Section I aggressive expedition of allies in World War I

World War I is the first overall world war in the history of human civilization. Although the main body of the war took place on the European continent, most countries in the world were involved in the war in different ways and to varying degrees. The number of countries and people involved, the wide coverage, and the cruel means of war The suffering of casualties made the first World War an extremely tragic event in military history. World War I was a hegemonic battle launched by the German Empire, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. From the German Austrian military alliance’s expedition to European countries, we can grasp the context of World War I.

background

at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, Germany’s economy has developed rapidly. By 1900, Germany had become the number one power in Europe in terms of economic strength. With the rapid expansion of economy, especially foreign trade, overseas interests play an increasingly important role in Germany’s national interests and become the dominant factor. This change in the focus of national interests will inevitably require the readjustment of the traditional military strategy. In 1890, German Emperor William II formulated a new strategy of “seeking world hegemony and seizing overseas raw material producing areas and markets by force”. At the same time, the “new military doctrine” has also become the focus of “naval strategy”.

the open challenge of German military strategy forced Britain, which controlled the traditional maritime hegemony, to start to adjust its military strategy. Britain abandoned the “glorious isolation” policy it had always pursued and signed treaties with Japan, France and Russia to seek common security and create a military alliance against German forces.

after the formation of the two military groups

of Archduke Ferdinand, all countries realized that the war was imminent. In order to gain an advantage in the coming war, the great powers launched a crazy military expansion competition. This has further strained the international situation. Although the conventions and declarations adopted by the two Hague Peace Conferences in 1899 and 1907 expressed “the hope to limit the military strength and military budget of the army and navy”, due to the evil intentions and insincerity of the great powers, the posture of “peace” became a shield for the great powers to accelerate their military expansion and preparation for war. Since then, militarism has been rampant in various countries, and the war crisis has quietly spread to the European continent. The high opposition and war preparedness of the two camps make it possible for any to evolve into a world war.

after

in the 20th century, Serbia, which got rid of Turkish rule, has become stronger and stronger in the Balkans, and has become the core of the southern Slavs opposing foreign rule and striving for national unity. Slavs in Bosnia and Herzegovina strongly demand to get rid of the rule of Austria Hungary Empire, merge with Serbia and establish a unified Yugoslav state. At that time, a large number of propaganda activities and patriotic groups opposed to the rule of Austria Hungary Empire appeared in Serbia, and the “black hand society” with the goal of “realizing national thought and unifying all Serbian nationalities” was one of these groups.

in 1914, with the strong support of Germany, the Austro Hungarian Empire decided to hold large-scale military exercises in Sarajevo, Bosnia, near the Serbian border, in order to prepare for further military operations and seizing real control over the Balkans. On June 28, the Austro Hungarian Empire dispatched two regiments, Archduke Fran C í Ferdinand, crown prince of Austria, decided to visit Sarajevo in person. This provocative action of the Austro Hungarian Empire greatly angered the Serbian patriots, the “black hand” and the local secret nationalist group “young Bosnia” in Bosnia, so they drew up a plan to assassinate Ferdinand.

on the morning of June 28, the “black hand” and “youth Bosnia” arranged seven assassins on the street passing by Ferdinand Archduke. At the street corner of the city hall, the Archduke of Ferdinand met Prince Xibo, a young Sylvia who had been in ambush. Prince Xibo raised his gun and shot through Ferdinand’s neck and his wife’s abdomen. The gunshot also became the fuse of the first World War. The crisis broke out. The two major military groups of the allies and allies who had been ready for war found the pretext to launch an all-out war. The Allies insisted on launching military operations against Serbia. Because Russia actively mobilized troops to assist Serbia, all the European powers were involved in the war according to the alliance agreement signed by Britain, France and Russia.

the first World War broke out in August 1914 and ended in November 1918, which lasted four years and three months. The war started on two battlefields at the same time: first, the German Austrian coalition army marched from the south coast of the Baltic Sea to invade Eastern European countries and directly point to the territory of Russia; The second is the Western European battlefield formed by Germany’s expedition to France through Belgium.

battlefield in Eastern Europe: German Austrian coalition forces invaded Eastern European countries

(1) at the beginning of the

war in East Prussia, Germany’s active defense and alternating promotion strategy in East Prussia was the first step of its plan to go north along the south coast of the Baltic Sea and expedition to Eastern Europe. According to the French Russian military agreement, Russia launched the East Prussia campaign against the German troops stationed on the eastern front.

on August 17, the first group army of the Russian army attacked East Prussia with three infantry forces, opening the prelude to the battle. On August 20, the main forces of the two armies launched a large-scale battle in gumbinian. The German army failed, with more than 10000 casualties, and began to retreat to the West. The Russian commander had an illusion about the initial victory that the German army had been defeated and the battle had basically ended. The German army gave up the chance to stop the pursuit. This made the German command immediately change its original plan to retreat to the other side of the visva River and turn around to attack the Russian army, which had built tents and was unprepared for battle. After dividing the two Russian group armies, the German army wiped out the main force of the Russian second group army at the cost of 20000 casualties, killing, wounding and capturingMore than 120000 Russian troops. It also annihilated more than 110000 members of the Russian first group army in the Nieman River Basin, and achieved a major victory on the eastern front. In the war of

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, Germany paid a heavy price. During the campaign, the German army was forced to transfer two armies and one cavalry division from the western line to the East Prussia battlefield, thus weakening the power in the main strategic direction of the western line. Therefore, this local victory was bought at the high price of the failure of the man river. The victory of the war also led Germany to make a misestimation of the whole war situation, blindly transferring the center of the war from the west line to the east line, so as to expand their front to the East and drive into Poland.

(2)

in the gorlice campaign turned into a lasting position on the western line. After the war, the German commander-in-chief made a major adjustment to the strategic plan in 1915 and decided to shift the focus of the war to the eastern line while stabilizing the western line, invade Eastern European countries and approach Russia in order to coerce the Russian army to stop participating in the war. At that time, Russia was also ready to launch a large-scale battle on the eastern front. The two main forces of the Russian army “encircle the German army in the direction of the East and the German army in the north”, and the two main forces of the Russian army “encircle the Prussian army in the direction of the south at the same time, and the Russian army will attack from the two sides of the Prussian army in the direction of the Prussian army in the south at the same time; Russia decided to continue to attack in two strategic directions, namely, the northwest front army attacked Russia from East Prussia and the southwest front army attacked the Austro Hungarian Empire from the Carpathians.

in January 1915, the 3rd and 4th group armies of Austria and Hungary, strengthened by a southern group army mainly composed of German army, first launched an attack on the south wing, and the battle of Carpathian broke out. On the north wing of the front line, the Allied forces were blocked and unable to advance on the Grodno front line due to the failure to achieve the predetermined campaign goal; In this case, the German command decided to give up the two wing attack and choose the center of the Russian front, that is, the gorlice area between the visva River and the Carpathians, as the decisive direction to carry out the main assault. Due to the lack of necessary preparations, the Russian army rushed to the battle. At that time, the front of the Russian army in the Carpathians was once 600 kilometers long and was not well mobilized, so that the German army adopted the tactics of breaking each other, quickly annihilated the main force of the Russian army, occupied the mountain pass of the Carpathians in Ukraine, and the battle of golitsch ended with the failure of the Russian army.

gorlice was the largest battle on the eastern front. The failure of the battle worsened the strategic situation of the Russian group armies fighting in Poland. After the battle, the Russian army was forced to implement a large-scale strategic retreat, which led to the success of the German expedition to Eastern Europe. For a time, it occupied Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Belarus, pointed directly at the Russian border, and the front moved eastward by a large margin. After that, the political situation in Russia was turbulent and the October Revolution broke out. The Bolshevik party, which was the first party, established the Soviet Republic and resolutely announced its withdrawal from the war, which made it a distant process for the allies to recover a large area of Eastern Europe occupied by Germany.

battlefields in Western Europe: the German Empire conquered France’s

(1) the border battle

Germany had made a strategic deployment long before the war. In 1905, the “schrifen plan” formulated under the auspices of General von schrifen, the chief of general staff of the German army, decided that in the two front war between France and Russia, First, we must defeat France quickly. Thus, general schrifen made the deployment of troops on the East and West lines: on the west line, seven group armies were deployed on the crefeld mulhausen line to firmly defend the solid border between France and Germany. At the same time, a powerful force was formed to encircle the Verdun line, invade Belgium, cross the unprotected northern France, advance along the coast and forcibly cross the Seine River, Cross Paris from the West and then from the south, compress the French main force to the east of Paris and annihilate it; On the eastern front, a group army was arranged to cooperate with the army of Austria Hungary and contain the Russian forces going south. After the

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war began in full swing, Germany adopted the operational policy of attacking the north and defending the South as planned. On August 2, the German army occupied Luxembourg, invaded Belgium on August 4, conquered the Belgian Fort Liege on August 16, and then pushed westward. On August 20, the German army captured Brussels, the capital of Belgium, and pressed the border with large troops. It gathered 17 armies and 7 cavalry divisions of five group armies, and was ready to enter France, complete the strategic task of encircling and smashing the French army.

at the same time, the French command wrongly judged that the main force of the German army would be concentrated in the areas of mace and Luxembourg on the south wing before the war. Therefore, the French commander-in-chief Xiafei ordered a fierce attack on the German army in Alsace Lorraine area according to the pre war plan. The German army carried out an organized retreat in this direction as planned, and the French army made smooth progress and slowly broke into their “lost provinces”. However, on August 20, the German army suddenly stopped retreating and launched a counterattack, driving the French army back to the border.

on August 20, the general command departments of the opposing sides issued battle instructions respectively. On August 21, the two sides began an encounter called “border war”. After five days of fierce fighting, by August 25, the four group armies of the British and French coalition forces were successively defeated, and the French army was forced to retreat all the way south. So far, France has not only failed to recover the Alsace Lorraine region, but the whole border has been broken through and the whole line has been passive. Germany entered the territory of France, drove straight in and took the strategic initiative.

this was the first time that the British and French allied forces suffered a total defeat on the front north of Verdun and were forced to withdraw southward. However, the German Supreme Commander overestimated the achievements and mistakenly believed that the French army had been defeated. In view of the overall defeat of Germany in the battle with the Russian army in East Prussia, the German commander began to call back the troops on the western front, This weakened the German assault group in the main attack direction of France. At that time, the British and French coalition forces successively deployed various group armies along the ENA River and the man river, which created good conditions for the coalition forces to counter attack and win the battle of the man river.

The German army created conditions for the later movement attack, restrained the face-to-face enemy and weakened the pressure of the German army in the direction of Verdun.

from June 24, 1916, the Allied forces carried out a powerful artillery attack on the German army in the Somme river area for seven days. Only 2.5 million shells were fired from the French 6th army zone, destroying most of the German ground fortifications, but the underground fortifications were almost intact. Relying on underground fortifications, the German army fought tenaciously, and the military input of both sides continued to upgrade, while the front was advancing slowly. From October to November, the climate in Somme river area changed, and the pouring rain turned the battlefield into a mud puddle. Due to the limitation of climate conditions and the depletion of materials, the battle of SOM river was ended. The protracted war of attrition of

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has greatly damaged the strength of the belligerents, while the overall defeat of Germany’s two front operations has made it impossible to restore its previous combat effectiveness. At the end of the first World War, Germany launched five attacks of a certain scale on the western front. However, due to the weakness of human and material resources, the expedition to invade France to the South finally ended in failure. The final general attack launched by the allies in 1918 gave the German army a fatal blow. On November 11, Germany officially signed an armistice agreement with the allies.

outcome

in the first World War, the expedition on the East and West lines launched by the Allies led by Germany ended in failure. Although Germany once gained de facto control over northern France and Eastern Europe, it was finally due to military The economic disadvantages and the collapse of the state machinery lost the fruits of the early victory of these wars.

the first World War caused great losses to the belligerent countries. In the four-year and three-month war, a total of about 10 million to 13 million people died, including nearly 2 million in Germany, 1.75 million in Russia, about 1.5 million in France and nearly 1 million in Britain. A total of about 20 million people were injured in various countries. The war cost US $338 billion, many cities and villages became ruins, a large number of factories, railways, bridges and houses were destroyed, and all countries fell into disaster.

after the war, countries held the “Paris Peace Conference” in Paris and signed the Treaty of Versailles, which formed a new system of international relations in post-war Europe – “Versailles system”. However, the harsh terms imposed on Germany also laid the bane for Germany to launch the Second World War 20 years later. The first World War of “spekds”, “spkds” and “spkds” is the competition between “spekds” and “spkds” countries. The war caused huge losses to the warring countries. In the four-year and three-month war, a total of about 10 million to 13 million people died, including nearly 2 million in Germany, 1.75 million in Russia, nearly 1.5 million in France and nearly 1 million in Britain. A total of about 20 million people were injured in various countries. The war cost US $338 billion, many cities and villages became ruins, a large number of factories, railways, bridges and houses were destroyed, and all countries fell into disaster. In this war, the four empires of Czarist Russia, German Empire, Austro Hungarian Empire and Ottoman Turkish Empire were destroyed, while the national states in the Balkans and the Middle East rose with it, and the national liberation movement began to surge. During the World War II, the Communist Revolution took place in Russia, which led to the emergence of the first socialist country in the world – the Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). Since then, communism began to spread all over the world and the world communist movement rose. The war also weakened Britain, France, Italy and other capitalist countries. Britain’s control over territory was greatly reduced due to the huge casualties and material losses of the war, and its economy was greatly affected by the war, resulting in a serious recession. The United States replaced it as the world’s number one economic power, and the world financial center was transferred from London to New York.