this is a key battle in the first World War, which can also be said to be a miracle.
After the Franco Prussian War, Germany and France formed a feud.
Then, France and Russia flirted and had a very iron relationship, and made an appointment to deal with Germany in the middle, which meant that Germany would face the risk of double line combat.
Germany is not a soft persimmon.
Naturally, it can’t wait to die for such an adverse situation, so it came up with a way: defend East and attack West.
The core of this method is to confirm that France is the most threatening enemy, and we must first focus on defeating France.
As for Russia, the territory of others is too large and has enough depth, which will not be able to be settled in a moment and a half, so we have to put it behind us slowly.
After the priority was set, Germany and France were ready to fight.
The chief of the general staff of the German army was Mao Xiaoqi.
Following the strategic plan of his predecessor schrifen, he only used the troops of nine divisions to monitor Russia, and concentrated the troops of 78 divisions of seven group armies to break through the northern border of France through the plains of Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
In fact, France has long had a “plan 17” for its attack on Germany.
It believes that the German army will certainly gather on the French German border.
Therefore, the French army only needs to carry out a proactive offensive here and recover the two provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost in the Franco Prussian War.
However, the facts proved that this plan was terrible.
It only considered the actions of the opponent under normal circumstances, but did not seriously analyze what would happen if the opponent didn’t play cards according to the routine.
As a result, Germany did not play cards according to the routine and invaded France through Belgium.
Later, it drove straight in like a sharp dagger.
This also makes the whole “plan 17” a joke.
The development of the situation can be said to be very unfavorable to France.
At the beginning of September 1914, the French 4th and 5th armies, together with the British Expeditionary Army, withdrew to the south of the man river and deployed defense on the front line from Paris to Verdun in an attempt to block the German attack.
At the same time, France still wants to play a defensive counterattack when arranging defense.
General Xia Fei, the chief of general staff of the French army, formed the 6th and 9th group armies and arranged them to the periphery of Paris and between the 4th and 5th group armies.
He hoped to fight him everywhere when he had the opportunity.
In order to pursue the fifth group army of France, the first and second group armies of Germany hurried straight to just 15 miles from Paris.
Although the French army had its own plans, the sight of this large army pressing on the border still terrified the citizens of Paris.
Subsequently, the French army’s plan of defensive counterattack let the German chief of general staff Xiao Maoqi know, so he immediately ordered the 1st and 2nd group armies to turn to defense east of Paris.
Unfortunately, what little Maoqi didn’t expect was that the commander of the first group army, Luke, unexpectedly came to “the general is out, and your life is not affected”.
Ignoring the orders of his boss, he continued to lead the army south and made a rapid advance.
Cluck’s wanton trip was great news for the British and French coalition forces, because in this way, the flanks of the German main force were exposed, which was an excellent opportunity for counterattack.
Of course, at the beginning, the French chief of general staff Xiafei didn’t see this opportunity.
For the continuous pressure of the German army, he still ordered the troops to retreat as usual.
However, just because he can’t see it doesn’t mean that others can’t see it.
Fortunately, the person who sees this is in the French camp, and his position is not low.
He has certain military power.
His name is Galliani, and his position is the commander of the Paris garrison.
Galliani couldn’t believe his eyes when he saw the trend of the German 1st group army.
Then he shouted excitedly: “it’s incredible that the Germans were so stupid to send their flanks to the door.
” Surprised, galieni would not miss such a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity.
He immediately ordered the 6th group army led by maunuri to be ready to attack the right wing of the German army, and then called the chief of general staff Xiafei to approve the action.
Unfortunately, Xiafei didn’t make a statement immediately.
Of course, it’s not that Xiafei is so stupid that he turns a blind eye to the obvious flaws.
In fact, he also has his own counter offensive plan, which also includes using maunuri’s 6th group army to attack the outside of the right wing of the German army.
It’s just that Xiafei is particularly stable or calm.
He hopes to have another day, So that the reinforcements can arrive and the 5th group army can be prepared to have enough time to win the cooperation of the British army.
In this way, the attack will be more secure.
However, the plans on the battlefield are usually fleeting.
Where can such hesitation be tolerated? Galliani was anxious and repeatedly called for orders.
Finally in the afternoon, Xiafei, the chief of general staff of the French army, agreed to his request and ordered the 6th group army of maunuri to launch an attack from the north bank of man.
However, the cooperation of the British Army envisaged by Xiafei was not so smooth.
The chief of staff of the British Army expressed no interest in attacking the right wing of the German army.
On the evening of September 3, cluck arrived at the man river, and the French 5th army he pursued and the British Expeditionary Force on the outside had crossed the man river earlier in the day.
The German army was already exhausted after the hurried March.
Xiafei also saw the situation at this time.
If he missed such an excellent opportunity of counterattack, he was afraid that it would have an irreparable impact on the future war situation.
Therefore, he personally went to the British command as a lobbyist on September 5, hoping to get the British commander-in-chief Sir French to agree to his plan.
Sir French finally agreed to Xiafei’s request and said that he would do his best to cooperate with the French army in the war.
So Xiafei returned to his headquarters and issued a mobilization order to the troops.
Also on September 5, when the first group army of cluck passed east of Paris and even saw the Eiffel Tower, his right rear wing was violently attacked by the sixth group army of maunuri.
The turning point of the battle begins from this moment.
Kluk immediately ordered his 3rd and 9th armies to turn back against maunuri.
The original task of the two armies should be to cover the right wing of the 2nd group army.
This mobilization created a gap of 20 miles between the 1st group army and the 2nd group army.
Luke is not a fool, he won’t.