities and establish democratic politics.
Economically, it eliminated its war potential, forced Germany to compensate for the losses of various countries, occupied Germany in different regions, and established a control committee against Germany.
Second, on the issue of Poland, restore its sovereignty, establish the Polish government and determine its eastern and western boundary lines.
Third, the United States and Britain agreed with the conditions put forward by the Soviet Union to participate in the war against Japan, that is, to meet the Soviet Union’s recovery of Sakhalin Island, the acquisition of Qiandao islands, the maintenance of the status quo of Outer Mongolia, the internationalization of China’s Dalian, the guarantee of the Soviet Union’s superior rights and interests in the port, the restoration of the lease of Lushun naval base, and the joint operation of the Middle East Railway and the South Manchuria Railway through the establishment of a joint company between the Soviet Union and China, China maintains its sovereignty over Manchuria, and the superior rights and interests of the Soviet Union in the region should be guaranteed.
Fourth, the United Nations should be established.
The United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, China and France are permanent members of the Security Council and have the veto power.
The original spirit of Yalta system is to develop the alliance relationship between wartime powers into the cooperative relationship between postwar powers, and take this cooperative relationship as a basis for establishing the post-war world political and economic organization and the post-war world order.
Yalta system has both positive and negative aspects in history.
First of all, it has undeniably positive significance in accelerating the victory of the anti fascist war, maintaining the stability of post-war Europe, promoting the cooperation between countries with different social systems, and establishing some desirable rules of state behavior.
However, it also reflects the power politics of great powers.
Its essence is that the United States, the Soviet Union and Britain compete for the fruits of victory according to their respective strengths and interests, The sovereignty and interests of other countries have been seriously trampled upon.
The East West relationship and the confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union embodied in the Yalta system are the core and main symbol of the post-war world pattern, and have a far-reaching impact on the development of the post-war world political situation.
Second, the confrontation between the two camps of the East and the West.
The socialist country, the Soviet Union, and the capitalist countries, the United States and Britain, formed an alliance and carried out close wartime cooperation, which was a strategic decision of last resort under the situation of fascist Germany sweeping Europe.
Due to the deep-rooted nature of confrontation between the two sides in ideology, values and social systems, even during the war, the cooperation of the Allies was full of competition and prevention.
Especially in the later stage of the war, the competition between the Soviet Union and the United States and Britain was very obvious.
With the end of the war, the fall of fascism in Germany, Italy and Japan, the strategic basis of the wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union no longer exists.
The confrontation between ideology, social system and strategic objectives soon led to the antagonism between the two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union.
The establishment of the two camps of the East and the west finally opened the curtain of the cold war.
(I) the introduction of the western cold war policy the term “cold war” was first put forward by the American theorist Herbert swarp.
In 1947,American political commentator Walter Lippmann published a pamphlet called the cold war.
Since then, the word “cold war” has been widely used by American political and press circles.
The so-called cold war, as opposed to “hot war”, refers to all hostile acts and states other than military war.
To be exact, after the end of World War II, the United States formulated a strategy of military containment, political confrontation, economic blockade and organizational siege against the “Communist expansion” of the Soviet Union.
Therefore, the two camps led by the United States and the Soviet Union carried out a long-term all-round strategic confrontation and competition in the state of indirect war.
Therefore, in the history of international relations, the historical period from the end of World War II to the disintegration of the Soviet Union is called the cold war period.
It was George Kennan, the then US charg é d’affaires to the Soviet Union, who first proposed a tough policy towards the Soviet Union.
In February 1946, Kennan sent an 8000 word long telegram to the State Department of the United States, comprehensively analyzed the “theory, intention and policy practice” of the Soviet Union after the war, and put forward policy suggestions that the United States should contain the “expansion” of the Soviet Union for a long time.
In March 1946, former British Prime Minister Churchill, who has always been anti Communist, delivered a famous “iron curtain” speech at Fulton Westminster College in the United States.
He claimed that from cheshqing in the Baltic Sea to Trieste in the Adriatic Sea, “an iron curtain across the European continent has fallen”, and the people of Eastern Europe living under the iron curtain groaned under the “iron hoof of communism”.
Therefore, he called on the United States, Britain and the whole “free world” to strengthen cooperation to jointly deal with the threat of the Soviet Union and “liberate” the people of Eastern Europe.
The “iron curtain” speech became a signal for the west to launch the cold war against the Soviet Union.
In September 1946, President Truman’s White House assistant Clark Clifford formally put forward the cold war program against the Soviet Union in the report on the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.
In February 1947, the British government sent a note to the United States, claiming that due to financial difficulties, it was unable to continue to provide economic and military assistance to the governments of Greece and Turkey, hoping that the United States could bear this burden in order to prevent the victory of communism there.
In March 1947, President Truman delivered a state of the Union address to the joint session of the two houses of Congress.
He declared that the world had been divided into two camps: the “liberal system” and the “totalitarian regime”.
The issue of Greece and Turkey is a threat of “totalitarianism” to the “free world” and “endangers the security of the United States”.
Therefore, he asked Congress to approve the immediate provision of $400 million in assistance to Greece and Turkey, and to send military and civilian personnel to intervene to prevent the so-called “infiltration” of communism.
This is the famous Truman Doctrine.
The proposal of Truman Doctrine marked the formal rupture of the wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union and the beginning of the cold war.
Since then, a series of cold war strategies and policies of the United States to curb the expansion of the Soviet Union have been issued one after another.
(II) the formation of two camps in the East and the West.
The introduction of the cold war policy of the west to curb the “Communist expansion” of the Soviet Union has laid the foundation for splitting the world into two camps according to ideology and social system.
What remains is a series of steps.1. Establishment of the Western camp on June 5, 1947, US Secretary of state Marshall delivered a speech at the graduation ceremony of Harvard University and put forward the Marshall Plan of “rejuvenating Europe”.
According to the plan, from 1948 to 1952, the United States will provide about $13 billion in aid to Europe.
This not only found an international market for the surplus products and capital of the United States, but also helped European countries recover their economies rapidly.
Most importantly, the Marshall Plan closed the economic ties of the capitalist world, strengthened its control over Europe, incorporated European countries into its global strategy, and laid an economic foundation for the establishment of Western political and military alliances.
Compared with the Marshall Plan, President Truman’s “fourth point plan”.
In January 1949, Truman put forward four main principles of action in American diplomacy in his second presidential inaugural speech.
The fourth point is that the United States should use the means of capital and technology export to infiltrate the underdeveloped countries politically and economically, that is, the famous “fourth point plan”.
Its purpose is to control the underdeveloped countries by means of aid, so as to isolate the Soviet Union.
On April 4, 1949, under the manipulation of the United States, the foreign ministers of the United States, Canada, Britain, France and other 12 countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty and established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
NATO member states carry out consultation, joint action and collective armed defense.
NATO is a western political and military alliance led by the United States.
Its establishment makes the United States finally realize the comprehensive control over Western Europe in economy, politics and military, marking the formation of the Western camp.
Greece and Turkey joined in 1952 and Federal Germany joined NATO in 1955, which made the boundary between the East and the West more clear in Europe, thus strengthening the bipolar pattern of world politics.
In addition to controlling Western Europe, the United States has also established a series of treaty organizations and military and political alliances in Asia and the Pacific.
The most important thing is the establishment of the US Japan military alliance.
After the war, the United States gradually turned Japan into its strategic base in Asia and the Pacific through the San Francisco Peace Treaty and the Japan US security treaty.
In October 1950, the United States signed a military assistance agreement with Thailand.
In August 1951, it signed the common defense treaty with the Philippines.
In September of the same year, the US Australia New Zealand security treaty was signed with Australia and New Zealand.
In October 1953 and December 1954, the United States successively signed the “common defense treaty” with South Korea and South Korea, forming the “Northeast Asia defense alliance”.
On September 8, 1954, the United States, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand and Pakistan signed the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty.
In November 1955, the United States planned Britain, Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Pakistan to form the Baghdad Treaty Organization.
In this way, the Western military treaty organization controlled by the United States extends from the Atlantic through the Middle East to the Western Pacific.
The United States has stationed 530000 troops in 56 countries around the world and established 482 military bases.2. The establishment of the socialist camp came when the United States took measures to piece together western capitalist groups and stepped up preparations against the Communist Party and the Soviet Union.
The Soviet government adopted a tit for tat policy.
Around 1947-1948, the Soviet Union helped Eastern European countries fully establish and consolidate the socialist political and economic system led by the Communist Party.
In September 1947, the Soviet Union planned to establish the Communist Party of nine European countriesAnd the intelligence bureau of the workers’ party, and pointed out in the founding declaration that the world has been divided into two opposing camps.
In response to the disposal of the German occupied areas by the United States, Britain and France, the Soviet Union withdrew from the Allied Control Committee in March 1948, and then cut off the traffic between Berlin and the United States, Britain and France.
When the Federal Republic of Germany was established in September 1949, the Soviet Union immediately announced the establishment of the German Democratic Republic in the Soviet occupied areas.
Since then, Germany has split into two countries.
In order to resist the Marshall Plan, the Soviet Union strengthened economic cooperation with Eastern European countries, put forward the “Molotov plan”, successively signed a series of economic and trade agreements with Eastern European socialist countries, and established the economic mutual assistance committee (hereinafter referred to as the economic mutual assistance committee) in January 1949.
The establishment of the MEC marked the initial formation of the split world economic pattern after the war.
The founding of the people’s Republic of China in October 1949 was the only major event in the post-war bipolar pattern that was not arranged by the United States and the Soviet Union, which greatly changed the balance of world political power.
In February 1950, the Sino Soviet Treaty of friendship and mutual assistance was signed, marking the formation of the socialist camp.
Militarily, while strengthening its military strength and developing nuclear weapons, the Soviet Union successively signed a series of military alliance and mutual assistance treaties with Eastern European countries, and dispatched a large number of Soviet troops to Eastern European countries.
In order to confront the NATO military organization, in May 1955, the Soviet Union signed the Warsaw Treaty with Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Czechoslovakia and democratic Germany.
The Warsaw Treaty Organization was established and adopted the resolution on the establishment of the joint command of the armed forces.
Since then, the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries have formed a formal military bloc.
For 10 years from the end of World War II to 1955, the pattern of confrontation between the two camps of the United States and the Soviet Union was finally fully formed.
The formation of the bipolar pattern has brought about significant changes in international relations.
Politically, the United States and the Soviet Union controlled their sphere of influence.
Militarily, the two major military organizations, NATO and the Warsaw Pact, confronted each other.
Economically, both sides are self-contained and isolated from each other.
Ideologically, the two camps are also engaged in tit for tat propaganda war.
The confrontation between the two camps has exacerbated the tension of the international situation and left the world in turmoil.