The folk relationship between the two countries of

has not been interrupted. Japanese monks and scholars continue to come to the Tang Dynasty to learn from the merchant ships of China or North Korea. Both the folk and the nobility love “Tang things” very much, which can be said to be worship. This is somewhat like today’s China’s hot love of “Japanese goods”. So smuggling came into being.

Tang goods refer to Chinese goods as the name suggests. In this paper, it refers to made in Datang. In middle school textbooks, we have all learned that the Japanese admire the cultural, political and economic strength of China. They have sent Tang envoys to China many times to study the advanced science and culture at that time. It goes without saying that they are influenced by Chinese culture. Such articles are not like smoke, but also like cattle and horses. However, almost all textbooks invariably ignore how Japan ended its exchanges with the Tang Dynasty: “Abolishing the repatriation of the Tang Dynasty”, a major event that has a decisive impact on the formation of Japanese culture in the history of China and Japan.

the exchanges between Japan and China were the most prosperous in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, and the comprehensive Eastward Transmission of Chinese culture began from this period. In fact, in the period, Japan has sent Sui envoys. The first Sui envoys were sent in the first expedition of sinra by crown prince Shengde of Japan, in the eighth year of the ancient emperor and the year of 600 A.D. According to the “biography of Dongyi in the book of Sui Dynasty”: “in the 20th year of the emperor’s reign, the surname of the Marquis was Amie, the word Doris was more isolated, the number was a generation Jimi, and the envoy was sent to the bottom.”, In 630 after 30 years, Japan sent the first batch of envoys to the Tang Dynasty until the last batch in 838. After 238 years, Japan has gradually matured in politics, ideology and culture, and began to enter the stage of independent local culture. In the first year of qianning of emperor Zhaozong of the Tang Dynasty and the sixth year of KUANPING in Japan, that is, 894 A.D., the newly appointed envoy to the Tang Dynasty, Kan yuandaozhen, cited the report filled in by the learned monks of the Tang Dynasty and played the emperor. On the grounds of “the decline of the Tang Dynasty” and “many obstacles on land and sea”, he proposed to stop sending Tang envoys. Emperor Yuduo accepted this proposal, and the relations between the two countries were interrupted.

“Abolishing the deportation of Tang Dynasty” can be said to be a “boycott of Tang goods” movement from the upper class. In the second half of the ninth century, the an Shi rebellion and the Huang Chao uprising took place successively in China. Coupled with the separation of local vassal towns, the Tang Dynasty was declining and crumbling, that is, the “decline of the Tang Dynasty” referred to in the report of Kan yuan Daozhen. However, after the Japanese government implemented the closed door policy and terminated all trade exchanges between China and Japan. The non-governmental relations between the two countries have not been interrupted. There are Japanese monks and scholars who continue to study in the Tang Dynasty with the merchant ships of China or North Korea. Both the people and the nobility love “Tang things” very much, which can be said to be worship. This is somewhat like today’s China’s enthusiasm for “Japanese goods”. Therefore, smuggling came into being, so that many haos in the central part, the four countries and Jiuzhou have become the protective gods of smugglers and publicly levy taxes on smugglers, known as “Tang property tax”. From the perspective of non-governmental economic and cultural exchanges between the two countries and domestic needs, it seems that the reasons for terminating China Japan relations are not sufficient, but this is only a superficial reason. The more profound reason is that the Japanese government is out of economic and cultural considerations.




since the Nara era, foreign students and learned monks have imported the Datang culture on a large scale, and the Japanese nation’s admiration for the Datang has reached the extreme. Not only did the cultural relics and regulations copy China, but also loved the goods produced in China. A large number of Tang goods entered Japan. In terms of foreign trade, Japan has been in a state of surpassing. With such a large amount of silver outflow, the local economy cannot develop and faces collapse.

and there are not only goods but also “Tang money” in the imported goods. Compared with the Tang Dynasty coins, the Japanese coins at that time had various shortcomings. Not only in terms of quality, but also there are many inconveniences in circulation. Therefore, Tang Qian has two advantages and is very popular in Japan, which directly leads to the confusion of Japan’s monetary system, which is undoubtedly worse for Japan’s economy and politics, which are already facing crisis.

if we want to change this state, we must change Japan’s backward state in terms of commodities, finance and culture, but this can not achieve results in the short term. It is not difficult to eliminate the threat of foreign politics and economy in terms of policy. Therefore, this is the reason why emperor Yuduo ordered to abolish the deportation of Tang Dynasty.

Abolishing the Tang Dynasty is a political strategy, while culture is a representation of politics. Therefore, Japanese culture in the Ping’an period showed the characteristics of getting rid of the influence of Tang culture and trying to establish its own national cultural style. In fact, Ping’an culture is also the beginning of the real development of Japanese local culture.




are first expressed in words. The Japanese have created kana characters by omitting part of Chinese characters or using only partial radicals, which is equivalent to phonetic letters. Among them, those with regular script Chinese characters are called Katakana, and those with cursive characters are called hiragana. Pseudonyms were very popular in the Heian era, but before that, a large number of Chinese characters were used. After all, Chinese characters are a foreign language. In Japan, those who are proficient in Chinese are often limited to nobles and monks. It is difficult for the lower class people to learn or unconditionally learn Chinese. The emergence of phonetic characters such as pseudonyms enables cultural knowledge to spread on a wider scale, Thus laid the foundation for the localization development of Japanese culture.

with the emergence of pseudonyms, Japanese literature in the real sense began to appear. In the early period of Ping’an, Chinese literature was still popular and harmony songs declined. For example, Kan yuandaozhen, who advocated abolishing the deportation of Tang Dynasty, is a scholar proficient in Chinese. He is very good at five and seven wonders. He can also be called top-grade in Tang poetry, such as “passing on hooves and horses, damaging ships at the end of the river and welcoming”, “don’t be surprised by the change of time sequence, and one glory and one fall is the spring and Autumn Period”. Therefore, the early period of Ping’an is called the “dark era of national style” in Japanese history. However, with the decline of the influence of the Tang Dynasty and the prevalence of pseudonyms, Japanese literature gradually got rid of the influence of Chinese literature in the late period of Ping’an. Poems written entirely under pseudonyms appeared, and the most famous novel in the history of Japanese literature, the tale of Genji, also appeared in this period.

at the same time, Japanese calligraphy has also entered the era of harmony and wind. Japanese calligraphy began in the Nara era and developed in the Heian era. In the early stage, it was the Tang style period represented by the “three strokes” of rugged, orange and empty sea, with the style of calligraphy in Jin and Tang Dynasties