Section IV introduction to

of atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki since the outbreak of World War II, about 1 million US allies died in the war from June 1944 to June 1945, of which the death toll reached the peak in December 1944, and 88000 died in one month. On May 8, 1945, Nazi Germany surrendered and the war on the European battlefield ended, but at this time, the fascist empire Japan still resisted tenaciously.

since the outbreak of the Pacific War, the U.S. military has launched continuous air strikes on Japan, but due to mechanical problems, bad weather and difficult logistical supply, the effect is very limited. On July 26, at the POC í Tan meeting, the United States, Britain and China announced the famous POC í Tan announcement in the form of a joint declaration, urging “the Japanese government to immediately announce the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces”. Later, the Soviet Union sent troops to declare war against Japan and officially signed the announcement, but the stubborn Japanese government ignored it. In order to end this costly war as soon as possible, the United States stepped up the pace of new weapons research… The history of the

disaster

Manhattan Project

during World War II, in order to fight Germany, the United States established a special committee codenamed “s-11” on October 19, 1939, Specifically responsible for the development of nuclear weapons. In 1941, German troops swept across the European battlefield like wind and residual clouds. Faced with such a critical situation, the United States has increasingly accelerated the pace of nuclear research.

in 1941, the United States established a huge architectural community in the desert of Manhattan, which was strictly isolated to avoid any contact with irrelevant personnel. Most of the best nuclear scientists from western countries at that time were gathered here, and more than 100000 people were mobilized to participate. The United States began to secretly implement the plan of using nuclear fission reaction to develop an atomic bomb, that is, the Manhattan plan. The plan was highly confidential, directly under the control of the then president, and only 12 people knew the overall plan. When Nazi Germany surrendered in 1945 and Japan, as its ally, was still making stubborn resistance, Japan naturally became the target of the Manhattan plan.

after three years, with the joint efforts of 150000 people, this $2 billion plan was finally completed. At 5:30 a.m. on July 16, 1945, near the city of alamogodo, Mexico, a flash of light cut through the dawn. It was clearly visible within 300 kilometers, and bursts of roar filled the sky. The world’s first atomic bomb was successfully detonated. The burning temperature reached 10000 times the surface temperature of the sun, and the sand particles within 800 meters were instantly burned into emerald green B ō Glass.

“little boy” and “fat man”

when they received the telegram that the test was successful, the president of the United States was attending the meeting in BOC í tan. As soon as the meeting was over, he immediately set out to return to the United States and immediately ordered the U.S. air force to prepare to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. As early as December 9, 1944, the United States established a special Air Force squadron – 509 mixed force. This squadron never carried out bombing missions, and scientists served in it. Except for occasionally throwing a few practice bombs, they always hid in semi-circular movable houses at other times, They have only one task: to throw atomic bombs at Japan.

at 9:20 p.m. on July 25, the Allied forces broadcast the “POC í Tan announcement” to the world again, and declared that if Japan did not accept unconditional surrender, the Allied forces would fully occupy Japan, but this time it was also rejected by the Japanese government. In order to give the Japanese government a heavy psychological blow and force it to surrender as soon as possible, the US nuclear attack plan began to be implemented.

atomic bomb “fat man” model

a few days later, the atomic bomb was transported to Tinian, the US Air Force base where the 509 hybrid force is located. The chief ordnance engineer of the Manhattan project assembled it. The world’s first atomic bomb for military operations was born, and engineers named it “little boy”. On July 29, general spa C í, commander of the US strategic air force, flew from to Tinian. He also brought with him a top secret battle plan: after August 3, he could drop “special bombs” once the climate permits.

Hiroshima is an important military oil depot in Japan and also a port in the vast industrial zone. Its city scale is very large, and it is adjacent to the hills. Several large factories are located in the suburbs near the city, and the roof is made of wood, and many wooden houses are distributed around it. In order to clearly measure the lethality of the atomic bomb, Hiroshima has become the first choice.

at 1:37 a.m. on August 6, 1945, three meteorological reconnaissance aircraft first set off and headed for Japan.

at 2:45 a.m., Enola guy took off from Tinian.

at 7:09, the weather plane arrived over Hiroshima. 15 minutes later, it sent a weather report to the “Enola guy” and suggested bombing the preferred target Hiroshima. Subsequently, the weather plane returned to the camp.

at 8:12, the pilot announced that he had reached the identification point where the bomb was dropped.

8:15:17, after adjustment and verification, “little boy” was thrown out! 43 seconds later, at a distance of 9 kilometers below the plane, a strong white light suddenly appeared in the sky, and the purple smoke and flame in a ball of powder rolled up and expanded, expanded and expanded continuously.

in a twinkling of an eye, Hiroshima was turned into a piece of scorched earth, broken walls and charred corpses. About 12 square kilometers of urban area was completely destroyed, 69% of buildings were destroyed, about 70000-80000 people died in the atomic bomb explosion and the resulting storm, and 70000 people were injured. Among all the casualtiesIncluding 90% of doctors and 93% of nurses in Hiroshima. After the successful bombing of Hiroshima by

,

,

and

, the president of the United States announced the use of new weapons and warned Japan that if Japan did not accept the provisions of the POC í Tan announcement, it would continue to give Japan a wider and more severe blow. The Japanese government still did not respond. According to the plan of the US president and the US military, the second more powerful atomic bomb “fat man” is scheduled to be thrown on August 9.

at more than 2 a.m. on the 9th, the “bock car” carrying “fat man” was ready to take off. Its preferred target is the xiaocang Arsenal in the south of Kyushu, and its alternative target is Nagasaki. It needs to receive a report from the front meteorological reconnaissance plane before it can finally determine which city to bomb.

at 9:50, “bock’s car” reached the starting point of the mission, and then flew to xiaocang. However, a minute later, the problem appeared. A city near xiaocang was routinely bombed two days ago, and now a large amount of smoke and dust floated with the wind to cover the aiming point. At this time, the Japanese anti-aircraft guns began to fire at them, and the fire was getting closer and closer to the aircraft. The “bock car” decided to leave xiaocang and fly to Nagasaki.

at 11:01, “fat man” was thrown over Nagasaki. About a minute later, another strong explosion occurred at an altitude of 450 meters from the ground.

under the expanding mushroom cloud, the fire spread wantonly. In the twinkling of an eye, tens of thousands of houses and shops were swallowed. In this attack, another 40000-75000 people died immediately.

at midnight on the same day, the Soviet infantry, armor and air force entered Northeast China and declared war on Japan.

under great pressure, on August 15, Emperor Hirohito of Japan delivered a radio speech to the whole country, announcing his acceptance of the “POC í Tan announcement” and his unconditional surrender.

endless disasters

the powerful atomic bomb not only brought a heavy blow to Japanese imperialism, but also caused incurable wounds to Japanese civilians. In the following decades, the people who survived by luck have been suffering from both physical and mental torture. The terrible explosion has become a nightmare and will never be forgotten.

Hiroshima

eight months after the atomic bomb exploded. Half an hour after the atomic bomb exploded, a “black rain” fell from the sky. Countless radioactive particles mixed in the ash began to fall. These particles contain nearly 200 different isotopes, all of which are radioactive. People infected with these things soon have a lot of hair loss, purple spots on their skin and a sharp decline in the number of white blood cells. Thousands of people die under the torture of various strange diseases every day.

almost all the people who survived at that time were injured by radiation. They suffered from vomiting, high fever, diarrhea and even cancer every day, and most of their offspring had mental retardation. At present, there is still a special medical center in Japan – Hiroshima atomic bomb hospital, which has more than 200 beds and has been committed to treating patients with “atomic bomb syndrome”.

on July 20, 1985, according to the investigation report on the victims of atomic bomb issued by relevant departments of Hiroshima City, the number of people directly affected by atomic bomb and radiation in Hiroshima City reached 490000!

Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion site

after the “little boy” explosion, the atomic bomb entered the war of mankind as a new weapon, and also brought mankind into a new era of nuclear energy. The powerful power of the nuclear bomb makes it not only destructive, but also completely destructive. From ancient cold weapons to today’s nuclear weapons, the disasters brought by war are increasing. In addition to endangering the lives of contemporary people, it continues to affect the health of future generations.

Encyclopedia

after the Second World War, various countries have strengthened the research and development and utilization of nuclear energy, while at the same time, ordinary people have been subjected to more and more nuclear attacks, such as the explosion of the former Soviet Union’s Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 and the nuclear leak in Japan in 2011. In the event of a nuclear attack, it is becoming more and more important to master certain self rescue knowledge.

1. When hearing the advance alarm, first keep calm, follow the command, and conduct organized and orderly evacuation and concealment; Indoor personnel should immediately cut off the power supply, turn off the gas, close the doors and windows, and then quickly hide.

2. When the flash of nuclear explosion is found, immediately use the terrain and buildings to avoid watching the fireball, and quickly lie down with your back to the explosion point, close your eyes, close your mouth and stop breathing.

3. After the shock wave, stand up quickly, wear a mask or mask, and take necessary skin protection, and then evacuate quickly.

4. The radioactive dust falling on the body should be patted quickly, and the clothes should be shaken against the wind, or wiped with a cloth stained with water.

5. Do not drink or eat water and food contaminated by nuclear pollution.