Section 1 the anti French Alliance conquered the
of the French Republic. In the 19th century, France became the center of the bourgeois revolution in the European continent. This emerging political force was suppressed by the traditional conservative forces in the European continent and Britain. However, in the early stage of the war, the army of the emerging bourgeoisie in France showed strong combat effectiveness, and the emergence of military genius made the anti French Alliance composed of conservative forces retreat one after another and collapse several times.
the deepening of the French bourgeois revolution aroused the fear of European feudal monarchies. In order to stifle the revolution, but also deeply afraid that the more intense and thorough revolution in France would induce the British people to rise against the rule of the authorities, Prussia and Austria first formed an alliance and sent troops to intervene in France in early 1792, while Britain seized the opportunity of revolution in France to seize France’s overseas colonies. From 1793 to 1815, Britain and other European countries formed seven military alliances for armed intervention in France. As for the trend of the war situation, the anti French Alliance war can be divided into two parts. In the first four anti French Alliance wars, France has won a brilliant victory.
the first anti French Alliance war
(1) battle of Toulon
in August 1793, the royalist forces entrenched in Toulon city in the south of France, occupied the port of Toulon and other cities with great military and political value, and fought with Austria, Prussia, Britain, the Netherlands In collusion with the anti French military alliance formed by Spain and the kingdom of Sardinia, the fortress of Toulon and the French Mediterranean fleet with more than 30 ships were handed over to the British and Spanish, making the port city a fortress of feudal autocratic forces at home and abroad. Toulun has only a few square kilometers of Chengguo and more than 100000 residents. The whole harbor is divided into inner and outer ports by rikal Peninsula, forming a “gourd shaped” terrain. Rikal peninsula is at the waist of bees and plays an important role. In order to prevent the government forces from attacking, 17000 anti French allied forces and the French royal party troops fortified the entire inner port coast, and built a polygonal fort and two circular infantry lines on the rikal Peninsula, forming a tendency to block thousands of troops according to the first base. The British Army called it “mognev fort”. The French revolutionary government mobilized the revolutionary army to besiege Toulon, but several attacks suffered setbacks. Napoleon put forward insightfully that the capture of Toulon must first capture the rikal Peninsula, and the capture of the rikal Peninsula must first overcome mognevburg. To this end, he submitted to saricheti a battle plan to take rikal Peninsula as the main attack target first, and then capture Toulon, as well as an implementation plan to maximize the firepower advantage of artillery to support infantry attack. Saricheti, the special commissioner of the revolutionary government with supreme power in the army, immediately approved it and reported it to the public security committee of the revolutionary government at that time. He was appointed the artillery commander of the revolutionary army besieging Toulon and soon promoted Napoleon to major. In late November, the Public Security Committee approved Napoleon’s plan. In mid December, the number of Republican troops besieging Toulon increased to 38000. Before the attack, general dugomir, the commander in chief of the siege of Toulon, appointed Napoleon to command the artillery. On December 16, the general offensive began. Napoleon commanded the artillery to launch a fierce bombardment on the Allied forts and positions. After a long period of shelling, the infantry launched a full-scale attack. The coalition forces and Wang Dang elements resisted fiercely, and the battle was extremely fierce. It was night, with thunder and lightning and heavy rain. The Republican army launched a continuous attack on mognev fort in three echelons at night. As a result, it was resisted by the coalition forces and the attack was frustrated. The next day, general dugomir, commander of the Republican Army, personally led the reserve team to attack mognev fort. With the heavy support of artillery fire, he broke through the second line of defense of the coalition and rushed to the back door of mognev fort. After a fierce hand to hand fight, the Allied infantry and Gunners were killed, and mognev fort was finally captured by the French. Napoleon immediately commanded all the artillery on the peninsula to bombard the city of Toulon and the British and Spanish ships moored in the harbor. The British and Spanish navies abandoned the French royalists and drove away from Toulon port. The trapped King party elements in Toulon were also in extreme panic and fled one after another. The next day, Toulon was occupied by the Republican Army.
(2) at the end of the first anti French Alliance war,
republican army recovered Toulon port, while the foreign war continued to win. On September 6, 1793, the French army defeated 13000 British Hanover troops in onscott and won the first victory since the Jacobins came to power. Although the French army had insufficient training and poor coordination, it defeated the anti French coalition with high enthusiasm and tenacious fighting spirit. On October 15, 50000 French troops defeated the Austrian army in wadini, forcing it to abandon its siege of moberge and retreat eastward. Since then, the French army took the initiative on the northern border and turned to attack in the direction of Moser River and Alps. In 1794, both sides formulated a new attack plan. The Allied forces attempted to attack the Somme River and threaten Paris; The French army planned to pursue the victory and conquer Belgium again. A series of battles were held between the two sides in June. On June 26th, the French army and the Austrian army fought a decisive battle in florus. After the war, the French army fully mastered the battlefield initiative. The Republican army pursued the victory and made great strides. The coalition forces retreated in the direction of Antwerp and Breda. On July 10, the French army captured Brussels; Capture Antwerp on the 27th. The British army was forced to withdraw from the sea. Taking advantage of the victory, the French army crossed the Rhine, besieged Mainz and invaded the Netherlands. In the direction of the Alps, the French army first suffered from repeated operational failures and suffered frequent defeats. After adjusting the military system and compiling and appointing competent generals, the situation changed greatly, not only driving Spanish forces out of France, but also attacking Spain and occupying San Sebastian. At this time, the situation in Europe changed significantly. In 1794, Russia, Prussia and Austria were divided into Poland due to uneven transactions, which led to the collapse of the anti French Union. At the same time, with the occurrence of the hot moon coup, the climax of the French revolution also tended to end. On April 4, 1795, France and Cape Verde signed the Basel peace treaty, and then France signed with the Netherlands and Spain on May 16 and July 22, respectivelyMake a peace agreement. So far, the first anti French Alliance has collapsed.
the second anti French Alliance war
(1) through the St. Bernard pass
Austria refused peace talks due to its balance of power advantage, and the French army in Genoa was in a hurry. Napoleon was determined to learn what Hannibal had done in ancient times and to break into Italy at the risk of all the dangers and difficulties of the Alps. In order to make it easier to collect the grain m reserves needed for the March, so that the March could be completed more quickly and the enemy could not understand the purpose of the March, Napoleon ordered the army to take different routes and advance in four ways. He led the main force of 35000 people, carried cannons and crossed the great St. Bernard pass. Another 5000 French troops crossed the little St. Bernard pass and joined the main force in OSTA. On May 15, 1794, all teams were dispatched. The army led by Napoleon, composed of cavalry and infantry, has the most arduous task. It carries all the arms needed for the battle, including 40 field artillery. Due to the poor road conditions, the troops can only travel along one road. The long line is like a long gray snake, moving slowly in the mountains and valleys. At St. Bernard, the road disappeared and was full of cliffs and deep snow. The army had to climb the rocky and snowy ridge and advance forcibly. On May 16, the French forward arrived in the beautiful OSTA Valley, and other troops quickly followed. So far, Napoleon’s army had not encountered any resistance, and the Austrian army was completely in the dark. On the 17th, the French army arrived in shatilon. I met a small group of Austrian troops here. Facing the sudden French army, the Austrian Army panicked. They never dreamed that a French army would emerge in this direction. Due to the hasty response to the battle and the wide gap in military strength, the Austrian army was defeated and fled soon.
(2) battle of malenco
on June 4-9, 1800, the French and Austrian armies launched a fierce battle in the two places of karst, Mayo and nice. As a result, the French army won a great victory and annihilated more than 10000 enemies, but they only lost hundreds of casualties. Napoleon seized the opportunity to quickly adjust his strength and concentrated 27000 main people near vogai, north of toltona, believing that it would be the place of the war between the French and Austrian armies. At the same time, he ordered the powerful general Desai to lead a force to the south of toltona to block the retreat of the Austrian army. This plan almost destroyed the whole French army, because Napoleon did not expect that the general war between the French and Austrian armies was unexpectedly launched in malengo, a small village in the southeast of Liberia, while his troops were sent elsewhere! On June 14, he waited for the Austrian army in vogue, but the news came from malengo: the French army was defeated, and the strategic places malengo and Castel celliolo were lost. The whole Austrian Army dispatched and pressed against the French army. Napoleon rushed to the front line to command the battle, but the French army was in danger because of the limited strength. Napoleon was calm and composed, commanding the battle. During the fierce battle between the two sides, the French reinforcements arrived in time. The morale of the French army was greatly boosted. They bravely attacked the enemy and won the final victory.
(3) battle of hornlinden
on December 2, 1800, the French Rhine group army and the leading force of the Austrian Danube group army met in ampfen. The task of the French army was to drive the enemy across the Yinhe River; The task of the Austrian army is to advance and occupy Tyrol between the in river and the ISAR river. The French army was defeated in the encounter. The victory of the first battle made the Austrian Army grow the psychology of easy victory. Based on the intelligence detected, the Austrian army came to the wrong conclusion that the French army had begun to retreat to the other side of the ISAR river. On this basis, the Austrian army launched a pursuit. The Olympic army marched towards Anqing in four ways. The pursuit of the French army crossed the woodland, but the road was rugged and the Austrian army was lax. At the same time, the French army occupied the position outside the village of hornlinden at dawn on December 3. The combat team forms a two-line configuration: three divisions in the first line and one division in the second line, with cavalry on both wings; Another two divisions implemented circuitous maneuver tactics and attacked the left wing of the Olympic army. Suddenly, the troops of Huo Chenjun and Huo Xianjun came out of the forest at 8 o’clock. Due to its location in the forest and lack of roads, the Austrian army could not put all its troops into battle at the same time. Its left road was attacked by a French division and failed to meet the main force. After completing the detour maneuver and attacking the enemy from the rear, the French army immediately turned to the general offensive. Launching raids from the front and rear at the same time determined the outcome of the battle. Before noon, the Austrian army was defeated and began to retreat to the Yinhe River under the pursuit of the French army. In February of the following year, France and Austria signed the peace treaty of lueneville. In October of the same year, France signed peace treaties with Turkey and Russia respectively. Britain was forced to sign the Amiens peace treaty with France because of the loss of its allies. The second anti French Alliance actually ended in failure.
the third anti French Alliance war
(1) battle of Ulm
according to the plan of the third anti French Alliance, Austria focused its main force on Italy and Tyrol, and its Danube Legion entered Bavaria. For joint action with the Austrian army, a Russian army moved from Ukraine to Austria. From August to September 1805, Napoleon mobilized the French army to the Rhine River and assigned the task of concentrating troops to defeat the enemy one by one. First, he annihilated the Austrian Danube Legion launched on the banks of the IL River and the Danube River before September 22, and then annihilated the Russian army from Ukraine. From September 25 to 26, the French army crossed the Rhine River. Napoleon confused the Austrian army with false information, making it have an illusion of the main attack direction of the French army, and pretended to attack from the front with some troops. The main force detoured to the left and right wings of the Austrian army and launched an attack on Ingolstadt and Danube water to encircle the Austrian army. From October 6 to 8, some French troops crossed the Danube River by force, severely damaged the right wing of the Austrian army and the Austrian army who came to reinforce, and then advanced to Munich as a cover force against the Russian attack. The other part of the French army made a deep detour from the northeast and the south to the main force of the MAC corps, cutting off the way for the Austrian army to retreat to Vienna and Tyrol. From October 14 to 15, the French army completed the encirclement of the Austrian army in Ulm. From October 10 to 12, the besieged Austrian army failed to break through to Bohemia, so it surrendered on October 20. The Russian army retreated skillfully to avoid failure.
(2) battle of osteri C í