Army began a strong offensive across the Pacific Ocean after the bloody battle on Guadao began the sequence of counter offensive against Japan.
The general advocated a single line attack across the Vietnam Pacific.
He proposed that the troops under his command attack the Japanese army along the coastlines of New Guinea and the Philippines.
They will focus on the army attack, advance forward with a series of amphibious operations, bypass the dense areas of the enemy, and the land-based aviation troops will continue to provide support.
In addition to transportation and escort, the Navy will also shelling the coast and protect the army’s landing attack.
At the same time, there is another opinion, that is, the strong offensive across the central Pacific led by aircraft carriers has taken an amazing step westward, threatening Japan and forcing it to disperse its forces.
This view holds that the islands scattered over a long distance usually cannot rescue each other.
Once they are besieged by the air force of the increasingly powerful aircraft carrier of the United States, they will not be reinforced.
The attack across the middle of the Pacific could cut off Japan’s connection with the southwest Pacific and protect the shorter transportation route of the Allied forces to the region.
It will quickly push the war into Japanese waters and force the enemy fleet to fight a decisive battle.
According to this speculation, the troops will be able to drive straight into Japan.
After carefully weighing the two options, the Joint Chiefs of staff and their subordinate committees decided to take the offensive in the central Pacific as the main line of attack, but still allowed MacArthur’s troops in the Western Pacific to move along the line between New Guinea and Mindanao.
Troops in the southwest Pacific theater will be responsible for protecting Australia.
At the same time, contain the Japanese army they met so that it can not hinder the offensive in the central Pacific.
Because the two lines need close cooperation, some officers believe that the most important thing is to appoint a top commander in the Pacific battlefield.
At this time, the army opposed to having Nimitz or other Navy generals lead MacArthur, and general king did not want to hand over the command of the Pacific Fleet to MacArthur.
Therefore, the Joint Chiefs of staff decided to be located in is the direct supreme command of the Pacific War.
At this time, a batch of aircraft with excellent performance in the United States came out one after another.
Therefore, the number of US aircraft has an advantage.
In mid-1943, the US Navy had 18000 aircraft of all types, and there were 12 aircraft carriers and 6 battleships in the Pacific.
The southwest Pacific force commanded by MacArthur has also greatly increased its strength.
It has 14 Australian divisions and 3 American divisions.
The navy is organized into the 7th Fleet, with 1400 aircraft of all kinds.
According to the provisions of the “t Observatory” plan, the mission of the US Pacific fleet is limited to attacking tulaji and Gua islands, and the follow-up actions of the other attacks on Rabaul are entrusted to General MacArthur.
On March 29, 1943, the Joint Chiefs of staff of the United States ordered to take Rabaul as the target and finally occupy the islands.
The instruction pointed out: “the ships, aircraft and ground forces of the Pacific Fleet and the Pacific theater, except those designated by the Joint Chiefs of staff, remain under the control of Nimitz, commander in chief of the Pacific theater.
” According to the order, the first combat mission of the U.S. military is to capture and occupy Solomon Islands.
This is the first US counter offensive in the southwest Pacific since the occupation of Guadao.
The counterattack against Japan must begin with one step, so it is named “toenail” battle.
According to the order, MacArthur maintained the strategic command, and Halsey obtained the tactical command to enter the front line of the New Georgia Strait.
After receiving the instruction, Halsey immediately flew from Noumea to Brisbane, Australia, and met with MacArthur.
The two reached an agreement on the joint action to occupy new Georgia and trobriende islands.
The first target of the counterattack in the “toenail” campaign was Monda airport.
Located in the west of New Georgia, Monda is a strategic location.
In 1943, the Japanese Army established an airport there.
As long as the Japanese army controls Monda airport, it will pose a great threat to Guadao and seriously affect the rapid northward advance of the US Army.
On the contrary, if the U.S. army occupied Monda airport, it could prevent any place east of shiganville from falling into the hands of the Japanese army and push itself one step towards Rabaul.
Therefore, Monda airport has become a battleground between the US and Japanese armies.
Over the past few months, the US military has bombed and shelled Mengda airport many times, leaving the airport riddled with holes.
In June, the battle of toenail officially began.
MacArthur’s troops attacked New Guinea in two ways.
On the 30th, they landed in trobriende and salamoa respectively.
Five aircraft carriers, three battle rules, nine cruisers and 29 destroyers provided sea and air cover for the counter offensive.
The front line of New Georgia is under the direct command of Halsey.
The vikhan anchorage was occupied on July 1.
In order to capture Monda airport quickly, Halsey ordered major general Hearst to transport the army to New Georgia on July 5 to occupy Monda airport.
On the other hand, in order to prevent the Japanese reinforcements from Vera to Monda via baloko port, halsi sent 600 more soldiers under the command of marine Colonel livsidi to occupy rice anchorage.
The force is arranged on seven fast transport ships, escorted by three cruisers, six destroyers and two fast minesweepers under the command of major general Ainsworth.
It is expected to enter Kula Bay on the night of July 4.
In the face of the US military counter offensive, Japan is not reconciled.
After the Japanese army retreated from Guadao, the base camp adopted the strategic policy of ensuring that strategic places such as Bismarck islands, relying on outposts to prevent the US military from counterattack.
According to this operational policy, the Japanese army is determined to spare no effort to prevent the fall of the important area of New Georgia, and plans to send 4000 Japanese troops to reinforce the area.
The first batch of reinforcements will be carried by three destroyers and enter Kula Bay on the night of July 4, and then sail to Monda.
This is a coincidence – the time when the US Army entered Kula Bay is exactly the same as that of the Japanese army.
On the evening of July 4, Ainsworth led the fleet into the Bay and rushed to the Vera coast.
At 0:26 on July 5, the US destroyers “Nicholas” and “strong” served as outposts.
The cruisers “Honolulu”, “Helena”, “St.
Louis” and the destroyers “shevalier” and “o’bonnon” successively arrived at their destinations, and then bombarded the ports of Vila and baloco with stormy artillery fire.
When the US ship launched its first salvo at the Vera coast, it attracted the attention of three Japanese destroyers quietly entering the Kura Bay.
However, seeing that there were few enemies and we were not suitable for fighting, the Japanese ship fired several “long-range” torpedoes at the imperceptible US ship in the night, and thenIf it was put down, it would be attacked by Japanese aircraft, so four small boats were left to continue to save lives.
At 6:17, they turned southeast and drove back to tulaji port at high speed.
So far, the naval battle in Kula Bay ended.
However, the doom of the Japanese destroyer “long moon” has not yet ended.
Since it ran aground, the personnel on board have been carried in small boats 14 times, and the ship has become a live target.
After dawn, it was bombed by US aircraft and turned into a pile of scrap iron.
The rest of the crew of the US “Helena” to be rescued floated on the sea surface of Kula Bay in two batches.
The first 88 people were rescued by the US destroyers Gwen and Woodworth.
The second group of nearly 200 people, after soaking in the sea for more than two days, landed on Gua island in the early morning of the 8th and got a little weapons, food, clothes and medicine from the indigenous people.
The Americans racked their brains and decided to use the dark night to rescue these people from the eyes of the Japanese at one time.
On the evening of July 15, Admiral McKinney led four destroyers to quietly leave port tulaji and sail into the New Georgia Strait.
Another two fast transport ships, under the cover of four destroyers, set out three hours earlier and headed north through the New Georgia Strait.
At 2 a.m. on July 16, the rapid transport fleet reached its destination in the dark, contacted the shore, and 165 people quickly boarded the ship.
At 4:50 a.m., the US fleet returned at full speed through the New Georgia Strait and successfully completed the rescue mission.
After the battle, both the United States and Japan announced their victory.
The United States claimed that it had sunk many Japanese ships and achieved its operational purpose.
The Japanese side even boasted of the results of the war.
In addition to reporting that it sank the “Helena”, it also reported two more destroyers in the list of sunk ships, injured four destroyers, killed the main general, and sank a US cruiser.
In terms of tactics, the Japanese were a little better.
They went through all kinds of hardships in the fire, and finally transported reinforcements and materials to the Vera coast to achieve the purpose of this trip.
After the naval battle in Kula Bay, the US military decided to further expand its strategic advantage in the Pacific and formulated the operation plan of the central Pacific naval battle to occupy the Marshall Islands around November 15.
According to the plan, the U.S. military will first occupy Gilbert Island, which is the naval and air base necessary to attack the Marshall Islands, in order to establish a new air springboard.
In view of this consideration, the United States Joint Chiefs of staff agreed with Nimitz’s opinion and issued an order on July 20, 1943: first capture the Gilbert Islands, and then the Marshall Islands.
On August 24, the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee of the United States and Britain held a meeting in Quebec.
In the final report submitted to the peace, it was suggested that the campaign should be divided into six stages: 1 Capture Gilbert Islands and Zhenlu islands. 2. Capture the Marshall Islands, Wake Island and cusaile island. 3. Capture bonape island. 4. Capture the central Caroline Islands, including Truk island. 5. Capture Palau and Yap Islands. 6. Capture the Mariana Islands.
The main target in the Gilbert Islands is betio island on Tarawa atoll, where the Japanese army has built an airport.
But when admiral Nimitz received an order from the Joint Chiefs of staff on July 20, he was surprised to find that they still needed to capture Nauru, nearly 400 nautical miles from Tarawa.
The two islands are so far apart that support in the battle to capture them risks dispersing the fleet.
Moreover, once Nauru is captured, it will be of no use to the US military in terms of its geographical location.
Nimitz persuaded the Joint Chiefs of staff to cancel the plan of attacking and occupying Nauru from the original plan and occupy makin Island, which is 100 nautical miles away from Tarawa.
On makin Atoll, there is a place to build an airstrip.
It is less than 200 nautical miles from the southern tip of the Marshall Islands controlled by a small number of enemy forces.
The revised plan also includes occupying abema island and preparing to build another airport there.
The attack on Tarawa and makin was scheduled for November 20, 1943.
The fifth major combat force in the Pacific fleet is the United States.
It is a comprehensive armed force that exerts its power in long-distance operations.
By autumn, the force had six giant aircraft carriers, mainly the newly built 27000 ton and 32 knots Essex class aircraft carrier and five light 11000 ton independent class aircraft carriers.
8 aircraft carriers.
5 new and 7 old battleships.
9 heavy and 5 light cruisers.
29 transport ships and a large number of landing ships.
This considerable and expanding fleet was commanded by admiral Raymond A.
Spruance, who was intelligent, serious and cautious.
He once taught at the naval military academy and was praised as a strategist.
The midway naval battle fully demonstrated his talent as a strategist.
Spruance played an important role in formulating the plan of action.
The vanguard of the 5th Fleet is the 58th special task force, which is a fast aircraft carrier formation.
It usually operates in a circular formation of four special task forces.
Each brigade usually includes 2 large and 2 light aircraft carriers, escorted by 1-2 fast battleships, 3-4 cruisers and 12 or 15 destroyers.
Because of their highly flexible operations, these special task forces can operate both jointly and independently.
In order to carry out the island landing war, on August 24, 1943, the fifth formation of amphibious forces, a landing force, was established in the Fifth Fleet, and major general Turner, who played a great role in the Guadao battle, served as the commander.
The formation was divided into two groups, one under Turner’s personal command and the other under the command of deputy commander rear admiral hill.
Turner also formed his ground forces into the amphibious 5th army, with major general Holland Smith of the Marine Corps as the commander.
On September 1, 1943, the US Joint Chiefs of staff issued the order to seize the Gilbert Islands to the US Pacific Fleet.
In this way, the central Pacific counter offensive war, which took the capture of Tarawa, makin and abema islands in Gilbert island as the first attack target, began.
Before the battle began, the Americans actively prepared for the battle.
The US fast aircraft carrier extensively bombed Japanese bases in the air.
On September 18, major general baunar led a special task force composed of three aircraft carriers to raid Gilbert’s Tarawa and makin Island, giving the Japanese a blow first.
Half of the Japanese planes in Tarawa were destroyed, and a large number of Japanese troops were killed and injured.
A week later, the U.S. submarine “Gangyu” installed a camera frame on the periscope and took 18 days to take a continuous panoramic view of the coastline, but only images can be seen from the photosOpened a green umbrella like coconut trees, not like a solid defense.
On the contrary, on the island of Tarawa, which is only 3420 meters long and 540 meters wide, the fortifications are unusual.
Along the beach, the island is covered with obstacles such as concrete triangles, sand mounds, barbed wire fences and wooden sheds.
The machine gun positions behind are covered with coconut wood, sand, concrete and iron plates.
There are shelter trenches between the positions.
The top of the underground firing points is piled thick with coconut wood and sand stones, which are scattered along the beach.
The fire is very fierce, Its structure cannot be destroyed by direct hit of large caliber gun.
The air raid shelter is nearly 2 meters thick and is made of sand, coconut wood and corrugated steel plate.
All the fortifications on the island are built underground and heavily fortified.
The total number of Japanese troops guarding the island is 4836, all of whom are tough and good at fighting.
Rear admiral chaizaki, commander of the garrison on the island, boasted before the war: “the Americans can’t win Tarawa with 1 million troops in 100 years.
” General Nimitz, who made the US campaign plan, knew little about the defense of the Japanese army at that time.
He decided to land on bettio Island, the leading island of Tarawa, occupy the airport, then sweep the whole island, and finally occupy the whole Tarawa atoll.
Since October, US ship borne aircraft and shore based heavy bombers have carried out irregular bombing of landing targets.
More than 100 tons of bombs are dropped on bettio island every day.
It is planned that on the day of landing, US ship guns and aviation troops will fire 3000 tons of shells and drop 1000 tons of bombs on the island.
At the end of October, planes from the US Marines, Marines and Marines began to assemble on Funafuti Island, nanomea island and other places.
On November 17, Spruance convened another fleet summit, which stipulated in detail the formation and tasks of the fleet, special task force formation and special task force brigade.
On the 18th, rear admiral Hill announced the combat mission and fire preparation plan to the Marines.
The Marines felt relaxed after listening to the communication.
They believed that there would no longer be a living Japanese soldier on the island.
But they made a big mistake.
Not only are there a large number of Japanese soldiers alive on the island, but as long as one of these Japanese soldiers is alive, they will fight tenaciously to the end.
On the 19th, the officers attended various special meetings on landing operations, kept in mind the preparation time for fire support and landing, and learned about the characteristics of bettio island and makin Island, the defense situation of the Japanese army and the social life of Gilbert aborigines.
The Marines checked their guns and ammunition for the last time, bringing enough two pots of water, a day’s food and a striped cloak for camouflage.
At 0:30 on the 20th, the US transport fleet approached the bettio coast.
At 5:07, the Japanese troops on the island fired at the nearest us ship.
The US battleships Tennessee, Colorado and Maryland, which were responsible for covering the landing, responded fiercely with 406mm main guns, and the battle officially began.
At 5:16 a.m., the naval gun stopped firing, but the expected US carrier aircraft did not appear.
The US transport ship advancing towards the shore was exposed to the muzzle of the Japanese shore gun and was subjected to unscrupulous bombardment.
About 20 minutes later, a group of us torpedo planes came to support with heavy bombs.
In an instant, shrapnel roared and sand flew on the island.
After the aerial bombing, the US ship’s artillery fire poured down again, which lasted 80 minutes and fired about 3000 tons of shells.
Poor bettio disappeared into the smoke.
The Marines stared at the fragmented Island, which had “enjoyed” more than a ton of explosives per square meter.
Almost every soldier couldn’t help asking, “will the Japanese shore artillery fire at us? Haven’t they died yet? Will they fire at us when we grab the beach?” Just as they were terrified, rows of shells roared out of the burned and destroyed bettio Island, and the U.S. officers and soldiers were stunned and unbelievable! The US military was divided into three echelons and began to land.
Due to tide x ī The predictions were wrong, and the commandos had to head for the deserted, gloomy and smoky beach in chest deep water.
Armed with rifles and grenades, they impacted in the Japanese fire net, with increasing casualties.
It was not until noon that the chaotic landing forces slowly restored order.
Close to dusk, the US military launched naval gun bombardment and aircraft bombing on bettio island.
The US destroyer went straight to a place less than 1000 meters from the beach and fired at the Japanese position.
The plane fired low-altitude shots, making a “crackling” sound like frying things in an oil pan.
When it got dark, the US Army had 5000 people ashore, with about 1500 dead and injured.
However, only when the landing beach advanced about 100 meters in depth, the whole US Army was like a group of seals on the beach.
At dawn, the battle began again, and soon became white hot.
The bombing of carrier based aircraft and the hit rate of naval gun fire are constantly improving.
This support allowed the Marines to move forward across the West Bank of betio.
On this basis, the marine reserve team was all put into battle.
Since then, the basic task of the offensive force is to clear the enemy in the bunker and bunker.
Although tanks and artillery have played a great role in completing this dangerous task, at present, the most arduous task has to be completed almost entirely by infantry using flame throwers and hand dropped explosive bags.
On the night of the 22nd, almost all the remaining Japanese troops on bettio Island were rushed to the east end of the airport.
At this time, the Japanese troops were still trapped and launched a suicide counterattack.
Like the jungle war on Guadao, the Japanese army savagely rushed to the US Marines from several directions.
They fought hand to hand with the US Army for an hour with grenades and bayonets.
At 4 a.m. on the 23rd, the remaining 300 Japanese soldiers launched their last charge.
After dawn, with the support of naval guns, the US Marines opened the way by tanks, followed by fire throwers.
On the afternoon of the 23rd, Julian Smith announced that the organized resistance of the enemy had stopped.
In fact, more than 4000 defenders had been eliminated and more than 100 Korean workers had been captured.
However, only one Japanese officer and 19 soldiers surrendered, and the rest either died or committed suicide.
Among the 18300 US troops who landed on bettio Island, more than 3000 were killed and injured.
Then, the US army took advantage of the victory and conquered bairiki Island, ETA Island, taritai island and buariki island.
By November 28, the US army occupied the whole Tarawa atoll.
On the morning of November 20, while landing on bettio Island, the US military also launched a landing war on makin island.