Western lip service but not real aid, and discrimination against Russia. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the western group led by the United States made many promises to Russia, but most of them did not fulfill them.

1992 is a key year in the development history of China Russia relations. Its meaning can be summarized in four words, which is “connecting the preceding and the following”. The so-called “undertaking” means that the two countries have completed a smooth transition from China Soviet relations to China Russia relations in this year; “Qixia” means that through the joint efforts of the leaders of the two countries and on the basis of a smooth transition, China Russia relations have embarked on a healthy track of all-round development after 1992.

however, when we look back on this period of history, we can see that although China Russia relations showed a great situation at the end of this year with Yeltsin’s visit to China and the meeting between the top leaders of the two countries in Beijing, throughout the year, the development of bilateral relations was not smooth sailing and was once disturbed by negative factors. Therefore, when we praise the development of China Russia relations in various fields today and are excited about their bright prospects in the future, it may be of certain practical significance to examine the history of the initial development of bilateral relations, summarize the valuable experience, and analyze some negative factors or hidden dangers.

on December 27, 1991, the history of the two countries turned a new page. Foreign Minister Qian Qichen sent a telegram to foreign minister kozilev, announcing that the government of the people’s Republic of China recognized the government of the Russian Federation and decided to change Chinese ambassador to the former Soviet Union Wang pengqing to ambassador to Russia. There is an episode in it. When Wang pengqing received the new appointment, he was not really an “ambassador to the former Soviet Union”. Because when he arrived in Moscow at the end of November to take office, several requests for credentials were declined by the Soviet side on the grounds that Gorbachev was busy. It is obvious that this non international practice was caused by the chaotic situation in the Soviet Union at that time. Gorbachev was so busy that there was no time to connect the credentials. Soon after, Gorbachev himself announced that he would stop exercising the presidency, and the Soviet Union immediately disintegrated. Newly independent Russia became the legal successor of the Soviet Union. Therefore, the credentials to the head of state of the Soviet Union that Wang Peiqing brought when he took office were no longer available and were replaced with new credentials. Before the last ambassador to the Soviet Union took office, he became the first ambassador to Russia. “By the time Ambassador Wang finally handed over his credentials to President Yeltsin, it was early February 1992.”

after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, where did Sino Russian relations develop? This issue has aroused widespread international concern. The reason is not only that China and Russia are two major countries in the world and both permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. The development of bilateral relations has an impact on world peace and stability, but also that after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russia has undergone changes in ideology and social system, resulting in great differences between China and Russia. Under such circumstances, many people worry that the relations between the two countries, which have just achieved normalization and continued to develop, will change direction or even deviate from the track of normalization due to the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the differences between China and Russia. This fear is not superfluous. The breakdown of Sino Soviet relations in the late 1950s was directly related to the ideological differences between the two sides.

the attitude of the leaders of the two countries on this issue has become the focus of international attention. From the perspective of China, the speech on the eve of the disintegration of the Soviet Union has actually set the tone for China to formulate its policy towards Russia. He pointed out: “no matter how the Soviet Union changes, we should calmly develop relations with it, including political relations, on the basis of the five principles of peaceful coexistence, and do not engage in ideological disputes.” In other words, first, we should adhere to the five principles of peaceful coexistence, and second, we should not engage in ideological debate. According to these two basic principles, China’s diplomacy has formulated a policy of transcending differences in ideology and social system and developing relations with Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union after the disintegration of the Soviet Union on the basis of equality, mutual benefit and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.

on December 27, 1991, on the same day Qian Qichen called kozilev, Li Lanqing and Tian ZengPei led a Chinese government delegation to Russia for a visit. Li Lanqing told Russian Deputy Prime Minister Shaoxin that the Chinese government does not interfere in the internal affairs of other countries and respects the choice of the Russian people. This is the first time that Chinese officials have expressed their position on the new situation in Russia. The visit yielded three important results: first, it confirmed that the basic principles set forth in the 1989 and 1991 Sino Soviet joint communiques remain the guiding principles of Sino Russian relations; Second, continue to fulfill the obligations stipulated in various treaties and agreements signed between China and the former Soviet Union. Third, further develop good neighborly, friendly and cooperative relations on the basis of the five principles of peaceful coexistence. The three achievements have been written into the minutes of the talks on bilateral relations. This has laid a foundation for the smooth transition of bilateral relations.

from the perspective of Russia, President Yeltsin’s speech when meeting with Chinese Premier Li Peng at the United Nations headquarters in January 2002 should be the first time that Russia’s first top leader has expressed his position on how to develop bilateral relations. During the




meetings, Li Peng once again stressed that China is willing to continue to develop good neighborly and friendly relations with the Russian Federation on the basis of the five principles of peaceful coexistence and the two Sino Soviet communiques. At the same time, when dealing with foreign relations, China does not draw a line with ideology. The people of China and Russia enjoy traditional friendship. The 4000 km border between the two countries should become a border of peace and friendship. Yeltsin said that Russia will abide by the two existing joint communiques and ratify the signed agreement on the eastern section of the Sino Soviet border as soon as possible. The social systems of the Russian Federation and China are different, but Russia and Western countries are also different. Differences between the two countries should not hinder cooperation. Developing economic relations with China is very important for Russia. Russia is willing to carry out cooperation in various fields, channels and forms with China. There are two points worth noting in Yeltsin’s speech. First, Yeltsin’s position on inheriting the achievements of China Soviet relations and not engaging in ideological debate is very close to that of China