China’s “iceberg operation” plan is set up in the first quarter of the .
There is a chain of islands without stop, which is more than 700 nautical miles, between the Kyushu and Taiwan islands in Japan.
Okinawa, located in the middle of the archipelago, is the most important link in the island chain and the largest of them.
It covers an area of 1220 square kilometers and has a population of about 460000.
The main cities are Naha, Shouli and honbu town.
Okinawa is mountainous in the north and open and flat hilly in the south.
There are two natural harbors on the east coast of the island: Jinwu Bay and Zhongcheng Bay.
In addition to Naha military port, there are four airports on the island: Naha, Kadena, UDU and Nayuan.
A special building can be seen everywhere on Okinawa, that is, the round home tomb, which is built of solid stone.
After a little modification, the Japanese army has become a solid fortification.
Okinawa is not only the last barrier to cover Japan’s mainland, but also the last checkpoint for the U.S. military to capture Japan’s mainland.
Because of its important strategic position in Japan’s domestic defense, the island is known as Japan’s “national gate”.
After the U.S. military occupied the Philippines, Okinawa played a more prominent role in local defense.
For Japan, once Okinawa is lost, the sea and air supremacy of the mainland, North Korea and China’s coastal areas will be lost, and the maritime transportation line to Southeast Asia, on which Japan depends, will be completely cut off.
Therefore, the Japanese base camp judged that the US military must land on Okinawa before attacking Japan, so the Japanese army attached great importance to the defense of Okinawa.
Since the fall of the Mariana Islands in July 1944, it has focused on strengthening the defensive forces and fortifications of Okinawa.
When the Allied forces attacked Okinawa, the German troops on the European battlefield were like candles in front of the wind.
The Allied forces on the Western Front began the six-way general attack on February 11, 1945.
Berlin has no danger to defend, and the Soviet Army on the eastern line has reached a place only 22 kilometers away from Berlin (Germany officially surrendered on May 8).
At this time, part of the British navy had already been transferred to the Pacific Ocean to form a joint fleet with the US Navy to participate in the battle.
The Okinawa battle plan was issued by the commander of the US Fifth Fleet, general Spruance, on January 3, 1945.
On February 9, the specific operational plan formulated by lieutenant general Turner was issued.
A single plan document uses several tons of paper, which shows the degree of detail of the plan.
The code name of this operation is “operation iceberg”, and the number of troops mobilized can be compared with the Allied landing in Normandy on the north coast of France in 1944.
In total, more than 500000 land, sea and air forces participated in the Allied forces, including 180000 people in seven army offensive divisions and 270000 people in reserve divisions.
The first offensive force consisted of four divisions, forming the tenth group army of the United States, under the command of lieutenant general Simon boliwa Buckner, and three reserve divisions.
The navy is even more mighty, with 1500 ships covering the waters around Okinawa.
Among them, there are more than 300 combat ships, more than 1100 auxiliary ships, 34 aircraft carriers alone, 21 battleships, 30 cruisers and more than 2000 shipborne aircraft.
In addition, 4 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 6 cruisers and 10 destroyers of the British Pacific fleet also came to the war.
In addition to 100000 tons of ammunition and 1.
23 million tons of fuel, there are also a large number of military supplies, including 2.
7 million packs of cigarettes alone.
The Japanese army is still trying to resist tenaciously in the face of such a strong offensive force.
The strategic policy of defending Okinawa has been revised many times, but no good idea can be come up with anyway.
Finally, the base camp issued a “Essentials of island tactics”.
In the case of excessive disparity between the forces of the two sides, it decided to insist on delaying time, and stressed the need to avoid premature “jade fragments” and strive for a protracted war.
The Japanese army judged that the US military might attack Taiwan first and then Okinawa.
For Taiwan’s defense needs, the 9th artillery division of the elite troops stationed on Okinawa Island has been transferred from Okinawa.
In order to supplement this gap, it was originally planned to transfer the 84th division of Jilu from the mainland.
However, since the waters around Okinawa have been blocked by the US Navy, the 84th division stationed in Jilu cannot reach Okinawa.
Therefore, the army guarding Okinawa only has the strength of the 32nd army.
The 32nd Japanese army has two and a half divisions with about 80000 people, of which 67000 are regular army, and the rest are navy and newly recruited militia.
Commander NiuDao knew that the general situation was over and handed over all command of the operation to chief of staff Changyong and senior staff of bayuan Botong.
Changyong is the backbone of the young soldiers of fascism.
He has been involved in the instigation of all previous coups in Japan and has always done his best to be domineering.
At this time, there is no good way to fight, except for being rude and abusive to the people.
Finally, in the opinion of bayuan, it was decided to distribute more than 80000 people in the underground cave position for special defense.
Taking the natural barrier of steep mountains and narrow valleys in the south of Okinawa as the position, they placed mutually supportive artillery positions.
At the same time, a large number of bunkers, caves, bunkers and other firepower points were built, and trenches and tunnels were used to connect them, so as to fight a protracted war as far as possible and cause losses to the allies, so as to delay the allies and delay the time for the allies to attack Japan.
Most of the Japanese Navy had been annihilated long before the battle on Okinawa, and there was no strength to engage in naval warfare with the allies at all.
Nevertheless, they still put their only power that they think is elite at all costs.
On March 20, the commander of Japan’s joint fleet, Vice Admiral Toyoda, conveyed the battle plan to his subordinates, which was scheduled to focus on air force operations, concentrate aviation combat effectiveness and defeat the main allied forces coming to attack.
This operation is called “operation Tianhao”.
The “operation Tianhao” was decided according to the joint operation plan of the army and Navy drawn up on January 20, 1945: it is planned to carry out a protracted war in the periphery of Japan’s mainland, and make use of this gap time to prepare for a decisive battle at home.
The code name of the local decisive battle is “decisive battle”.
At this time, although the Japanese army had the name of the joint fleet, it had no reality of the joint fleet.
Half of the base’s aviation forces are “special attack aircraft”, or “meat bomb aircraft”, refitted from exercise aircraft.
Most of the special attack forces in the water are small submarines.
The United Fleet pinned its last glimmer of hope on the second fleet.
The fleet also has the giant battleship “Yamato” and the light cruiser “Yaya” and eight destroyers.
The Japanese army was weak, so they used the cruelest means to drive the people to die.
The Japanese army asked the residents of Okinawa, except the elderly and young children, to form a defense team or volunteer team to participate in the battleThen, the thick smoke caused by the fire rushed into the sky, dozens of aircraft on the aircraft carrier were destroyed, the deck was full of aircraft debris, the superstructure was beyond recognition and full of bullet holes, and hundreds of crew casualties had been caused.
The explosion and fire continued, and gradually spread to the ammunition pile in the engine room and rear deck, causing a larger explosion, with a plume of smoke as high as 600 meters.
Rear admiral Davidson, commander of the second battalion of the Franklin, saw that the aircraft carrier was seriously injured and informed the captain that Colonel gails ordered to abandon the ship.
But geles believed that as long as the necessary air and sea support and cover were provided, the Franklin could be saved.
Davidson agreed to his plan and immediately mobilized other warships of the second brigade to rescue.
The light cruiser Santa Fe used steel cables to tow the Franklin to prevent it from capsizing and sinking, and took away some of the injured crew.
Captain Giles first ordered that the ammunition compartment be filled with water to avoid a greater explosion, but after filling, the aircraft carrier began to lean to the right.
At 9:30, the boiler of the “Franklin” stopped working, the right inclination of the ship increased, and the right deck almost touched the sea.
“Santa Fe” was unable to control its inclination and was worried about being towed over by the huge ship body of the aircraft carrier, so it had to cut off the steel cable and give up the rescue.
The “Pittsburgh” heavy cruiser then came and arranged steel cables to stop the tilt of the “Franklin”.
After unremitting efforts, it finally stopped the tilt of the aircraft carrier.
The “Santa Fe” approached the aircraft carrier again, tied the steel cable to the front main gun of the aircraft carrier, and corrected the tilt of the aircraft carrier together with the “Pittsburgh”.
The officers and men on the aircraft carrier were fully rescued under the command of the captain.
Although sporadic explosions still occurred from time to time and the fire was still fierce, the danger of overturning was finally relieved.
The five destroyers of the second group provided cover for the aircraft carrier while rescuing the drowning crew around the aircraft carrier.
Since the sea area where the aircraft carrier is located is less than 100 nautical miles away from the Japanese aviation base, the danger of air attack by Japanese aircraft exists at any time.
Therefore, the rescue work is very urgent.
Many crew members on the aircraft carrier showed extraordinary courage and noble spirit of mutual assistance under extremely dangerous circumstances.
Sailor Donald Gary and more than 300 sailors were trapped in a cabin under the fifth deck.
When all contact with the outside world was interrupted, Gary found an escape way through a narrow ventilation duct alone in choking smoke.
He immediately returned to the cabin and led his companions to escape.
He made a total of three trips, bringing all the more than 300 people out of the desperate situation.
Despite the flying shrapnel, Joseph Callahan, the priest on the ship, comforted the wounded on the flight deck, prayed briefly for the dead officers and soldiers, and finally joined the fire fighting work.
His action infected and inspired many people.
With the strong support of all the officers and soldiers and the first and second groups of friendly ships, the “Franklin” which was so badly hit, miraculously put out the fire after several hours of hard work.
In the disaster, 724 people were killed and 265 injured on the Franklin.
Later, under the drag of the Pittsburgh, it returned to the ulixi base.
After a short period of emergency repair, it restored its navigation ability and returned to Brooklyn naval base in the United States on April 28 under the escort of cruiser Santa Fe.
“Franklin” is the aircraft carrier that suffered the most in the Pacific War but did not sink.
The rescue experience of the ship plays a great guiding role in the ship body design and pipeline system configuration of the aircraft carrier after the war.
Before the battle of Okinawa, Britain decided to send the aircraft carrier formation of the Pacific Fleet to participate in the battle of Okinawa.
This aircraft carrier formation was awarded the title of the 57th special mixed formation by the Fifth Fleet of the United States.
It was commanded by lieutenant general Rawlings, deputy commander of the British Pacific Fleet, and operated under the unified command of Spruance, commander of the Fifth Fleet.
On March 16, the 57th special mixed team set out from manus island and arrived at ulisi base on March 20 for supply and short rest.
On March 23, he sailed from ulixi to Xiandao islands.
At dawn on March 26, it reached 100 nautical miles south of gonggu Island, the main island of Xiandao islands.
Immediately, a carrier based aircraft was dispatched to attack the airport on the island.
After several days of air strikes, the Japanese army suffered serious losses to its aviation forces and airport facilities in this area.
So far, before the US landing formation reached the waters of Okinawa Island, the 58th and 57th special mixed formations had effectively weakened the Japanese aviation forces in the north and south directions of the Okinawa Islands and further isolated the Okinawa garrison.
In the southwest of Okinawa, about 15 nautical miles away from Naha, there are qingliangjian islands composed of more than 10 islands.
These islands are located in a sea area about 13 nautical miles long and 7 nautical miles wide.
The islands are full of cliffs and reefs.
On March 17, rear admiral brandy, commander of the 52nd special task force, rear admiral Kieran, commander of the 51st special task force, rear admiral Bruce, commander of the 77th division of the army, and captain Hanlong of the underwater blasting brigade worked out the landing plan for the qingliangjian islands.
According to the aerial reconnaissance, it was found that the defense of the Japanese army in the qingliangjian islands was very weak, so they changed general Turner’s original plan to attack one by one with the strength of a reinforced battalion, and decided to land on six large islands at the same time with the 77th division as the main force, striving to seize the qingliangjian islands at one stroke.
On March 23, rear admiral brandy commanded the 52nd special task force, which was composed of 18 escort aircraft carriers, 15 destroyers, 19 frigates, 70 minesweepers and some small ships such as gunboats and submarine hunters, to begin minesweeping the channels close to Okinawa Island.
The escort aircraft carrier sent carrier based aircraft to bomb the Japanese troops on Okinawa Island and kyeongryama islands, To cover mine clearance operations.
On March 25, two cruisers and three destroyers in the formation made advance fire preparations for the qingliangjian islands, and covered the underwater blasting brigade to spy on the beaches of the landing sites of the islands.
In the early morning of March 26, 11 battleships, 11 cruisers, 24 destroyers and 8 frigates of the first brigade of the 51st special mixed team carried out artillery fire preparation on Okinawa Island to attract the attention of the Japanese army and cover the landing on the qingliangjian islands.
At 4:30, the formation began to prepare for the artillery fire before landing on the qingliangjian islands.
At about 7 o’clock, the 77th division was transported by more than 430 landing ships.
The troops were divided into four routes.
With the support of sea and air firepower, they landed on sitting Jianwei Island, aja Island, qingliujian island and other islands at the same time.
The Japanese defense forces are weak and unable to carry out effective resistance.
By dusk, the US military had occupied the above four islands and began to deploy buoys and other anchorage facilities in the qingliangjian Strait.
After nightfall, the Japanese carried out a “special attack” on the landing U.S. military with suicide planes and suicide boats.
Although it caused some losses to the US military, it did not have much impact on the whole battle.
On March 27, the US army launched an attack on the other islands and soon occupied the whole qingliangjian islands.
The Japanese army did not expect that the US Army would attack the islands, so it was caught off guard.
With the development of the war, the belief that the Japanese army will win has long been broken, and the morale is very low, which can not be compared with the early stage of the war.
In this battle, more than 300 defenders on the main island of dujiafu fled almost without fighting and retreated to the mountains on the island.
The US military just wanted to seize an anchorage and didn’t care about the remnants of the Japanese army, so it didn’t organize a clean-up campaign.
Although these Japanese troops still have heavy weapons such as artillery, they not only did not take the initiative to attack, but even did not issue one artillery, so they “live in peace” with the US military until the end of the war.
This was unimaginable before.
It can be seen from the low morale of the Japanese army.
On the same day, the US military’s supply ships, oil tankers, repair ships, supply ships and other logistics auxiliary ships successively entered the qingliangjian islands, and soon established a supply and maintenance base here.
By the 31st, the qingliangjian anchorage had become a large-scale forward base and played a great role during the Okinawa campaign.
Another unexpected gain from the occupation of the qingliangjian islands by the U.S. military is that it captured more than 250 suicide motorboats and more than 100 people operated torpedoes deployed by the Japanese army.
It turned out that the qingliangjian islands were the suicide boat base of the Japanese army.
The Japanese army originally planned to use these suicide boats for night “special attack” when the US army landed on Okinawa Island.
The U.S. military’s attack and occupation of the qingliangjian islands thwarted the Japanese attempt to attack the U.S. fleet with suicide boats, which laid the foundation for the success of the Okinawa campaign.
In the battle of Qingliang islands, 530 Japanese garrison troops died and 120 were captured.
The landing troops of the 77th division of the US army killed 31 people and injured 81.
The Navy escorted and supported 124 people dead and missing and 230 injured.
On March 31, the 77th division of the U.S. military again occupied the qingilase island between the qingliangjian islands and Okinawa.
The field artillery group composed of two 155 mm artillery battalions quickly went to the island and established a position to support the Okinawa landing battle from the next day.
In fact, the US military’s artillery preparations for Okinawa have begun since March 26.
At noon on March 26, the first brigade of the 51st special mixed team began shelling Okinawa.
After dawn, the fifty-eighth special team of the US Army, the carrier aircraft carrier and the fifty-second escort carrier of the first brigade, the carrier aircraft, and the army air force that took off from Mariana, Philippines and even the Chinese mainland base also carried out a sustained and violent bombing of Okinawa island.
The number of aircraft participating in the bombing is large, and their tasks are also different.
Some carry out repressive bombing of the Japanese airport, some bomb the Japanese fortifications, some correct the naval gun fire, some take charge of air vigilance, and some carry out anti submarine patrol.
In order to effectively organize and coordinate, the U.S. military has specially established an air support control unit headed by Colonel Parker to exercise unified command and coordination over all aircraft participating in the war.
On March 29, because the US Minesweeper had cleared the mines in the channel close to Okinawa Island, battleships and cruisers were able to sail close to Okinawa Island and shoot accurately.
By March 30, the US military had been preparing for fire for five days, and the Japanese response was amazing – there was no return fire! You know, there are 100000 Japanese troops on Okinawa, but now it seems that they do not exist at all, which makes the US military feel very strange.
In the week before landing, the US artillery preparation consumed a lot of ammunition, with more than 40000 naval guns alone, including more than 1000 406mm shells, more than 3000 356mm shells, nearly 4000 203 mm shells, more than 4500 152 mm shells and more than 27000 127 mm shells.
The Japanese army shrank in deep tunnels, so the effect of bombing was not ideal.
On April 1, the landing of the US Army finally began.
The US landing formation from San Francisco, Seattle, Hawaii, New Caledonia, San Espirito, Gua Island, Saipan and Wright Island arrived in the waters of Okinawa at dawn and began to transfer.
At about 4 o’clock, Turner issued the order to “start landing”, and the warships of the US artillery support formation immediately started shooting to cover the landing forces to rush to the beach and land.
The second marine division first landed on the southeast coast of Okinawa and feinted to attract the attention of the Japanese army, disperse the Japanese army’s forces and create favorable conditions for the real landing.
At about 8 o’clock, the main attack force of the US military landing had stepped down from the landing ship to the landing ship.
The landing ship formed five attack waves and rushed ashore in a neat formation.
The first marine division, the sixth Marine Division, the seventh Army division and the ninety Sixth Army division landed about 9 kilometers from north to South on the west coast of Okinawa.
At 0832 hours, the first wave of landing troops rushed ashore.
At 9 o’clock, the sun rose and dispersed the light morning fog.
You can see the neat formation of tracked landing vehicles and landing boats on the sea, wave after wave, flowing in an orderly manner.
The whole landing process was unusually smooth.
The Japanese army had no resistance at all, which made the U.S. military quite baffled.
At 1000 hours, the US military occupied Kadena and udoku airports.
The US military thought there would be a bloody battle to win the two airports, but it didn’t expect to win them on the day of landing, and the airport facilities were intact.
Originally, the Japanese army planned to destroy all airport facilities before giving up, making it unusable for the US military.
However, the Japanese army deployed in the airport area is a special service brigade composed of strong men from Okinawa Island.
This force has lax organization, poor equipment and even worse morale.
Before the arrival of the US Army, it has been defeated.
Where do you remember to destroy the airport? Their dereliction of duty gave the US military a big advantage.
In the afternoon, the US military conducted a surprise unloading of materials.
At sea, the Japanese army did not send a plane or a warship.
On Okinawa Island, the Japanese army only had a small number of snipers’ light weapons shooting and mortar sporadic shooting, and the resistance was extremely slight.
By sunset, more than 50000 US troops had landed with a large number of artillery, tanks and quartermaster supplies, and a 14 kilometer vertical and horizontal line had been establishedA landing site about 5km deep.
Turner reported to Spruance and Nimitz that the landing was smooth and the resistance was slight.
From Turner to ordinary soldiers, the US military was puzzled by the mysterious disappearance of the Japanese army.
And coincidentally, it was April Fool’s day in the West.
Many officers and soldiers even thought: is this an April Fool’s Day joke of the Japanese army? On April 2, some US troops began to push eastward to cut off the Japanese defense line.
On April 4, two US Marine divisions crossed the whole island to Zhongcheng Bay on the east coast, occupied the central part of the island and divided the Japanese defense line in two.
The mission originally planned to be completed in 15 days was successfully realized in only 4 days.
It turned out that before the war, the Japanese decided to allow the U.S. military to “fully land, lure it to a place where there is no naval and air force fire cover and support, and then wipe out the landing forces at one stroke”.
Therefore, when the U.S. military landed, the Japanese army basically stood still.
On April 5, Toyota Deputy Wu felt that in the face of thousands of U.S. ships, a small number of aircraft attacks were of no help at all.
In order to cooperate with the anti landing operation on the island, it was decided to launch a large-scale air attack on the ships of the U.S. military in the Okinawa sea area from the next day, and invest the first, third, fifth and tenth aviation fleets of the naval shore based aviation force, the eighth flight division and the sixth aviation air force of the army.
The total number of aircraft reached 4000, and the operation code was “Ju Shui”.
“Chrysanthemum water” is the chrysanthemum in the water.
It is the heraldry pattern of the famous Samurai nanmu Zhengcheng in the 14th century.
Nanmu’s oath of “serving the country with seven lives” under the battle neutrality of great disparity means that he will be reborn and loyal even if he dies seven times.
He was highly praised by the Japanese for his feat of dying with the enemy in battle.
The special attack is codenamed “chrysanthemum water”, which shows the purpose of the Japanese army.
It is obvious that they are mainly suicidal special attack operations.
The so-called “special attack” refers to the attack aircraft carrying only one-way fuel.
All the spare load will be carried with bombs to impact the key parts of the enemy warship, so as to achieve the purpose of “one aircraft for one ship”.
This suicidal special attack appeared in Pearl Harbor incident, Biak landing war and Wright Bay naval battle, but at that time, the Japanese army called it “kamikaze special attack”.
This time, they wanted soldiers to serve the country with death like nanmu, so they named the special attack after nanmu’s Chrysanthemum water seal.
In addition, in order to strengthen the determination of the special attack team members to never return to the death, the Japanese army also adopted a “unique skill”: the landing gear of the aircraft was technically treated to make it fall off on its own once it took off.
In this way, the plane can’t land anywhere.
The pilot has no choice but to fight to the death, destroy the plane and kill people.
On the evening of April 6, the Japanese began the first “Ju Shui 1” battle, the largest of the 10 “Ju Shui special attacks” in the Okinawa campaign.
It was a cloudy day.
355 young pilots, wrapped in white silk and tied with white scarves, faced the direction of the Japanese Imperial Palace in the north, shook their arms and vowed to the Emperor: “we will be loyal to the emperor all the time, serve the emperor, and would rather be broken than destroyed.
Life is the imperial army.
After death, we will become an army God, have a long military movement, and win a decisive battle.
Long live!” Incense was swirling, mournful music was played, and the special attack team members drank the last cup of Jue Ming wine.
“Attack!” At the command, the team members boarded the cockpit with a serious and numb look, started the engine and left.
A cruel and terrible war between Japanese aviation and surface ships, which has been planned for a long time – “chrysanthemum water special attack”, began.
The Japanese army attempted to destroy the US fleet and landing ships with a large number of self killing aircraft, and then the Japanese army guarding the island fought back on a large scale to drive the US army out of the sea.
After nearly an hour’s flight, when reaching the waters of Okinawa, a huge fleet of 355 suicide planes and 344 bombers immediately attacked American targets on Okinawa Island and at sea.
The suicide planes were lined up in a straight line in the air.
The special attack team members held the belief of “jade fragments”, stared wide eyed, as if they were possessed, and braved the fierce anti-aircraft fire on the US ship, one after another hit the US ship.
All the fighter planes on the US aircraft carrier took off to fight together, and all the air defense weapons also opened fire.
The Japanese attack aircraft did not fall one by one, but fell layer by layer.
The sky was full of golden snakes dancing wildly, and the wreckage of the Japanese aircraft was floating everywhere on the sea.
However, there are still a large number of suicide planes struggling to break through the tight fire network of the US military.
Some hit US warships, some hit us transport ships, and some even directly hit the beachhead of the US military on Okinawa Island.
This almost hysterical “collective suicide” has terrified Americans.
Soon, 19 ships were destroyed and the newly built beachhead was beyond recognition.
The scale of the Japanese suicide plane, the ferocity of its attack, the madness of its attack and the ferocity of its destruction have left the US military helpless.
Even the strong willed Spruance is still in fear and reports to Nimitz that if the Japanese continue to carry out suicide attacks, serious situations will occur.
For Americans, the war situation is really critical at this time, because this is only the first of 10 “chrysanthemum water special attacks”! The initial success of the “chrysanthemum water special attack” has inspired the Japanese authorities.
On the one hand, they vigorously publicized the self sacrifice spirit of the special attack team members who were loyal to the emperor.
On the other hand, continue to expand the special attack team and use it frequently.
At 13:20 p.m. on April 11, the Japanese launched the “chrysanthemum water 2” operation again.
This time, 202 suicide planes and 190 bombers were dispatched.
The main target of this special attack was Mitchell’s 58th special task force.
At 1400 hours, a special attack aircraft, risking the risk of stalling and falling into the sea, crossed the dense bullet rain at ultra-low altitude and rushed towards the US aircraft carrier “enterprise”.
The ship mobilized almost all the firearms on board to shoot in the air.
However, a special attack aircraft still skimmed the ship’s side behind the right side of the enterprise and crashed into the lower part of the bow.
The fuselage fragments flew to the flight deck, causing a bomb hanging aircraft parked on the deck to catch fire and explode, and causing a fire on the ship.
At this time, the US “evil woman” shipborne fighter participated in the battle of intercepting special attack aircraft, and those special attack aircraft without any self-defense weapons simply became the target aircraft of American pilots.
Under the double attack of air and naval gun fire, more than 10 aircraft were shot and fell into the sea.
But the U.S. military is still defenseless.
At this time, two more suicide planes swaggered through the US military and quickly approached the battleship MissouriOne of the planes was suddenly shot and stalled, plunged into the sea, and the other dragged smoke into the deck of the Missouri.
In addition, on the sea surface of Okinawa, several warships of the US 58th special task force were attacked by Japanese suicide planes to varying degrees.
Japan claimed that it sank 49 US ships of all kinds.
The Japanese aircraft also suffered heavy losses, shooting down 312 aircraft.
The crazy suicides of Japanese pilots made Americans shudder.
Admiral Brown later said: watching a plane crash into your warship recklessly, the pilot was determined to blow it to pieces with you, which really solidified people’s blood.
With the “divine wind” rushing down, we were scared one by one, It’s like witnessing some kind of tragedy.
In an instant, we forget ourselves, forget that we are victims, and can’t help guessing what those people who fly from high altitude think.
The success of the operation “Ju Shui 2” has further stimulated the determination of the Japanese to carry out special attack and decisive battle.
At 7:20 a.m. on April 16, the Japanese dispatched 196 special attack aircraft and 200 bombers to launch the “Ju Shui 3” operation under the cover of 102 fighters.
Over Mitchell’s fleet, there were almost all dark Japanese planes.
I saw Japanese suicide bombers and heavy bombs flying down like demons dancing in the vast sea and air of Okinawa, posing a great threat to the US military.
At 9:11, two suicide planes suddenly jumped out of the low clouds and headed straight for the aircraft carrier brave.
The “brave” was unable to dodge and was hit by the flight deck.
A big hole was opened in the flight deck, and flames ran everywhere on the ship’s surface.
At this time, another suicide plane entered from the stern of the “brave” at a large angle of attack, then dived vertically and penetrated the flight deck.
The aircraft and bombs exploded at the bottom of the deck, with debris shooting everywhere, causing a large number of casualties.
The fire burned from the bow to the stern and burned between the decks at the same time.
The aircraft that didn’t have time to take off on the deck also became a big fireball.
The cruiser “EBER” was attacked by 22 suicide planes in 80 minutes, and a total of 6 Japanese planes directly hit the ship.
A suicide plane first broke through the dense barrage, dragged a long black smoke belt, rushed towards the EBER, hit the bow and blew up a big crack.
Since then, although the EBER fought back and shot down many Japanese suicide planes, under the continuous attack of Japanese suicide planes one after another, the main steering gear was damaged and the ship body was almost blown in two.
Finally, it plunged into the sea in the scream of the people on board.
After being directly hit by two suicide planes, the destroyer “Morrison” was fatally hit by two old-fashioned double pontoon and double wing suicide attack aircraft made of wood and canvas.
One of them crashed into the naval gun, causing a big explosion in the ammunition depot.
The other plane was shelled by Meigao and landed on the track of the destroyer, but the special attack team driving the plane did not give up.
They still glided along the track of the destroyer, then yanked the nose and crashed into the tail turret of the “Morrison”, causing a greater explosion.
Just a few minutes after the two impacts, the “Morrison” cocked up its bow and gradually sank.
In the face of the suicide attack of Japanese aircraft, the US military gradually explored ways to deal with it: sending radar warning ships and early warning radar aircraft to closely monitor the most likely direction of Japanese attack, and establishing radar stations on Okinawa and nearby islands to implement strict air surveillance.
Using the principle of overall planning, scientifically organize the air defense maneuver of ships.
Large warships are perpendicular to the attack direction of Japanese aircraft, while small warships are parallel to the attack course of Japanese aircraft, and take sudden sharp turn and speed increase, making it difficult for Japanese aircraft to aim at the target.
At the same time, strengthen the air patrol and vigilance of fighters and intercept them at any time according to the radar early warning report.
The situation of the Japanese army is just the opposite, because none of the pilots who carried out suicide attacks can come back and report their attack experience and experience, so they can not make necessary improvements according to the tactical changes of the US Army.
In addition, in order to effectively stop the Japanese suicide attacks, the Americans began to implement a method of “smashing the ‘rats’ to death in their’ nest ‘: they dispatched a large number of Shipborne aircraft to bomb the Japanese airport continuously, strive to eradicate the roots, and completely destroy them before the Japanese aircraft took off, so that many suicide aircraft were destroyed in their nests before they had time to take off.
The original pilots of the special attack team who were proud of their dedication and were not afraid of death have been lost.
Most of the later pilots participated in the special attack under pressure.
Within the Japanese army, the war weariness that such sacrifice was meaningless gradually spread, and even some pilots returned to the base on the pretext of not finding the US ship.
Finally, the effect of the Japanese special attack became smaller and smaller.
Due to the lack of timely replenishment after the loss of aircraft and pilots, fewer and fewer aircraft could be dispatched, and the scale of the special attack became smaller and smaller.
Since then, although the Japanese launched some “chrysanthemum water” special attacks and frequent small-scale attacks, they achieved little.
In the third section, the “Yamato” battleship was buried at the bottom of the sea.
Just as the Japanese suicide plane violently attacked the American warship, the “Yamato” battleship, which symbolizes the spirit of Japanese Bushido, also embarked on a special attack journey that will never return.
The fate of the empire is indeed in this war.
The humble position has called for the organization of a maritime special attack force to fight with unparalleled heroism, so as to boost the prestige of our Imperial Navy and carry forward the glorious tradition and glory of the Imperial Navy’s sea battle.
All troops, whether special attack troops or not, must be determined to fight to the death, completely eliminate the enemy fleet and lay an eternal foundation for the Empire.
On April 6, 1945, the commander of the joint fleet, senior general Toyota, issued this famous “special attack” order to the joint fleet at Kyushu Luwu naval base.
The order given to ITO, commander of the second fleet, is to form a special attack fleet centered on the “Yamato” to make a desperate advance, assist the Japanese army and air force, and annihilate the U.S. escort transport team and special task force near Okinawa Island.
Then, after breaking through the blockade of the US Navy on the sea of Okinawa, he stranded his warship and took it as a position to launch a close fight with the Americans with the huge guns on board.
This is an unprecedented “special attack” operation in the history of world naval warfare.
Each warship of the whole “special attack” fleet has only just enough fuel for one-way navigation, soEveryone knows this attack is a suicide.
The construction of “Dahe” began in 1937 and was completed and launched at the end of 1941.
Missed the attack on Pearl Harbor, but took part in the midway naval battle.
It has a 263 meter captain and a displacement of 64000 tons.
It is equipped with nine 46 cm guns.
These figures have created the most in the history of ship building in the world.
Compared with the German Bismarck, which shocked the Western naval community at that time, it is only a “small Witch”.
A shell weighs 1.
In the barrel, strong men can climb in and out freely.
The side steel armor is nearly half a meter thick and is known as “unsinkable Daiwa”.
In Japan, the “Yamato” is not only a warship, but also a symbol of the nation.
This ship symbolizes the soul of Japan and has been the flagship of the joint fleet since its service.
In theory, no American ship is its opponent.
If it were allowed to break into the sea off Okinawa, those American ships and boats would not be able to withstand one of its shells.
Therefore, when the “Daiwa” was still parked in the military port for renovation, the US aircraft focused on it.
However, it suddenly disappeared after the war in Okinawa.
Why must the Yamato be sent to the Pacific Ocean to be sunk by the US Army? Not only did the 3000 Navy officers and soldiers who died with the Yamato not understand, but even the deputy commander of the joint fleet Toyota who issued the order at that time did not understand.
After the war, Toyota Deputy Wu wrote a book “the last imperial navy”, telling his state of mind at that time: the fate of a water ship without air supremacy is unknown.
It was very clear at that time that the suicide attack of the Daiwa had no hope of half success.
Clearly know but still have to do it.
This kind of schemless thing is the tragedy at the end of the defeat.
After the war, the comments of public opinion and history circles criticized the absurdity of the war.
I can only answer that I had to do so at that time, and there is nothing else to defend.
There is only one thing to say, that is, when it is decided that this is necessary, my distress is even worse than when the Wright Bay naval battle ordered the whole army to attack the previous year.
This is a fact.
Yuyuanjuan, one of the naval leaders of the base camp at that time, was also very upset about such foolish and absurd actions that even young children could not do.
After hearing the news that the Yamato was sunk, he regretted it very much.
In order to boost the morale of the Japanese army, it caused tragic consequences.
This is not a unprofitable and unproductive move.
What is it? In his diary of this day, he described that the root cause of this absurd thing was entirely due to accidental whim.
He wrote: the root cause of this situation is that when the chief of the military command department played to the emperor, the emperor asked the chief whether the attack should be carried out by the air force alone.
The chief said no, and the Navy also took out all its troops.
For strategizing, the responsibility of the chief minister is really not light.
It is not difficult to see from this record that the chief of the military command department boasted in front of the emperor.
Since a word was irreparable, in order to save face, he decided the fate of 3000 people without thinking and lost all the money of the Navy at once.
In the words of Toyota vice Wu, it is to break the jar.
The original Japanese saying is: drink poison and lick the plate clean.
Shortly after the war, Spruance received a telegram on his flagship, the New Mexico, about the discovery of the Yamato.
Subsequently, various types of warships on the sea surface of Okinawa launched emergency deployment.
The scattered fleet gathered and the support ships transporting ammunition and oil shuttled between them for rapid replenishment.
However, the Daiwa soon disappeared again.
Originally, ITO ordered the fleet to sail out of the Fenghou waterway, go south along the east coast of Kyushu, and then go west through the Dayu strait into the East China Sea.
He knew that going straight South would not escape the eyes of the Americans.
The hope of the “Daiwa” is a surprise attack, and a big bend in the East China Sea may hide people’s ears and eyes.
Spruance instructed submarines and patrol aircraft at sea to expand their search.
On the morning of April 7, a plane taking off from the aircraft carrier “Essex” reported that the target reappeared in the sea area west of Kagoshima.
At that time, the Mitchell fleet was located in the northwest sea area of Okinawa.
The Daiwa tried its best to avoid the US military.
Unexpectedly, after turning a big corner, it just fell into Mitchell’s arms.
At 11 a.m., Mitchell used the on-the-spot mobility granted to him to order the first wave of aircraft to take off urgently.
Then he sent a telegram to Spruance: “I’ve taken off.
Please decide whether you attack or me!” No matter how fast the warship on the water could not catch up with the plane, Spruance immediately decided: “you attack! But you must do it thoroughly!” At 11:30, the Japanese observation station on an island north of Okinawa saw that more than 200 US aircraft covered the sky and flew north.
The ships of ITO fleet made alarm bells, the Gunners were in place, and the large and small caliber anti-aircraft guns raised their heads.
At midnight, the “arrow” at the forefront of the “Yamato” ship array first found the incoming aircraft, and it immediately informed the “Yamato”.
When the US plane was about to fly over the ship, an unexpected thing happened: dark clouds suddenly covered the sky, the sea became dark, and the aircraft in the sky and the warships on the sea were separated by clouds.
The Gunners cheered.
But it didn’t last long.
After 10 minutes, the dark clouds passed and the plane waiting at high altitude circled and swooped down.
The anti-aircraft guns on the ship roared in unison, weaving a fire net over the ship array.
However, the US military is determined to eliminate the hidden danger of the Yamato.
Torpedo planes and dive bombers broke through the Japanese fire net one after another.
Torpedo planes flew to the side of the fleet close to the sea and dropped torpedoes.
The dive bombers went straight to the Japanese ship, and the bombs rained down from above.
Then they quickly pull up and disappear into the far air.
The Japanese ships not only had to shoot in the air, but also avoided bombs in the air and torpedoes in the sea.
The “Sagittarius” was the first to be damaged and went round and round on the sea.
The Yamato was also hit two nautical miles behind it.
A large number of Gunners’ bodies lay on the deck.
The radar room at the rear was blown up, and the eight operators didn’t even leave a complete body.
It was hit by a torpedo on its port side, but thick armor protected it so that it could still move towards Okinawa at a speed of 20 knots.
In the command cabin of the “Yamato”, ITO stood beside with an indifferent expression, watching the captain Yukio Youhe rush to command the battle.
The second and third waves of attacks followedStrengthen the frontal attack on the south line.
When the US military advanced to 4500 meters in front of the main Japanese defense line, the two sides fell into a stalemate.
On April 24, the U.S. Army invested in a new type of fire spitting tank shell and heavy tank, which finally overcame the tenacious resistance of the Japanese army.
These tanks braved the rain of bullets from the Japanese army, ran into the Japanese trenches and rushed into the Japanese positions.
Flamethrower tanks shot napalm into the hidden caves and tunnels of the Japanese army.
The Japanese army finally couldn’t support it, and its defense line was gradually broken through.
Under the cover of night and smoke, NiuDao quietly organized troops to withdraw to the next defense line in an orderly manner.
Therefore, the battle developed into such a mode: the Japanese army only defended by danger, then the U.S. Army made a breakthrough under the shaking of fierce fire, the Japanese army retreated to the next line of defense, and so on, and the Japanese defense area gradually narrowed.
The US Army finally captured Naha on May 27 and continued to advance to Shouli City, the capital of Okinawa.
On May 31, the US Army broke through the first mile line of defense in the core defense zone of the Japanese army and finally made significant progress.
The Marines invaded the ruins of Shouli city.
The commander of the tenth army, bakner, was full of joy and thought that the occupation of the capital of Okinawa meant that the battle was coming to an end.
But his idea was very wrong, and the battle of trapped animals of the Japanese army was even more crazy! NiuDao led the rest to retreat about 10 kilometers to the last line of defense carefully prepared at the southern end of the island.
This is a natural barrier composed of two peaks.
The terrain is rugged and steep.
The Japanese army made full use of the terrain and built 25 hidden artillery positions and tunnel fortifications.
NiuDao is determined to rely on this and fight until the last soldier.
Therefore, the Japanese resistance did not weaken at all.
It is still very difficult for the US military to advance every meter.
The U.S. military also launched more fierce artillery fire against the Japanese army.
The intensive naval, land and air artillery fire of the U.S. military carried out the most violent bombardment on a few square kilometers in the south of the island held by the Japanese army.
Although the Japanese army had only more than 30000 people left, more than half of the artillery was lost, and there was little ammunition left, it still fought to the death.
On June 17, the US Army again joined the reserve force, the second marine division.
A regiment of the division landed near xiwuwu Cape at the southern end of Okinawa and worked with friendly forces on the front and side to encircle and annihilate the Japanese army.
At this time, the situation of the Japanese army was very passive, and it was only a matter of time before it was completely annihilated.
In order to avoid unnecessary casualties, Buckner persuaded the Japanese army to surrender by clear telegram and radio.
NiuDao was not moved at all and responded with gunfire.
At 4 a.m. on June 23, NiuDao knew that the U.S. military was about to occupy his morwenren tunnel.
He took off his military uniform, put on his kimono, took up his wine glass and drank to the staff around him one by one.
After drinking the last farewell wine, he committed suicide by caesarean section.
His chief of staff also followed him to commit suicide by caesarean section, and some officers also committed collective suicide.
At this point, the organized resistance of the Japanese army was calmed down.
The resistance of sporadic Japanese troops continued, and the work of eliminating the remaining Japanese troops continued until the end of June.
Unlike these determined militarists, a considerable number of ordinary Japanese soldiers laid down their weapons at the end of the battle, which was very rare in the past.
In the first two and a half months of the battle on June 15, the US military captured a total of more than 300 Japanese troops.
From June 15 to June 30, not only individuals or groups of Japanese troops surrendered, but even formed units surrendered under the leadership of officers.
The third army of the Marine Corps alone accommodated more than 4000 Japanese surrender personnel.
The battle of Okinawa began on March 18 when the US aircraft carrier formation attacked Kyushu and ended on June 22.
It lasted 96 days, including 82 days of fierce fighting on Okinawa.
16 surface ships and 8 submarines of the Japanese army, including the “Yamato” battleship, were sunk, and about 4200 aircraft were shot down and destroyed.
About 100000 Japanese defenders on Okinawa Island were wiped out, except that more than 9000 people were captured.
75000 civilians on Okinawa Island were killed and injured.
32 US ships were sunk and 368 were injured, including 13 aircraft carriers, 10 battleships, 5 cruisers and 67 destroyers.
763 shipborne aircraft were lost, 13000 people were killed and 36000 people were injured.
The battle of Okinawa was the most deadly battle of the US military in the Pacific War.
Therefore, British Prime Minister Churchill believed that the battle of Okinawa would be listed as the most intense and famous battle in the world with an epic battle and spread to future generations.
In view of the heavy casualties paid in the battle, the US military did not hold large-scale celebrations.
The battle of Okinawa and the recent battle of Iwo Jima have made the US military deeply understand that if it wants to land in Japan, the US military will face incalculable crazy resistance.
The Joint Chiefs of staff of the US military believes that the US military will pay 1 million casualties for landing in Japan.
Based on this, the United States finally decided to use the newly developed atomic bomb against Japan in order to end the war as soon as possible.