as a major state event, the swearing in ceremony of the president should be held not only in the capital of the national political center, but also in the official residence of the highest organ of the state. The United States implements the system of “separation of powers and checks and balances”. Around the square, the presidential residence, the White House, the Congressional residence, the Capitol building and the office residence of the Federal Supreme Court look at each other in the distance, showing a trend of tripartite confrontation. So which office residence should be chosen to hold the presidential inauguration swearing in ceremony? The constitution of the United States does not specify this, which leads to different situations.

Obama (first from left) fulfilled the legal re-election and inauguration procedures on January 20 (data figure)

on January 20 and 21, Obama was sworn in at the White House and the National Assembly building, officially opening his second term of office. The U.S. Constitution stipulates that the president-elect must hold an oath of office before formally exercising his power. However, the Constitution does not specify where and where the presidential oath of office will be held, so that there are many interesting phenomena in the places and places where successive presidents take the oath of office in the history of more than 200 years.

president is the head of state and should hold the swearing in ceremony in the capital of the national political center. In the early days of the founding of the United States, the representatives of the South and the North within the ruling group debated over the choice of the capital. Finally, the two sides made a compromise and decided to build a new city as the capital on the Potomac River in the border area between Maryland and Virginia. Before the completion of the new capital, New York and Philadelphia were successively designated as temporary capitals, which made the place where the president of the United States held the oath of office present several different situations.

the Founding President George Washington was re elected for two terms, but he was sworn in twice in two different cities. When Washington first became president in 1789, New York was the interim capital, so he took an oath on the balcony of the federal building on Wall Street in New York. Later, the United States designated Philadelphia as the temporary capital. Therefore, when Washington began his second term in 1793, the inauguration ceremony was held in Philadelphia. Four years later, the inauguration of the second president, John Adams, was also held in Philadelphia.

when the third President Thomas Jefferson was sworn in on March 4, 1801, the capital Washington had been built, so he became the first president to be sworn in in Washington. In most cases, the inauguration ceremony of President Obama was held in Washington.

however, there have been many “abnormal situations” in American history, leading to the inauguration ceremony of the three presidents in three states outside the capital. In September 1901, William McKinley, the 25th president of the United States, was assassinated and seriously injured in Buffalo, New York. Before his death, Vice President Theodore arrived in Buffalo after receiving an urgent telegram. Finally, Roosevelt held his inauguration ceremony in the building where McKinley’s body was parked. When Warren Harding, the 29th president, died in San Francisco in 1923, vice president Coolidge was on vacation at his father’s house, a farm in Vermont. After the telegram sent by Congress was delivered, his father immediately presided over the swearing in ceremony of his son at home. On November 22, 1963, the 35th President John Johnson was shot dead in Dallas, Texas. Vice President Lyndon Johnson then held his inauguration ceremony in the cabin of the president’s special plane at Dallas airport.

as a major state event of the country, the swearing in ceremony of the president should be held not only in the capital of the national political center, but also in the official residence of the highest organ of the country. The United States implements the system of “separation of powers and checks and balances”. Around Washington Square, the presidential residence, the White House, the Congressional residence, the Capitol building and the office residence of the Federal Supreme Court look at each other in the distance, showing a trend of tripartite confrontation. So which office residence should be chosen for the presidential oath of office? The constitution of the United States does not specify this, which leads to different situations.

Jefferson, the third president mentioned earlier, was not only the first president to hold the oath of office in Washington, but also walked to the Capitol before the ceremony, and then held the presidential oath of office under the auspices of the chief justice of the Federal Supreme court. Jefferson was therefore the first president to hold a presidential swearing in ceremony at the Capitol. Four years later, he was re elected president and still held his inauguration ceremony in the Capitol. Since then, in most cases, the president held an oath of office in the Capitol.

also has some exceptions. According to statistics, four presidents took the oath of office at the White House. They are the 7th President Andrew Jackson, the 19th president Rutherford Hayes, the 38th president Gerald Ford, and Obama, who has just been re elected.

Obama’s inauguration oath for re-election this year will be held twice in the White House and Congress within two days, which is an exception and a precedent. According to Article 20 of the amendment to the U.S. Constitution, the time limit for the incumbent president to exercise his power is 12 noon on January 20 of the year when his term of office expires, and the successor President begins to exercise his power at this time. In accordance with the above provisions of the constitution, Obama should hold the oath of office on January 20. However, the day coincides with Sunday, which is the time for many Americans to worship. Therefore, after Obama held a small-scale oath of office in the White House on the same day, he held a large and formal oath of office in Congress the next day.

it is worth mentioning that before 1933, the inauguration day of the president of the United States was set as March 4 and changed to January 20, which originated from the 20th amendment to the constitution approved in 1933, also known as the “lame duck amendment”. In the past when transportation was not very convenient, March 4 was chosen to give the newly elected president and members of Parliament enough time to deal with their personal affairs and then rush to their place of office. However, this has also led to the Congress and the presidential team, which are about to change personnel, being difficult to respond to some major crises in a relatively long period of time. And choose January 2