While the US military has won successive victories in Europe and Italy, its situation in Asia and the Pacific has also begun to improve.
In the spring of 1943, with the end of the Guadao battle, the U.S. military passed the most difficult period, completed the strategic turn of the Pacific battlefield, took the initiative in the battlefield, and began to carry out the island by island battle code named “coin” with the Japanese army from the north, South, southwest and Central Pacific.
From May to August that year, rear admiral Kincaid, commander of the 8th fleet of the US North Pacific, and rear admiral Francis Rockwell, commander of the amphibious forces, led the 7th infantry division to launch an offensive in the North Pacific with the support of 54 ships and 250 aircraft, recovered the Aleutian Islands, and killed the enemy commander Dazuo zabotai and 3000 officers and soldiers.
On June 30, General Douglas, commander of the US Pacific theater, launched the landing campaign of the New Georgia Islands in the central Solomon Islands in the South Pacific.
After several months of fierce fighting, the US military finally occupied all the New Georgia Islands on October 9, killing 2500 enemy officers and soldiers.
Then MacArthur launched a landing campaign in shigenville in the northwest of Solomon Islands.
Tens of thousands of U.S. troops landed on the island, making Rabaul, an important base of the Japanese army in the South Pacific, lose the barrier.
In June of the same year, with the support of the Navy’s 7th Fleet, the US Australian coalition under MacArthur launched a counter offensive in New Guinea in the southwest Pacific and pushed along the northwest coast of New Guinea, opening the way to the Philippines.
On the basis of the above-mentioned series of victories, Admiral Chester Nimitz, commander of the Pacific Fleet, decided to organize the Chinese Pacific forces to carry out the first landing operation and land on the Gilbert Islands in accordance with the “coin” operation instruction formulated by the Joint Chiefs of staff, which triggered the battle between the United States and Japan for the life and death of Tarawa.
In the San h ú group of Gilbert Islands, there is one of the largest atolls, which is Tarawa.
From the air, Tarawa island is in the shape of isosceles triangle.
One side is 35 kilometers long and the other two sides are 25 kilometers respectively.
The continuous reefs only come out of the water at low tide.
Tarawa atoll is a typical oceanic atoll developed from a sunken volcanic heap.
Due to the crustal movement, the volcanic island sank into the sea, and the Shan h ú plate around the island gradually surfaced, forming an atoll.
The top of the volcanic island submerged in the sea has become a lagoon, forming a natural harbor.
The waves smashed the fragile Shan h ú reef and gradually ground them into gray sand to form a reef flat.
As long as it is slightly trimmed, it is an airport.
Originally, Tarawa was little known, and its name could only be found in the logbook of Pacific explorers or the book of colonial conquerors.
After the outbreak of the Pacific War, the Gilbert Islands greatly increased its strategic value with its unique geographical location, and became the focus of contention between the United States and Japan.
Tarawa is located about 2200 nautical miles southwest of Pearl Harbor and more than 1000 nautical miles southeast of Truk.
The Caroline Islands to the West and the Marshall Islands to the north were occupied by the Japanese.
In August 1942, after the Japanese occupied Tarawa, an airport was built there, which posed a great threat to the maritime traffic of the US military from Pearl Harbor to the central and South Pacific.
In order to carry out the 1943 counter offensive in the Pacific, the US military must remove this obstacle in its progress.
At the same time, after the disastrous defeat of Guadao, the Japanese army felt that in order to ensure the isolated island in the Pacific, in addition to strengthening the ground defense forces of the island, they should also prepare the base, so as to move and concentrate aviation forces, and launch a fleet decisive battle around the attack and defense war of the isolated island in the future.
Therefore, Japan’s wartime base camp decided to adopt the defense strategy of “ensuring important areas”, that is, to establish a defense line in the archipelago with Rabaul as the core in the southwest.
The outposts on both wings of the defense line, Bougainville Island, Shortland Island, New Georgia Islands, Marshall Islands and Gilbert Islands, were fully defended to prevent the Allied counterattack.
Since the beginning of 1943, the Japanese Navy has increased its troops to the above-mentioned garrison islands.
On February 25, the Japanese Navy established the third special base, which is responsible for the defense of Gilbert Islands, Nauru and ocean island.
Japanese naval command minister Takeshi Nagano incorporated the 7th special marine corps into the 3rd special base.
The headquarters and main force of the third special base are deployed on Tarawa atoll, and the rest are deployed on makin Island, Nauru Island and ocean island.
Rear admiral Keiji chaizaki, who served as the commander of the third special base, was born in a small businessman.
In the past 35 years, although he has paid much more hardships than others, he still has no great achievements.
Many generals of his time were decorated with a general flower more than him in this “Jihad”, but he was still unknown.
Every time I think of this, the genetic genes of the small businessman who must make a profit began to work.
Now the opportunity has finally come.
This is Tarawa atoll.
There are not many troops in Chaiqi’s hands, and there are only 2619 officers and soldiers in the combat force.
Later, the Navy temporarily dispatched the 111th light engineering Regiment (1247 officers and soldiers) and the engineering team of the fourth fleet (970 officers and soldiers) to the island to repair fortifications.
He was forced to stay on the island to defend the island, which can be regarded as strengthening the defense force.
The equipment in his hands is also insufficient.
There are 20 fortress guns of various calibres, 25 field guns of various calibres, 7 tanks and 31 13mm machine guns.
This is all his possessions.
But he is good at calculation.
He wants to use solid fortifications and defense of key parts to make up for the lack of troops and equipment.
He focused his defense on the bettio Island, which is close to Tarawa, and defended it with heavy troops.
He drove away the laborers forcibly recruited from North Korea to rush to repair Fortifications on the island day and night.
They dug a large piece of land on the island into dense groundhog holes, covered it with coconut wood and corrugated iron, and then covered it with sand to form hidden tunnels, bunkers and dark fire points.
Each important support point is equipped with machine guns, artillery and tanks to form a cross fire network to control the beach.
An airport with three runways has been built in the center of bettio island.
The runway is surrounded by anti-aircraft machine gun positions.
If necessary, more than 100 anti-aircraft machine guns can shoot at the enemy infantry attacking the airport.
The reef plate at the beach and shallow water is an obstacle area, and many artificial reefs are set up to prevent the enemy landing craft from scouring the beach.
A fortress gun position was built on the beach full of mines, and a shore gun was equipped every 300 meters, all of which were 8-inch Vickers guns captured by the British army from Singapore.
The Japanese Army thought Tarawa was as solid as gold, and the Japanese English broadcaster miss hosuhiko, known as “Tokyo Rose”, used her sweet voice”Even if Americans send 1 million troops to fight for 100 years, they will not want to occupy Tarawa.
” In order to attack the Gilbert Islands, the U.S. military has made active preparations since July 1943.
It has successively built bomber airports in the Ellis islands, deployed shore based aviation forces in the Ellis islands, Eton island and Baker Island in the Phoenix Islands, and conducted landing combat training for the 2nd Marine Division in New Zealand and the 27th infantry division in Hawaii.
From September to the eve of the war, the US aircraft carrier special task force and shore based aviation forces systematically attacked the Gilbert Islands and the important Japanese aviation bases around them, especially the multiple attacks on Rabaul, which caused heavy losses to the Japanese joint fleet and was no longer able to resist the attacks launched by the US military in the Gilbert Islands and subsequently in the Marshall Islands.
Then, the 5th Fleet of America’s huge maritime steel fortress began to operate according to the scheduled battle plan.
At the end of October, U.S. shore based aircraft began to fly to Funafuti and nanomea Air Force bases to assemble and prepare to provide air support to the fleet.
At the same time, various naval ships have also pulled anchor and set sail.
The first batch of surface ships, consisting of three aircraft carriers, four battleships, four cruisers, 14 destroyers and two oil tankers, sailed from Pearl Harbor to EFAT island on October 21 and joined the Marine Corps.
The targets of the U.S. military attack on the Gilbert Islands are makin Island, bettio island and abema island of Tarawa atoll.
The second US Marine Division and the 27th infantry division are responsible for this landing operation.
More than 200 ships of various types and more than 1000 aircraft of various types served as cover and support.
On November 20, the North Road commando composed of a regiment of the 27th infantry division and its supporting forces and the South Road commando composed of the 2nd Marine Division launched attacks on makin island and bettio Island respectively.
At 3:15, the first landing troops of the 2nd Marine Division boarded the amphibious landing craft.
At this time, there was silence on bettio island.
At 5:07, two red flares sprang up over the silent bettio Island, and the Japanese shore artillery group fired at the American ship.
The powerful US fleet began to fight back.
The battleship “Maryland” trembled, the muzzle of the main gun spewed orange flame, drew a red trajectory in the air, and sent the shells of the 16 inch cannon to bettio Island, followed by “Colorado”, “Tennessee”, “New Mexico”, “Indianapolis”, “Pennsylvania”, “Mississippi” Battleships and cruisers such as “Idaho” also joined the spectacular artillery chorus.
The shelling was fierce and lasting.
The explosives danced in the air like a waterfall pouring down from the sky.
It seemed that the whole bettio was about to collapse in the smoke at sea.
At 5:15, the US carrier based aircraft roared over the landing fleet, rushed at bettio and dropped a large number of bombs.
Bettio was submerged in fireworks again.
The first wave ends and the second wave follows.
The aerial bombardment lasted an hour and bettio was beyond recognition.
For the heavy artillery fire of the US Army, the Japanese army initially used shore artillery to shoot at each other, but their shelling was weak compared with that of the US Army.
Commander chaizaki knew that the Japanese army could not cope with the powerful air and ship firepower of the US Army.
He decided to stop the shelling, deal with their landing soldiers with the saved shells, and focus the attack on the landing US troops.
However, the US military does not know all this.
They were intoxicated by their own thoughts.
This is the beginning of the US military disaster.
At 6:30, after the US military could not hear the Japanese artillery shelling, it thought that there were no more creatures left on the island, so it stopped shooting and prepared to land.
Rear admiral Harry hill, who commanded the preparation of naval gun fire, proudly said to rear admiral Julian Smith, commander of the 2nd Marine Division, “you can go ashore.
It seems that your soldiers just have to go to the island.
” At 7:20, when the landing US troops entered the range, the Japanese guns rang out.
In an instant, several landing boats were sunk, and a gray body of US soldiers floated on the oily sea.
At first, American officers and soldiers thought it was their own artillery fire by mistake, but when they knew it was Japanese artillery fire, they were stunned.
They really don’t understand how the Japanese have such strong vitality! The landing fleet drew back in disorder, and the powerful firepower of the US army began to threaten again, and almost all the exposed Japanese artillery positions were destroyed.
At 0900 hours, the landing signal rose, and the amphibious armored vehicles lined up roared and rushed to the shore.
At this time, the small and medium caliber artillery of the Japanese army exposed the muzzle from each bunker on the island.
Machine guns and artillery roared, throwing death nets at the Americans.
As the morning tide receded, the beach was covered with the bodies of Marines shot and killed by the Japanese army.
At 0920 hours, the US military bombed bettio island by sea and air.
After the artillery fire extended, the Marines began to rush for the beach and land again.
All kinds of landing boats and amphibious armored vehicles rushed up.
After a hard and fierce battle, they finally succeeded in rushing for the beach.
In the second beach landing, a lieutenant named Si was always connected with this isolated island in the Pacific Ocean.
The assault platoon led by Hawkins took a short rest after the first beach retreat, and then took the landing boat as the landing task of the first echelon.
The landing craft put on full steam and headed for the beach.
However, the captain forgot his position in a panic.
The landing boat hit the reef 700 meters away from the coast and couldn’t drive any more.
Hawkins immediately realized that the landing craft hitting the reef would soon become a live target for the Japanese, so he quickly ordered the assault platoon: “swim ashore immediately.
” As soon as the voice fell, rows and rows of 47mm anti-aircraft artillery shells roared and leveled.
His two soldiers fell into a pool of blood without even humming, and fresh blood splashed all over Hawkins.
He didn’t care to see if he was hurt, so he led his men to jump into the sea and go upstream to the shore.
However, the enemy’s guns were fierce.
Whenever the steel tide of the Japanese army swept over the sea full of heads and hands, many people were shot and blood poured out of the sea.
At 9:20, Hawkins and his assault platoon finally approached the shore.
In front of the beach was an open area.
Behind the open area, many Japanese fire points were built on the seawall, on which machine guns and artillery were mounted. U.S. aircraft and naval guns used 3000 tons of steel explosives and did not destroy these fortresses.
This task had to be left to the soldiers of the Marine CorpsBritish admiral Ramsey, who had successfully organized the Dunkirk retreat, will now be responsible for commanding a huge task force to send the allies to the European continent.
Under the command of the supreme command, he will “command and control all naval forces (except long-range cover forces)” and “direct command in the landing area near the coast of France”.
The Allied Supreme Command assigned the following tasks to the naval forces: make the landing forces arrive at the scheduled landing beach safely and on time, cover their landing, then support and supply our shore forces, and quickly transport the follow-up forces to land.
This is a huge battle plan.
In order to accomplish the above tasks, it is necessary to mobilize the largest naval fleet in history: 2468 landing ships, 1656 barges, trawlers and ferries, and 423 auxiliary ships.
There are also 1260 merchant ships to support the first echelon.
In short, 7000 ships carrying 100000 soldiers will cross the Strait under escort and arrive at the designated place on time in the specified order.
In this way, a large number of battleships, shallow water heavy artillery ships, cruisers and destroyers must support landing operations during landing.
There should be offshore patrol boats to resist the attacks of enemy submarines, secret weapons and low altitude aircraft.
Ramsey believes there must be at least 702 combat ships and tries to make this number acceptable.
In the above amazing figures, mine sweeping ships are not included, and the mine sweeping task is very heavy.
According to preliminary calculation, about 255 mine sweeping ships and marker ships are needed.
In order to enable such a huge fleet to complete their respective tasks in an orderly manner in complex operations, Ramsey divided the whole landing area into five areas from west to East: Utah, Omaha, Gould, sward and beno, and established a concise and efficient command system and beach service organization.
With the completion of various plans, the day of implementing the “overlord” operation is approaching day by day.
At this time, Morgan received a report from a scientist who claimed to know very well about Normandy.
He said that the beach in the “Omaha” area was only covered with a layer of gauze on the surface and a large amount of mud below.
The report shocked the Allied generals, because if so, thousands of allied vehicles would fall into mud before reaching dry land.
In order to find out the matter, the American torpedo boat crew accepted a very dangerous task to retrieve several barrels of sand at each landing point in the Omaha section! In fact, this operation is only a small side of the extremely arduous preparations before landing operations.
As early as a year ago, the Allied naval and air forces began reconnaissance activities and tightened mine laying operations.
With the assistance of the Bomber Command, the British Navy’s mine laying boat, patrol boat and torpedo boat detachment deployed 6850 mines from April 17 to June 5 alone.
The air force operation plan, code named “transportation”, which aims to isolate the battlefield, has also been implemented since April 17.
This action interrupted all the railway transportation across the Seine River from Paris to the sea, restricted the construction of German coastal fortifications, and had to use 28000 workers to repair the railway.
Before the battle started, the Navy and air force took these actions in advance.
At the same time, the army and Navy responsible for the landing mission also conducted many simulated landing exercises.
The two comprehensive rehearsals at the end of April and early May pushed the joint training to a climax.
From the night of April 26 to the early morning of April 27, the formation sailed to the landing site, escorted by minesweepers, passed through Lyme Bay, carried out “naval gun fire reconnaissance” on slymton beach, followed by “assault landing” on the morning of April 27, and then unloaded and followed up by the second ladder team.
However, Nine German submarines from Cherbourg suddenly attacked the landing transport team of the second echelon, killing 197 sailors and 441 Army soldiers, and all the standby tank landing ships were destroyed.
These losses did not shake the determination of the allies to continue the exercise.
On May 3, the “Fabian” exercise, under the command of admiral Ramsey, began.
This is a multi arms joint exercise that strives to be the most realistic.
In addition to not crossing the Strait and landing in Normandy, others are as close as possible to the real landing operations.
As the scheduled landing time approached, the south of England became more and more like a barracks, and many new regulations began to take effect here.
In March, non military transport with the rest of the UK was banned.
In April, residents were banned from entering the coast between Norfolk and Cornwall peninsula.
In late May, all the crew members were locked up on their ships.
The army’s barbed wire encampment was closely monitored by 200 anti intelligence personnel.
After May 25, all the letters of the personnel participating in the landing operation were detained.
While taking these strict preventive measures, in order to deploy the German army in Denmark, Norway, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Belgium Luxembourg’s nearly 90 divisions were contained far away from Normandy, and a series of camouflage and deception measures codenamed “perseverance” (divided into “Southern perseverance” and “northern perseverance”) were implemented one after another.
According to the “Southern perseverance” plan, the “landing ships” used as props in many films appear on the Thames and Medway rivers, and a large number of “tanks” appear in the areas that can be photographed by German planes.
People have gone to the British camp near Dover, which is empty, and there are still cooking smoke and trucks running.
The famous general came to Britain from the United States and took up the post of commander of the “5th group army group” with 50 divisions and more than 1 million people.
There are frequent telegrams in Dover.
The “oil terminal” caught fire after being attacked by enemy fire.
Both Calais and Normandy were heavily bombed, but the former was obviously more than twice as heavy as the latter.
The “northern perseverance” plan falsely set up a “fourth group army”, which claimed to have 350000 people.
In fact, only one battalion unit was working nervously with radio.
The “perseverance” plan made the German army mistakenly think that the US “group 1 Army Group” would land in Calais, so that the German 195th division was in full readiness on the coast of Calais.
Around the landing time – H (6:30), the three allied services had a heated debate.
The average tidal range in Normandy is 5.
4 meters, the beach slope is gentle, and the depth of the beach head is more than 300 meters at low tide.
In order to deal with the obstacles arranged by the German army on the water beach, the army advocated landing at the high tide to shorten the time for the troops to pass through the beach, while the Navy insisted on landing at the low tide to facilitate the landing ships to grab outside the obstacle areaBeach and naval engineers break barriers.
Both sides hold their own views.
The command department had to compromise and decided that h should land at 1 ~ 3 hours after the lowest tide, between 12 minutes before sunrise and 15 minutes after sunrise, that is, just between the high tide and the low tide.
The dispute between the Navy and the army was settled, and the air force proposed that there must be a good moonlight on the night of landing for airborne operations.
In this way, in the first ten days of June 1944, the days that basically met the requirements of the three armed forces were three days from May to July.
At the end of May, Eisenhower initially decided that June 5 was d day.
However, there are unexpected storms.
From June 1, atmospheric disturbances are forming over the Atlantic, and several low-pressure troughs are approaching between Newfoundland and Ireland, which indicates that there will be a long period of bad weather in the English Channel.
Eisenhower was extremely anxious.
Since June 5, Eisenhower has listened to the weather forecast with senior generals twice a day.
The weather in the English channel is becoming more and more worrying day by day.
On June 2, the entire North Atlantic was filled with a continuous low-pressure air layer.
On June 3, there was unstable weather in the westerly zone.
There was a high pressure over Greenland and Azores respectively, and the low pressure between the two high pressures crossed the Atlantic in the northeast direction.
The wind and waves are likely to make June 5 unable to become d day.
At this time, the whole of Britain was full of Allied soldiers.
During the day, they marched on the rural roads with weapons and field equipment.
At night, they took armored vehicles through the towns and villages controlled by lights.
Countless columns concentrated towards the port and boarded their ships.
At the same time, paratroopers also boarded transport planes and gliders at 20 airports.
It can be said that the sword is out of the sheath and the arrow is on the string.
At this moment, this powerful army will leap across the English Channel with unprecedented amphibious landing as soon as the time to release energy comes.
If you push the action date again and again, it will affect morale and the accumulated energy will be consumed.
In that case, not only will all the preparatory work for landing in the past six months be wasted, but also the whole plan to attack Europe is likely to fail.
However, just as Eisenhower and senior allied generals were at a loss about the weather, the weather director sent them a good news that made them overjoyed: “from the morning of June 6, there will be two days of good weather.
” But then he added, “there may be a storm in two days.
How long the storm will last is uncertain from the weather map.
” This is not a superfluous supplement, which makes the just active atmosphere suddenly dull.
What should I do? Will it operate on June 6, or will it be postponed? Eisenhower decided to take action as soon as the situation was confirmed.
Ramsey keenly felt that the supreme commander had made a decision, so he issued an order and finally determined that the landing time was H.
The improvement of the weather was confirmed, and Eisenhower asked the commanders again: as usual, he was eager to launch an attack, Ramsey agreed, and Mallory was full of hope.
Eisenhower sat alone in silence and thought for a moment.
At last, he looked up and said firmly, “OK, let’s act!” At this time, the hour hand is pointing to 4:15 on June 5.
The evening of June 5, 1944 was an unforgettable moment.
The English channel is stormy, rough and turbid.
A landing fleet with more than 5000 ships, the largest in the history of human war, set sail from the south coast of England.
Tens of thousands of allied heavy bombers led the fleet.
In addition, there are 23000 paratroopers and commandos carried by gliders ready to occupy important bridges, roads and other transportation hubs.
Followed by 176000 offensive troops and 20000 military vehicles.
All these troops and vehicles had to board the Normandy coast, a French territory occupied by the German army, within 48 hours.
The landing transport team struggled to overcome the influence of waves and tides and tried to maintain the correct course.
Many small ships had to be dragged forward.
The landing transport formation is getting closer and closer to the coast.
The minesweeping ships in front have opened up channels in the enemy’s mine obstacle area, and set up lights with the help of patrol boats.
The starboard side is red and the port side is white.
The ships behind carefully followed the marked passage to Normandy.
Not only did the Germans not realize that the soldiers had pressed the border, but they thought that the allies could not take large-scale landing action in such bad weather.
Therefore, the normal patrol of surface ships has not only been cancelled, but also relaxed from top to bottom.
Field marshal Rommel, who was in charge of commanding all the garrisons from Scandinavia to Spain, returned to Germany on the morning of the 5th to congratulate his wife on her birthday.
Front-line officers rest in place.
Division level officers left Normandy for Rehn to participate in the scheduled exercise.
At dawn on the 6th, when the sleepy German army found a large number of ships gathering at sea in the hazy moonlight, it was too late.
All the ships of the Allied landing transport team have arrived at the transfer area on time, and the largest landing in history is about to begin! According to the scheduled operational plan, the landing beachhead of the US military is the “Utah” beachhead and “Omaha” beachhead extending eastward along the lower half of the east coast of the Constantine Peninsula to the east of bessin port, which are held by the US 1st group army under the command of Bradley.
The landing beachhead of the British and Canadian forces extends eastward from port bessin to “Gold Beach”, “Juno Beach” and “sward Beach” in uystleon, which is served by the British Canadian group army 2 under the command of lieutenant general miles Dempsey.
The whole operation of the “overlord” plan was commanded by British Army lieutenant general Montgomery entrusted by Allied Supreme Commander Eisenhower.
The air bombing prepared for fire began at midnight.
1056 British Heavy Bombers poured more than 5000 tons of bombs into the 10 most important German coastal artillery companies and communication facilities near the landing site before 5:00.
Then, 1630 “liberator”, “fortress” and medium bombers of the 8th and 9th air teams of the US army attacked the German fortifications until 10 minutes before the troops began to seize the beach.
For a moment, the mountains shook and the earth moved, and the fire burst into the sky.
The enemy cried and howled, and shrank in the fortification, afraid to look up.
Airborne raids also began at midnight.
All the soldiers of the 6th airborne division of the British army and the 82nd and 101st Airborne divisions of the US Army wore armbands decorated with exquisite Eagle patterns and were fully armed.
They flew to the French sea in 1100 aircraftThe hinterland of the coastline.
After airborne, they launched an attack on the German army several hours ahead of the landing force, occupied the important targets of the landing site, and blocked the German armored forces to ensure the success of the frontal landing.
After the firepower preparation is completed, the Minesweeper starts to carry out mine sweeping in the transfer area, the landing channel, the approach channel of the firepower support ship and the firepower support area.
Then, the offensive troops were carried by landing boats and went straight to the beach.
The most exciting assault landing in the landing operation began.
“Utah” beach is the landing site of the 4th Infantry Division of the US Army.
It is a 7-mile beach on the East Bank of the Constantine peninsula.
The beach itself is a sandy slope with small slope and built with anti landing obstacles.
Then there is the dry sand beach, followed by the low sand dune area of 90 ~ 136 meters.
A low concrete fort is built on the side of the sand dune to the sea, and behind the beach is a submerged pasture.
At 4:05, the eastern sky gradually showed a white fish belly.
The U.S. transport ship “beifield” and its accompanying ships anchored here and the transfer began.
At this time, they are 19 kilometers away from the high tide line of the beach.
The whole landing force is organized into 26 boat waves.
They will impact the beach under the guidance of the control boat.
At 5:30, the naval guns began to carry out intensive fire preparation, and the overwhelming artillery fire made the landing soldiers unable to see any targets on the coast.
The first wave of landing craft can only sail to the landing point by the course indicated by the compass.
In the original h, they completed the landing on time, but they immediately found that this was not the original landing point, but 2000 yards south! They also found that the fortifications here were few and weak, and there were no mines.
This unexpected discovery made the landing commander change his original determination, and the assault boat waves landed here.
The landing in Utah became exceptionally smooth.
By evening, most of the landing troops had reached the main road line between kalantan and St.
The 4th division of the United States paid only 197 people and broke through Hitler’s “Atlantic barrier” here.
The “Omaha” beachhead is the landing beachhead of the 1st Infantry Division and 29th Infantry Division of the 5th army.
This landing beach is far less fortunate than the “Utah” beach.
The beach head of “Omaha” is 6.
4 kilometers wide, and there is a 30 meter high cliff on both sides to block the beach surface.
Not far from the shore, there is a highland at an altitude of 45 meters.
Half of the beach has been densely set with 3 drainage barriers: “Belgian cowshed door” – 7 × 16 foot steel frame with many pie shaped mines upward.
Wooden or concrete horses with a longitudinal depth of 8-10 feet, 13 of which are hung with mines.
All the horned steel horses are hung with mines.
The flat beach is covered with anti tank guns and mines, and there are countless fire points around each passage.
What’s more terrible is that the Allies’ understanding of the situation here is far from the reality.
The defense here is not the 76th division of coastal defense with poor combat effectiveness originally envisaged, but the 352nd Division of German army with strong combat effectiveness.
In the western section of Omaha, 13 minutes before h o’clock, 28 Land and water tanks began to climb the beach, but they were soon hit back.
Two tank landing boats were punctured on the beach, and nine tanks were hit and set on fire.
The eastern section was worse than the western section.
Only 5 of the 32 tanks designated to land in the eastern section landed, and a considerable number of tanks sank to the seabed.
Although the first boat wave started landing at h o’clock on time, the formation was disordered by smoke, strong wind and tide.
The soldiers braved the fierce shooting impact of the enemy in three or four feet of water, and many people died under the muzzle of the German army and in the rising tide.
In the afternoon, when the B formation of the second echelon arrived, the situation had greatly improved.
By dark, the troops had advanced 1 to 1.
Although they did not reach the predetermined target, they finally broke through the “Atlantic barrier”.
The most noteworthy landing of “Omaha” was the battle of Cape hawk.
Hawke cape is a blunt triangular Cape, standing on a narrow rocky bank, 35 meters high.
The German army deployed a 155mm artillery company on it, with a range of 22500m.
Its firepower controlled the two landing areas of “Utah” and “Omaha”.
If this firepower point is not taken out, it will cause great casualties to the landing forces.
Although allied aviation has bombed Cape hawk three times since April 14, no one can say whether these bombing and shooting have made the enemy shore artillery ineffective.
After several considerations, Bradley decided to send the second US Army mobile battalion under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Rudd to complete the task of attacking Cape hawk.
However, the second strategy is not to start the camp.
When transferring in the transfer area, a landing boat was filled with sea water, and the immobile team members had to scoop the water out of the cabin with steel helmets.
A landing craft sank, but fortunately all the people were rescued.
Another landing craft carrying supplies was buried at the bottom of the sea with all the crew.
The captain of the British patrol boat, who served as a guide, mistook the west corner of L á ng for the horn of hawk.
Fortunately, he soon found out, but it was delayed by 35 minutes.
The landing craft approaching Cape hawk shot the climbing rope at the cliff with a rocket to hook it to the edge of the cliff.
150 immobile members climbed up the top of the cliff along the rope under the cover of naval gun fire.
The team members found that the guns on the position were fake guns made of telegraph poles after they successfully climbed the top.
The Germans had moved their guns to the rear a few days ago and planned to put them back after the camouflaged fortifications were repaired.
However, the German Gunners remained in the position.
When they found the landing U.S. military immobile members, they hurriedly shot them with rifles.
The immobile team divided their forces in two ways, one to attack the enemy on horn hawk and one to the main road from grancon to viye tree.
They found four 155 mm guns and a large amount of ammunition transferred from Cape hawk in the field, and quickly blew them up, opening up a way for the beach landing forces.
The G formation landing in the “gold” area arrived in the area at 5:30.
From 5:45 to 7:25, the naval gun fire preparation made the counterattack of the German shore artillery company insignificant.
At 7:25, the 50th division landed on time.
The biggest difficulty they encountered was that there were many more obstacles here than expected, and the tide rose so fast that the land and water tanks could not get into the water.
After the obstacle removal ship arrived at the shore, it had to be carried by the tank landing boat to rush for the beach immediately.
The naval gun suppressed the fire of the enemy on the shore, and the troops were able to move forward continuously.
The two reserves of the 50th division landed on the morning of the 6th.
It was not until sunset that the Division advanced.
Bradley served as the commander of the group army and administered the 1st and 3rd group armies.
The first group army was commanded by Courtney Hodges.
The next objective of the Allied forces was to capture the Brittany peninsula.
The task was handed over to Patton’s 3rd army.
Patton believes that the battlefield situation has changed significantly at this time through in-depth investigation of the war situation.
From the comparison of forces between the two sides, the Allied forces stationed in Normandy have 10 troops, about 1 million people, deployed on the northeast line from aflanch to Caen, and another three divisions are about to leave for the mainland.
Germany has only seven troops, deployed on hundreds of miles of defense.
After the heavy blow of the allies, the morale of the German army became very low and was in rout.
In particular, the enemy’s left wing has collapsed and the door to Brittany has been opened.
In terms of the enemy’s force deployment, the main force of the German army is mainly deployed in the front of the Allied attack route, aiming to make positive resistance to the Allied forces and find opportunities to counterattack.
In order to achieve this goal, the German army withdrew all mobile forces from Brittany, which made the peninsula empty.
Obviously, the significance of the port along Brittany is not as critical as expected by the “overlord” plan.
In fact, it has lost its strategic significance.
To this end, Patton suggested that regardless of Brittany, the third group army pushed forward at full speed, destroying the main force of the German army and approaching ange.
The prudent Eisenhower and Bradley did not accept this bold strategic idea, and finally formed a compromise plan: the troops participating in the battle of Brittany were only sent to Middleton’s 8th Army, and the rest were put into the eastern front.
In Brittany, due to Middleton’s conservatism, he did not dare to make bold use of the mobility and speed of the armored forces, bypass the intermediate target and quickly advance to the final target Brest port.
As a result, the enemy had a breathing space and adjusted and strengthened Brest’s defense forces.
Fortunately, Patton’s direct intervention and timely adjustment of deployment saved the passive situation.
On September 19, under the cover of aircraft and artillery, the US military finally captured Brest port and annihilated 38000 enemy defenders after paying a heavy price.
So far, Brittany fell into the hands of the allies.
On the eastern front, Bradley commanded five armies to move forward.
Collins’s 7th army attacked motein.
On its right wing, two armies of the third group army, the 15th army under wade Heslip and the 20th army under Walton walker, advanced bravely, and Heslip’s tanks advanced 75 miles in three days.
However, in the left-wing Hodges 1st group army, the war was still very cruel, and the 19th army and the 5th army suffered great losses due to tenacious resistance.
But on the whole, the progress is fairly smooth.
By August 6, the first Canadian group army in kriller was ready to attack the fales highway.
The British 2nd group army in Dempsey has occupied the strategic highland of Normandy, Monte panson, and is advancing towards kondai and ajantang.
Hodges’s US 1st army is attacking donfron and alonson.
Patton’s 15th army was close to Le Mans.
At least 12 divisions were advancing along the Allied supply line south of aflanch.
The Germans are losing ground.
However, just then, the headstrong Hitler launched a large-scale counterattack.
Except for the attack launched by the German 1st and 2nd Armored Divisions on the junction of the 19th army, which broke into the US military position, crossed mortan and rushed to the front line of jovini and lemesnier tovi, the attacks of other German forces were severely frustrated.
At noon on August 7, the fog gradually dispersed, and the Allied air force exerted its power.
They bombed the invading German armored forces violently, forcing them to leave the road and drill into the woods.
Collins’s 7th army was just deployed on the two wings of the German army.
Turning around, it could attack both sides and wipe out the enemy army.
The German counterattack provided a good opportunity for the allies to encircle and annihilate their effective forces in Normandy.
After consulting with Eisenhower, Bradley immediately ordered Heslip to lead the 7th army to detour northward and attack algendon, so as to meet with the Canadian Army attacking fales, seal the German route to escape to the Seine River and encircle the enemy.
Heslip’s tanks rumbled into aljandang.
He asked to move on and capture fales, and Patton supported it.
However, Bradley objected that he would not allow Heslip to march towards fales to avoid “killing each other” with Canadian forces.
As a result, when Canadian troops entered fales on August 16, the gap in the encirclement was still 20 miles wide.
At this time, the German army began to retreat rapidly, so that the Allies lost a favorable fighter to wipe out the besieged enemy.
The mistake of this command made Bradley regret all his life.
On August 19, the US and Canadian troops joined forces in chabois and blocked the gap of the encirclement.
60000 German troops were wiped out, but more than 40000 people fought hard to protrude from the encirclement and retreated to the Seine River.
On April 15, 1944, when the French cavalry landed on the northern shores of the Mediterranean, the German cavalry attacked the northern shores of the Mediterranean.
Under the command of general patch, the 7th group army of the United States successfully climbed the beach and advanced northward.
On September 11, the “dragon cavalry operation” ended successfully with a successful meeting with part of Patton’s 3rd group army.
The battle of Normandy was one of the most deadly battles in Western Europe.
The German army lost more than 400000 troops (half of them were captured), 1300 tanks, 20000 military vehicles and 1500 artillery.
The Allied forces lost a total of 209672 people, of which 36976 were killed.
After this battle, the German army’s last hope of trying to set up an array in France to resist the enemy was dashed.
The remnants of the German army in France began to abandon their armour and scurry until they were shocked and settled down at the German border 325 miles east.
However, fascist Germany, which has gone, is not willing to accept their failure.
In order to reverse the war, a large-scale counterattack planned by Hitler is being plotted.