In May 1942, the commander of Japan’s joint fleet, Yamamoto 56, sat in the office of the flagship, the Yamamoto battleship.

This towering ship has a displacement of 6800 tons, a main engine of 15000 horsepower and a total length of 244 meters.

Such a huge “monster” is a symbol of Daiwa nation in the eyes of the Japanese and regarded as a spiritual pillar.

At the moment, Yamamoto, regarded as the “soul” of the Japanese Navy, is thinking hard with a tea cup.

He was determined to make another bet like a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor and let the US Pacific Fleet feed fish and shrimp.

Within a few weeks after Japan’s sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, it immediately fanned out from the local islands, landed on the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines, occupied Guam and Wake Island, controlled Thailand, occupied Hong Kong, and invaded Singapore and the East Indies.

By the end of March 1942, the Japanese army had controlled Southeast Asia and the southwest Pacific, forming a peripheral defense line from the Kuril Islands in the north to Myanmar through Wake Island, Marshall Islands, Gilbert Islands, Solomon Islands, Timor Island, Java island, Sumatra island and Andaman Islands.

After a series of victories, the number of combat ships and aircraft carriers of the Japanese joint fleet has exceeded the strength of the United States in the Pacific.

In the view of Japanese militarists, the war situation seems to be very good.

When the whole country of Japan reveled in the achievements of the Japanese army in Pearl Harbor, Yamamoto said anxiously in the face of the praise of everyone: “we just awakened a giant.

” He is well aware that the United States has strong national strength.

The heavily damaged and paralyzed Pacific fleet will soon recover and further strengthen, and become a serious threat to Japan again.

Therefore, when there was a debate within the Japanese Navy on the future main attack direction of the fleet in early 1942, Yamamoto did not hesitate to advocate moving eastward, that is, taking the eastern Pacific Ocean as the main operation area, with the ultimate goal of completely destroying the US Pacific Fleet and its bases, and began to formulate the Midway Island operation plan.

Apart from Australia and Papua New Guinea, the Japanese were hesitant about what means they should use to lure the US Pacific Fleet out for a decisive battle.

After painstaking planning, Yamamoto chose Midway Island, about 1100 nautical miles west of Pearl Harbor, as the battlefield of the decisive battle, and put forward a careful plan – “operation No.

Wei”, which made the Americans fall into a trap and have to fight.

Midway Island is composed of two coral islands in the North Pacific, namely sand island and East Island.

It is named because it is located in the middle of the Pacific route connecting Asia and the Americas.

1136 nautical miles east of the island is Hawaii, the base of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, so Midway Island has become a vital outpost and gateway to its west.

If the Japanese captured Midway Island and used it as a base to attack Pearl Harbor, it would be difficult for the US military to stick to it.

The loss of Pearl Harbor by the United States means that the Japanese army completely controls the Pacific Ocean, and the west coast of the United States will be exposed to the muzzle of Japanese warships at any time.

Yamamoto is convinced that once Midway Island is attacked, the US Pacific fleet will all go out and spare no effort to defend it.

In this way, the Japanese fleet can fight a decisive battle with the US Pacific Fleet while capturing Midway Island and wipe it out.

Therefore, the “No. No. 1 operation” plan of Midway Island can kill two birds with one stone.

However, as soon as the “No.

1 operation” plan came out, it was strongly opposed by the headquarters of the Japanese army, but Yamamoto did not give in at all.

While the debate grew louder and louder, 16 American bombers from the Pacific Fleet secretly launched a series of bombings on Japan’s major ports.

Although the US military’s bombing caused little loss, it was the first air attack on Japan since the Russo Japanese war.

From the emperor to the civilians, they were all terrified, and the voice of a decisive battle with the Pacific Fleet was rampant.

On May 5, Yongye finally approved the implementation of the “No.

1 operation” plan by virtue of the order of the emperor.

Pre war preparations have also begun.

According to the “No.

1 operation” plan, more than 200 ships will participate in the war.

There are 11 battleships, 8 aircraft carriers, 22 cruisers, 65 destroyers, 21 submarines and more than 7000 combat aircraft.

The fuel consumption and navigation mileage of warships participating in the war will exceed the annual fuel consumption and navigation index of the Japanese Navy in peacetime.

Yamamoto divided his troops into three groups of North, central and South and five large tactical forces.

Among them, the main force is composed of 7 battleships such as Yamamoto’s “Yamato”, 3 light cruisers and 21 destroyers.

Its main task is to wipe out the US Pacific fleet that came to reinforce it.

In addition, Nan yunzhongyi led four aircraft carriers such as the “Chicheng”, 261 aircraft, two battleships, two heavy cruisers, one light cruiser and 11 destroyers to form the first mobile force.

Its main task is to bomb Midway Island and eliminate the U.S. sea and air power on and around the island.

The midway attack force is led by Shinzo Kondo.

There are two battleships, one light aircraft carrier, two seaplane carriers, eight heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, 24 destroyers, and 15 transport ships carrying 5000 midway landing troops.

The main task is to occupy Midway Island quickly.

The northern army, led by Xixuan xuzirang, is responsible for attacking the Aleutian Islands.

It has two aircraft carriers, two heavy cruisers, 12 destroyers and six submarines.

The mission is to attack the Aleutian Islands before attacking midway, confuse and contain the US military, and lure the US fleet northward.

The advance force is the “xiangtake” light cruiser and 15 submarines led by Koizumi Huijiu.

It is mainly responsible for reconnaissance and warning in the operational area and finding out the trend of the US fleet.

From the perspective of force deployment, the “No.

Wei operation” plan is the product of the “omnipotent theory of battleships” in the past.

With battleships as the main force and aircraft carriers as the mobile forces to support and protect battleships.

This has actually violated the taboo of modern naval warfare.

Because the decisive factor of fleet strength in modern naval warfare is not battleships, but aircraft carriers.

From this aspect alone, it is not difficult to find that Yamamoto’s attack is more or less dangerous.

In the second section, after Nimitz skillfully responded to the Pearl Harbor incident, in order to restore the vitality and confidence of the U.S. Navy, President Roosevelt personally reorganized the Navy’s senior command.

The approachable and resourceful admiral Chester Nimitz crossed 28 officers more senior than him and was killedPromoted to commander of the Pacific Fleet, replacing Admiral Kimmel.

Unlike Yamamoto, Nimitz quickly learned a lesson from the Pearl Harbor incident.

He used aircraft carriers as the main force of the fleet and four aircraft carriers as the core to form several small special task fleets, which skillfully fought with the Japanese army.

During this period, especially the bombing of Tokyo by Lieutenant Colonel Doolittle’s plane and the coral sea battle between the United States and Japan have greatly boosted the morale of the US military, accumulated valuable experience for aircraft carrier operations, and formed the operational principle of naval warfare with aviation as the core force.

In addition, another difference from Yamamoto is that Nimitz paid special attention to the collection of Japanese intelligence after taking charge of the Pacific Fleet.

This greatly benefited him.

The United States was able to decipher the Japanese code before the Pearl Harbor incident.

After the battle of the Coral Sea, Admiral Nimitz mastered the plan that the Japanese army would launch simultaneous attacks on Midway and Aleutian Islands in early June 1942.

By deciphering the intercepted Japanese cables, the US side not only found out the Japanese troops and ships participating in the battle, but also knew clearly the routes of each fleet and even the names of the captains.

Admiral Nimitz decided to build a three-dimensional sea, land and air defense system on Midway, and then set traps at sea to attack the Japanese army.

At the same time, from May 30, the reconnaissance aircraft began to carry out continuous alert and search within 700 nautical miles from the island.

But the objective facts still worry Americans.

Nimitz’s naval strength is not enough to fight the Japanese joint fleet: apart from the two aircraft carriers enterprise and hornet, only 8 cruisers and 14 destroyers can be mobilized.

Because after the Pearl Harbor tragedy, the US Pacific Fleet has almost lost, and the above-mentioned troops are its “all savings” in the Pacific.

On May 21, 1942, the aircraft carrier York City, wounded in the coral sea battle, staggered into Pearl Harbor.

Due to the emergency, as early as May 28, the enterprise and bumblebee left Pearl Harbor under the leadership of major general Spruance.

Under the command of major general Fletcher, the “York City” took a large number of technicians who were still engaged in emergency repair day and night, pulled out their anchors and set sail.

After meeting the fleet in the northeast of Midway Island, they entered the predetermined ambush position.

Less than an hour after the track left by the US fleet disappeared, the Japanese submarine set up a cordon here.

Due to the timely mobilization of troops, Nimitz had a fleet of three aircraft carriers, eight cruisers, 14 destroyers and about 20 submarines in his hands by June 1.

These numbers are naturally insignificant compared with Japan’s huge fleet.

He divided the pitifully small force into two aircraft carrier task forces.

Rear admiral Raymond Spruance led the 16th special task force, including the aircraft carriers enterprise and hornet, as well as five heavy cruisers and nine destroyers.

The 17th task force, commanded by rear admiral Frank Fletcher, consists of the aircraft carrier York City, two heavy cruisers and six destroyers.

Because of their over confidence in their superior strength, Yamamoto’s fleet repeatedly intercepted and heard frequent US military telegrams from Pearl Harbor, but it did not arouse vigilance, let alone find that the US Pacific fleet had been dispatched.

The combined fleet headed for midway in the fog.

In the early morning of June 3, the advance troops of the Japanese army in Aleutian approached the Dutch port braved the heavy fog.

A few hours later, 23 bombers and 12 fighter planes led by Shiga Shuxiong took off carefully from the flight deck of the aircraft carriers “Longxiang” and “Falcon”, and plunged into the Dutch port 180 nautical miles away.

After an hour’s flight, the bombers attacked the radio station and oil depot of the port.

The fighter strafed the seaplane parked on the water.

Except for one fighter, which was forced to land after being hit by artillery fire on the island, all the others returned safely.

The next day, the Japanese attacked the Dutch port again.

Four days later, Japan even landed on ATU and Kiska.

However, because Nimitz, commander of the US Pacific Fleet, had already cracked the Japanese code, he was not fooled, but focused on another large-scale fierce battle in the central Pacific.

At 8 a.m. on June 3, the seaplane taking off from Midway Island found the ship of the Japanese southern group.

The crew judged that it was the main force of the Japanese army.

However, Nimitz judged that these ships were not the main force of the Japanese army.

Therefore, he still held the US aircraft carrier in his hand and did not enter the battle.

These situations were reported to the “Daiwa” one after another, which made Yamamoto worried and his heart suddenly cooled.

Because this shows that the US military has discovered their attempt and the original surprise attack plan can no longer be realized.

In the third section, the Japanese aircraft carrier fleet was defeated in the Pacific Ocean.

At 4:30 on June 4, 1942, the Japanese army finally began to attack Midway Island.

When the sky in the East was slightly white and the water antenna was faintly visible, in the 240 nautical miles northwest of Midway Island, the aircraft engines of four aircraft carriers such as the Japanese “Akagi” started one by one, gradually forming a sharp hiss.

Amid the enthusiastic cheers, 72 high-altitude horizontal bombers, dive bombers and 36 “zero” fighters formed the first attack wave and took off in sequence within 15 minutes.

Led by youyongzhang City, the aircraft formation circled the fleet and roared to Midway Island.

Then, Nanyun ordered 108 planes of the second attack wave to prepare for departure.

The elevator lifted the planes to the deck and then pushed them to the take-off line.

The ordnance personnel dragged the torpedoes out of the ammunition compartment and loaded them on the plane.

When a red sun rose, the flight deck was full of planes preparing to attack the US special task force.

While the Japanese aircraft fleet attacking midway took off, the US “York City” also sent 10 dive bombers to search the location of the Japanese aircraft carrier.

On Midway Island, the US military sent 18 seaplanes and 16 B-17 bombers to find out where the Japanese fleet is.

At 5:30, a US seaplane found the aircraft carrier “Chicheng” and informed midway of its location.

The “enterprise” aircraft carrier intercepted the message and then transmitted the message to the “York City”.

At the same time, the locust like Japanese aircraft fleet was discovered by the US military reconnaissance aircraft 50 nautical miles away from Midway Island.

At 6:00 sharp, a bleak battle alarm sounded on Midway Island, and all US aircraft took off one after another.

At 6:45, the Japanese plane arrived and was already thereThe 26 us “wildcat” fighters that had been waiting for a long time immediately began to intercept, but they were immediately defeated by the Japanese “zero” fighters with excellent performance, and all Japanese bombers entered the sky over midway.

The empty airport and other ground facilities were indiscriminately bombed by the Japanese aircraft, but due to the advance air raid warning, the US air force, the main target of the Japanese aircraft, was not lost.

Youyongzhang City telegram reported the war situation of both sides to Nanyun.

Cunning Nan Yun sent only half of his planes to attack Midway Island.

In order to prevent the emergence of US aircraft carriers nearby, he deliberately left the first-class pilots with ship attack experience, and raised the remaining planes to the flight deck and loaded the ship attack torpedo.

After receiving Youyong’s telegram, Nanyun began to consider using the aircraft preparing to attack the ship as the second attack wave to attack Midway Island again.

In this way, the United States can take off on Midway and destroy it all on the ground when the oil burns out and lands.

As if to urge Nan Yun to make up his mind, at 7:10, a US plane taking off from midway appeared over Nan Yun’s aircraft carrier and began to launch a retaliatory attack on Nan Yun’s aircraft carrier.

Six U.S. torpedo planes and four bombers rushed to the Japanese fleet first.

In an instant, various anti-aircraft guns on the Japanese ship were woven into a fire net in the air, and the escorting “zero” fighters also swooped down.

In a twinkling of an eye, seven U.S. planes were shot down, and the remaining three narrowly escaped after carrying out an ineffective attack.

So what are the other main fleets of the US military doing in this kind of counter attack? In the early morning of June 4, 350 kilometers northeast of Midway, Fletcher’s 17th task force and Spruance’s 16th task force were sailing against the southwest wind.

At 0600 hours, the Scout of the Yorktown reported that two Japanese aircraft carriers were found.

Fletcher ordered to speed up and inflict heavy damage on the Japanese army.

At 0700 hours, the Japanese ship was within the attack distance of the US aircraft, and the “enterprise” and “hornet” turned to the wind to help the aircraft take off.

Soon, more than 20 fighter planes, more than 70 bombers and more than 40 torpedo attack planes went out together to attack the Japanese army.

Unfortunately, the torpedoes and escort fighters of the “hornet” dispersed on the way.

When they found the Japanese aircraft carrier, they immediately reported the new position of the Japanese army to the “hornet”.

Then the attack began without cover.

Japanese observers soon found 15 US torpedo planes.

In the absence of escort, the slow-moving US torpedo aircraft could not escape the palm of the “zero” fighter.

15 torpedo planes were shot down and only one of the 30 pilots survived.

15 minutes later, the torpedo planes of enterprise and York City also found the location of the Japanese fleet and launched an attack.

But they were also hit by “zero” fighters, and only six torpedo planes survived.

A total of 35 US torpedo planes were shot down before and after, while Japanese warships were not damaged at all.

The hornet’s dive bombers and accompanying fighters separated from the torpedo, but they did not find the Japanese aircraft carrier.

By the time they received the report on the new position of the Japanese aircraft carrier, there was not enough fuel.

As a result, 21 of the dive bombers returned to the hornet and 14 went to midway.

The accompanying 10 fighters had to make a forced landing on the sea because of lack of fuel.

In addition, the enterprise’s dive bomber could not find the Japanese aircraft carrier at the scheduled interception point.

However, their leader, after all, was experienced and decisively turned to the north to search.

Finally, 25 minutes later, they found the Japanese fleet dodging American torpedo planes on the sea.

But because of the cloud cover, the US military only saw two Japanese aircraft carriers, so they divided into two groups and attacked one each.

Those Japanese aircraft carriers did not expect the US aircraft to come so quickly.

When they just drove away the US torpedo aircraft and turned to the wind, they were preparing to take off the attack aircraft to attack the US aircraft carrier, the disaster had quietly come.

The continuous torpedo jamming has prevented the attack aircraft from taking off for more than half an hour.

Suddenly, the Japanese observer exclaimed, “the enemy plane is coming!” In the panic, only a few Japanese machine guns turned to fire, but this kind of small fight back didn’t have much effect at all.

With a few loud noises, a big hole was opened in the deck of the “Chicheng” and the central elevator was destroyed.

Then the bombs that had not been put into the rebound magazine in a hurry began to explode.

Before long, a new tragedy appeared: several other aircraft carriers suffered almost the same fate and were shrouded in flames.

After the “Chicheng” was shot, the fire continued to strengthen, and the command function as the flagship had been lost.

Nan Yunzhong was forced to leave the ship.

The “Chicheng” was on fire, but it still didn’t sink by dusk.

In addition, the “Kaga” suffered four bombs, and all the personnel on the bridge, including the captain, were killed.

The captain of the ship’s flight force, Lieutenant Colonel Gao jiutiancheng, took over the command.

The fire seemed to have spread to the whole flight deck, but the fire was controlled by several gasoline tanks.

In the afternoon, Gao Jiu ordered to abandon the ship.

At dusk, there were two violent explosions inside the “Kaga”, the hull cracked and sank rapidly.

The “Canglong” was hit by at least three bombs, the whole flight deck was shrouded in flames, and the ammunition stacked on the deck was detonated.

Therefore, it is difficult to determine exactly how many bombs were hit.

Within 10 minutes after being shot, the engine of the “Canglong” stopped running.

There was a violent explosion in the lower compartment.

The captain tried his best to save the ship, but the general situation was over, so he had to order to abandon the ship.

But the captain himself stayed on the bridge and survived with the ship.

In the evening, the stern of the “Canglong” sank first, and the bow stood high.

Just like the sinking posture of the “Titanic” in those years, its body also broke with a sudden “click”, and then sank slowly.

Although the situation of Nanyun Zhongyi’s fleet was very critical at this time, he still did not give up the plan to bomb the US fleet.

With his order, another 18 dive bombers were escorted by six “zero” fighters to the position of the US ship.

However, with the help of radar, the US military, which had long been on guard, knew the attack of Japanese aircraft 80 nautical miles away and took off fighter jets urgently to meet it.

With the Japanese army’s “chimney” as the target, there were only 3 bombers, and even one “Yorkshire bomber” hit the Yorkshire machine roomFor a moment, he fell into chaos.

Just when the York City was bombed, the reconnaissance plane of the Canglong returned to the sky over the Japanese fleet.

However, at this time, the “Canglong” was already a sea of fire, and the pilot had to land on the “Feilong” and report to Yamaguchi that the US military had three aircraft carriers, “York City”, “Bumblebee” and “enterprise”.

Yamaguchi was surprised.

Even if the attack wave he just sent was successful, the US military still had a 2-1 advantage.

He immediately dispatched all the remaining 10 torpedo planes and 6 fighter planes on board.

On the way, the second batch of Japanese aircraft encountered the only five survivors of the first attack, and they attacked the US ship again.

However, the York City repaired most of the damage within two hours.

When the second batch of attack forces of the flying dragon found the York City again, the US military was ready because of the early warning of radar.

As a result, the Japanese army suffered heavy losses and hit only two torpedoes.

Two hours later, the remaining five torpedo planes and three fighter planes returned to the “flying dragon”, because they didn’t recognize that they attacked the same aircraft carrier twice.

Yamaguchi believed that he and the US military had leveled off one by one.

Finally, before 16 p.m., a US reconnaissance plane found the location of the flying dragon.

So the US military took off 40 dive bombers to attack the flying dragon.

After the dive, they hit four bombs, and the “flying dragon” immediately became a sea of fire.

Then the US planes shifted their targets to bomb other Japanese ships.

After several hours of burning, the “flying dragon” floated until about 8:20 on June 5.

The survivors were rescued by the US ship and became prisoners of the US Army.

Soon after Yamamoto received the fire telegram from Nanyun’s “Chicheng”, he angrily ordered the main fleet to approach the naval battle site at high speed, trying to rely on its ships and artillery to fight a decisive battle with the US Pacific Fleet in order to save face.

However, when the Japanese fleet in the rush was gradually shrouded in night, the angry Yamamoto gradually calmed down.

Reason told him that if there was no air cover, the tragedy of Pearl Harbor would reappear after dawn, but the Japanese warships would be destroyed.

In the early morning of June 5, the iron faced Yamamoto made a painful order in the command ship’s own office: cancel the midway battle plan! The last scene of the midway naval battle was the sinking of the aircraft carrier York City.

Shortly after dawn on June 6, a Japanese submarine secretly approached the Yorktown, which was being towed to Pearl Harbor.

After the Japanese submarine launched torpedoes, the difficult “York City” could not dodge at all.

Two torpedoes in her body soon sank slowly, offering the last sacrifice for the sea war on Midway.

In this bloody midway naval battle, the US Army sank four Japanese aircraft carriers and a heavy cruiser at the cost of losing one aircraft carrier, one destroyer and 147 aircraft, and lost more than 330 aircraft and hundreds of highly skilled, experienced pilots and maintenance personnel.

This is the first disastrous defeat of the Japanese Navy, which has been traversing the Western Pacific since the Sino Russian Sino Japanese War of 1894-1895.

Since then, the Japanese army has lost its advantage in the Pacific.

Since then, the strategic offensive and defensive of Japan and the United States in the Pacific battlefield began to change, and Japan, which was once invincible, began to decline.