called by the soul of Peter III – Pugachev uprising in 1773
in 1761, Peter Fedorovich, the grandson of Russian Czar Peter I, succeeded to the throne.
in that year, after the death of King Peter I, her little daughter became czar. But the female czar had no son, so she went to Germany to take her sister’s son as her own son, so that he could inherit his throne. The female czar named his nephew Peter III. When Peter III came to Russia, he brought his wife by the way. Her wife’s name was Sophia, but the name was the same as Peter I’s sister, so he gave a Russian name – Ekaterina.
at the end of 1761, the female czar died, and Peter III became the legal heir to the throne of czar. After Peter III came to power, he took many measures to improve the life of the lower class people, which damaged the interests of the big landlords and nobles and was strongly opposed by the upper class. Taking advantage of this opportunity, with the help of her two lovers, the ambitious yekaterina launched a palace coup on June 28, 1762, forced Peter III to abdicate, and soon assassinated him. Since then, yekaterina has ascended to the throne of Czar and become yekaterina II. After yekaterina came to power, she implemented a completely different policy from Peter III. she further strengthened the autocratic system of the feudal serfdom and brutally exploited and squeezed the broad masses of the people. She also expanded the privileges of the nobility and gave many lands to the nobility, together with the people living there. During her reign, half of the farmers in the country became serfs. Serfs lived like pigs and dogs. They were the private property of landlords and had no personal freedom. Landlords can insult, beat and scold serfs at will, or they can buy and sell them as animals. If they were slightly unhappy, they exiled the serfs to Siberia or punished them for hard labor. People can’t bear it. They all want to resist Tsar Ekaterina II, but no one takes the lead. One day in 1773, the expected leader finally appeared. His name was yemeilian Pugachev. Pugachev was born into a poor Cossack family in the town of zimovisk along the Don river. At the age of 18, he was drafted to fight in Poland and participated in the war against Turkey. Because of his bravery, he was promoted to second lieutenant. Later, he retired from the army and returned home because of illness.
yemeilian Pugachev in order to better mobilize farmers and serfs to join his uprising against the Czar, Taking advantage of the popular legend that “… Peter III was killed by the nobility because he wanted to improve the life of farmers. Later, it was spread in the area of Don River and Ural River that Peter III did not die and hid among the Cossacks…” under the pretext of Peter III’s resurrection, the national proclamation was issued in the name of Peter III, Call on farmers and serfs to submit to Peter III and unite against the aristocracy for a better life. The wise Pugachev took the dead Peter III, who was loved by the people, out as an “excuse” to start the war, and immediately received the support of the majority of farmers and serfs. The tide of uprising quickly swept Kazan, Ural and western Siberia.
on September 17, 1773, Pugachev led a small team composed of more than 80 Cossacks to attack the yak castle, which opened the prelude to the unveiling of justice. They won the first battle and then marched on Orenburg. Orenburg was an important military town of Russia in the southeast at that time. Orenburg city is strong, heavily guarded, and 70 cannons. It is easy to defend but difficult to attack. On October 7, Pugachev led the rebel army to attack Orenburg, but failed because of the great disparity of troops. So he decided to adopt the strategy of besieging the city and besieging Orenburg for a long time. During this period, Pugachev established a military commission to strengthen the construction of the army.
at the same time, Pugachev carried out a lot of publicity and encouragement work and spread denunciations everywhere, claiming to give the Cossacks “rivers, land, grasslands, salaries, weapons and food”; “Land, water, grassland, forest, freedom and food” were given to Bashkir, Kazak, Kalmyk and Tatars, and the people of all ethnic groups were called upon to revolt against yekajelina II. The peasants, workers and people of all ethnic groups of Cossacks have defected to the uprising. The rebel army soon grew to more than 30000 people. In a panic, yekajelina II quickly mobilized three armies to reinforce Orenburg, but all ended in failure.
in the spring of 1774, yekaterina II sent another army to reinforce Orenburg. On March 22, 1774, the two sides launched a fierce battle in shejitava, and the rebels were defeated. On April 1, the insurgents suffered another setback in the fierce battle in Samara, so they had to retreat from Orenburg and move to Bashkir area. On the way to the Bashkir area, many workers, farmers and Bashkirs joined the uprising.
on July 12, 1774, Pugachev divided the uprising into four columns and launched a fierce attack on Kazan, another important military town in southern Russia. After fierce fighting, the rebel army broke through Kashan city and the government army fled in a hurry. Two days later, the officers and soldiers immediately fell back, and the insurgents had to abandon the city and leave. In the battle in Kazan, about 8000 insurgents were killed and captured, making almost all the newly added teams lost. Pugachev retreated from Kazan, crossed the Volga River in the West and advanced towards the Don river. He planned to launch the Cossacks in the Don river area to attack charizin and then Moscow. On the way to the west, countless people took part in the uprising along the way, which soon swept through Novgorod and voronesh provinces.
yekajelina II was terrified and hurried back to the troops of the famous Russian general suvolov from the Turkish battlefield to pursue Pugachev. When Pugachev’s rebels had just approached charizin and were ready to attack the city, suvolov’s troops followed.
in the early morning of August 25, 1774, the two sides launched a decisive battle in sarnikov, and the rebels were defeated. Pugachev led more than 200 remnants to cross the Volga River to the East and escape to the depths of the grassland. The team kept shrinking, leaving less than 50 people. “kd