At the end of the Second World War, European countries suffered from the trauma of war.
Germany and Italy are in ruins, losing power and humiliating the country, ceding land and making compensation, just like a tiger knocked over to the ground.
Britain is like a badly wounded lion, crouching in the grass and licking the bleeding wound, but its eyes are still burning with greed.
Only the Soviet Union and the United States are still strong.
Although the Soviet Union made great sacrifices in the Second World War, it won prestige because it made important contributions to the world anti fascist war.
At the same time, it formed a huge economic and political sphere of influence in Eastern Europe.
In the war, the United States not only survived unscathed, but also reaped huge economic and political interests, becoming a rich and powerful Jin Yuan Empire.
These two allies during World War II, the two heavyweight boxers in the world today, are destined not to become permanent friends because of the irreconcilable conflict of interests.
With the end of the “hot war”, they pulled up their ranks and began a long “cold war”.
The term “cold war” first appeared in early 1946.
American political commentator Herbert swarp drafted a speech for US Senator Bernard Baruch, saying that “the United States is in the midst of the cold war”, and first used the term “cold war”.
As the name suggests, “cold war” is a hot war with real swords and guns.
Relatively speaking, it refers to all hostile activities of the opposing sides except direct armed attack.
The first person to put forward “cold war” policy suggestions to the Truman administration was George Kennan, counselor of the US embassy in the Soviet Union.
This man is of humble origin and a little talent, but he has been depressed for a long time.
In order to please the US authorities, he has written many shadow reports on the political situation of the Soviet Union, but the credibility is very low.
For example, he was denounced as “a load of nonsense” by U.S. Secretary of state Beth NASS only on the basis of his no public appearance in Moscow for more than a month, which arbitrarily concluded that Stalin’s authority was greatly challenged and might even be ousted.
But the man is not discouraged in the face of setbacks and is still looking for opportunities to express himself.
Once, Kennan turned on the radio in boredom.
Stalin’s speech on February 9, 1946 aroused his great interest.
He believed that Stalin’s speech focused on reflecting the Soviet Union’s policy towards the United States.
On a whim, he wrote down his views on the Soviet Union.
The article said: “the Soviet regime is unreasonable, but it is highly sensitive to the logic of force.
It is like a toy car with full clockwork.
It will stop only when it meets irresistible forces.
The United States must contain the Soviet Union with strength.
” Kennan’s grand theory hit Truman’s heart.
Just then, the US State Department instructed the US embassy in the Soviet Union to report its views on the Soviet Union.
Kennan, who has become the temporary agent of the US embassy in the Soviet Union, immediately organized a material team to expand and give play to his previous grand theory, wrote a long telegram of 8000 words, which he signed and sent to the Soviet Union.
The central idea of Kennan’s long telegram is that the national strength of the United States and the Soviet Union has increased rapidly due to the victory of the war, and their international status has been far ahead of other countries, thus establishing the “bipolar” status of the United States and the Soviet Union in the world.
Facing the powerful Soviet Union, the United States should implement a containment policy.
This long telegram was valued by Washington.
Truman and others greatly appreciated Kennan’s masterpiece and took it as the ideological and theoretical basis of American cold war policy.
On this basis, it produced the declaration of the Cold War – “Truman Doctrine”.
Truman was resourceful.
In view of the uncertain international situation at that time, he did not dare to publish the anti Soviet “Truman Doctrine” rashly for the moment.
He wanted to ask a famous and important person to release a exploratory balloon to see the response of the international community, and then choose an appropriate time to throw out his “Truman Doctrine”.
After careful consideration, he chose.
Churchill served as British Prime Minister in the “World War II” and was known as the anti fascist big three together with Stalin.
He made great contributions to defeating German, Italian and Japanese fascism and enjoyed high prestige all over the world.
Unfortunately, the anti fascist hero was unexpectedly defeated in the general election held in Britain after the war and lost the throne of British Prime Minister.
At this time, he was traveling in the United States as a civilian.
Truman invited Churchill into the White House and revealed Churchill’s intention to make a cold war speech.
Churchill’s mood has been opposite for a long time.
Therefore, he readily promised that he would publish shocking remarks as a cloth.
Truman was overjoyed and personally accompanied Churchill by train to his hometown Fulton, Missouri.
When he came to Fulton, Truman accompanied Churchill into Fulton’s most luxurious hotel and entertained him warmly.
He knew that Churchill could not live without three things in his life: alcohol, beauty and cigars.
He asked for beautiful women for him to choose, but he couldn’t find a cup of wine, which made the “wine Fairy” depressed and unhappy.
It turns out that Fulton is a non alcohol city.
Of course, there is no wine to buy.
Truman hurriedly ordered us military planes to airlift wine from nearby cities to please Churchill.
In order to take good care of the outgoing prime minister, Truman invited his grandson and asked his grandfather what hobbies he had, His grandson revealed such a little secret to Truman: “my grandfather has a habit of smoking cigars.
It is said that it is formed by touching the scenery.
It is said that Grandpa began to smoke cigars after he caught a glimpse of the situation in which Cuban women lifted their skirts and rolled tobacco leaves into cigars on the inner side of their thighs.
” Therefore, Truman threw himself into his favor and specially sent someone to buy the best cigars for Churchill to enjoy.
On March 5, 1946, Truman accompanied Churchill into the lecture hall of Westminster College in Fulton city.
The huge lecture hall was full of people, and Churchill delivered a speech entitled “the mainstay of peace” amid applause and cheers.
This is the famous “Fulton speech” in postwar history.
The audience was about 3000 people.
As the radio broadcast, it is said that thousands of American and British listeners also listened to his speech by the radio.
Churchill expressed his views on the tense situation between the United States and the Soviet Union following events such as the “Iranian crisis” and the “atomic espionage case”.
He praised the United States for “being at the peak of world power at the moment”, “having the greatest power” and “having an awesome responsibility for the future”, and suggested that the “English world” and“”English National Union” to establish “a special relationship between the Commonwealth empire on one side and the United States of America on the other”.
Then he changed the subject and claimed that “the land just illuminated by the victory of the allies has been shrouded in shadow”, “From steddin in the Baltic Sea to Trieste on the Adriatic Sea, an iron curtain across Eurasia has fallen.
Behind this line, there are the capitals of ancient Central and Eastern European countries: Warsaw, Berlin, Prague and Vienna.
All these famous cities and their residents are within the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union.
” “If the Federation of English speaking nations and the United States join together and cooperate worldwide in the fields of ocean, sky, science and industry, there will be an unshakable advantage in the balance of power,” he said provocatively Churchill’s speech actually called on the United States and Britain to establish an anti communist military alliance to deal with the countries behind the “iron curtain” led by the Soviet Union.
Churchill’s speech aroused strong repercussions all over the world.
The US government secretly cheered that Churchill had said what Truman had been holding in his heart, wanted to say but dared not say and was inconvenient to say.
The public opinion in Britain and the United States reacted differently and discredited: some expressed sympathy and support, some thought his words were too much, and some accused him of trying to introduce the world into a new war.
The strongest reaction was from the Soviet Union.
On March 13, Stalin told the reporter of Pravda that the “Fulton speech” was a dangerous action to spread discord among the allies.
Churchill’s policy was to carry out war.
“Pravda” of the Soviet Union published an editorial entitled “Churchill played with knives and guns to provoke the anti Soviet war”.
Many Asian and African countries also attacked Churchill’s speech from different angles.
“Fulton speech” opened the prelude to the “cold war”, marking that wartime allies have become opponents of fierce competition and confrontation.
The “cold war” between the East and the West first broke out on the Turkish issue.
As Turkey is located at the junction of Eurasia, its Bosporus and Dardanelle Straits are the throat between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
It has always been a place for great powers to compete.
After the victory of the Kemal revolution in 1923, the relations between the Soviet Union and Turkey once showed a good momentum of development.
However, during the Second World War, Turkey not only made a balance among the major powers, but also revealed its pro German and anti Soviet tendency with the development of the war situation, forcing the Soviet Union to garrison the Turkish Soviet border to prevent the Turkish army from suddenly attacking the Soviet Caucasus.
During this period, the Allies’ efforts to hope that Turkey could participate in the anti fascist war were frustrated one by one.
When the Soviet army won one victory after another on the Soviet German battlefield and the United States and Britain opened up a second battlefield in Western Europe, Germany was defeated.
On July 15, 1944, Stalin made it clear that “turkey, which evaded the war with Germany, will naturally not be qualified to claim special rights in solving post-war affairs.
” Although Turkey announced the severance of diplomatic relations with Germany on August 2 and successively declared war on Germany and Japan on February 4, 1945, it was too late to change the determination of the Soviet Union to punish it after the war.
On March 19, 1945, the Soviet Union sent a note to Turkey and unilaterally announced the abolition of the Soviet Turkish neutrality and non aggression treaty signed in 1925.
The move caused great panic in the Turkish government.
After discussion, the Turkish government took photos of the Soviet Union on April 4 and expressed its willingness to seriously study signing a new treaty with the Soviet Union.
However, on June 7, when summoning Turkish ambassador to the Soviet Union shapar, Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov put forward four conditions for the Soviet Union to sign the new treaty.
This is: return the KARs and ardahan regions in eastern Turkey to the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union has the right to establish naval bases in the Strait area and is allowed to participate in the supervision of the Soviet Union.
Amending the Monterey Strait convention.
Turkey should adjust its border with Bulgaria.
The conditions in the Soviet Union were quite harsh.
KARs and ardahan were originally the territory of the Turkish Empire.
They ceded to tsarist Russia in the 19th century.
The Soviet Turkish treaty signed between the Soviet Union and Turkey in 1921 and the KARs treaty signed between the three Soviet republics of Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan and Turkey have clearly solved the ownership of the two places.
At this time, the Soviet Union turned over the old accounts of history and obviously meant to punish Turkey.
As for the requirements of supervising the Strait and establishing a naval base in the Strait, it has even violated Turkey’s vital interests.
Therefore, the Turkish government categorically rejected the request of the Soviet side.
Since then, both sides started propaganda machines and attacked each other.
The Soviet Union directly supported the national separatists in Turkey to carry out anti-government activities, while Turkey changed from traditional fear of Russia to fierce anti Soviet sentiment, and the bilateral relations deteriorated day by day.
The Soviet Union and Turkey turned against each other.
Britain and the United States not only gloated at the misfortune, but also publicly supported Turkey.
In response to the Soviet Union’s note to Turkey on June 7, the United States stated its position on Amending the Monterey Strait Convention on November 2.
The main points are: the Strait should be open to merchant ships of any country at any time.
Open to warships of countries along the Black Sea at any time.
Unless permitted by the states bordering the black sea or the United Nations, the Strait shall not be open to warships of non Black Sea States at any time.
Britain immediately agreed with the position of the United States, and Turkey also believed that it could be accepted as a condition for negotiation in principle.
However, the Soviet Union did not buy the accounts of Britain and the United States.
On August 8, 1946, the Soviet Union sent another note to Turkey, the United States and Britain, reiterating the requirements of jointly managing the Strait and establishing naval bases in the Strait area.
Later, on the grounds of military exercises, heavy troops were assembled on the Soviet Turkish border in an attempt to force Turkey to submit.
The Soviet Union’s move aroused a strong reaction from the United States and Britain, and the Turkish government sent a request for help.
The US State Department and the Joint Chiefs of staff held urgent consultations respectively and put forward a memorandum to Truman.
It is agreed that the Soviet Union’s intention is to control Turkey, and “turkey itself is the most important military base in the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East”.
If the Soviet Union succeeds, it will be difficult for the United States to prevent the infiltration of Soviet forces into the near Middle East.
After consultation with Britain, the United States and Britain decided to take a tough stance and jointly support Turkey’s resistance to the requirements of the Soviet Union.
The US military also suggested that the government allow Turkey to buy US arms and provide military technical assistance to Turkey.
On August 19, the United States sent a note to the Soviet Union, reiterating the position of the sunshine Commission on November 2, 1945, and put forward that the United States firmly believed that Turkey should be the main bearer of Strait defenseThere have been considerable changes, especially in the United States.
Its policy towards Germany has evolved from the “Morgenthau plan” of severely slaughtering Germany in wartime to the policy of supporting and revitalizing the German economy, and takes the revitalization of the German economy as an important link in the European strategy of stabilizing Western Europe and competing for Central Europe.
At the beginning of 1946, general clay, the US Deputy Chief in Germany, sent a special person to investigate the industrial level of Germany, and came to the conclusion that in order to improve the industrial level of Germany, compensation must first be reduced or stopped.
Therefore, the United States believed that the Soviet Union’s strict claim policy was the biggest obstacle to Germany’s economic recovery, so it could not allow the Soviet Union to do whatever it wanted, so it suspended the payment of compensation to the Soviet Union from the US occupied area on May 3, 1946.
Thus taking the first step of breaking with the Soviet Union.
Then, the United States and Britain announced the merger of the occupied territories.
After entering 1947, the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union intensified day by day, and the differences between the two powers on the issue of German reunification deepened day by day.
According to the POC í Tan agreement, the foreign ministers of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union will hold regular meetings on the German issue.
“They are responsible for preparing the peace treaty with Germany, which will be accepted by the German government when it is established.
” In the early post-war period, from the end of the war in September 1945 to June 1946, the foreign ministers of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union, followed by France, held five meetings in London, Paris and Moscow.
With the United States, Britain and France as one side and the Soviet Union as the other, they launched fierce debate and struggle.
Every meeting is difficult to reach consensus, either stranded or failed.
There are obvious differences in the positions of the two sides.
The United States and Britain believe that the economic unity of the occupied areas must be implemented first, otherwise, the economy of the occupied areas will fall into chaos.
The Soviet Union advocated that the only way to solve any problem, including economy, was to realize “political unity”, that is, to establish the central government of all Germany first.
In fact, whether “economic reunification” or “political reunification”, which comes first or later, is only a policy issue, and its essence is the control and competition for Germany.
The United States is afraid that Germany after “political reunification” will fall under the control of the Soviet Union, thus endangering the unity of Western Europe.
Therefore, it would rather split Germany than maintain the unity of Western Europe.
The Soviet Union was worried that the United States and Britain were in a favorable position by virtue of their economic advantages in the competition for Germany after “economic reunification”, so it was not afraid of the division of Europe, but worried about the division of Germany.
On the question of whether to implement economic or political reunification first, the United States and the Soviet Union hold their own views and go their own way.
In December of the same year, according to Berners’ proposal, the United States and Britain signed the economic merger agreement between the German American occupied areas and the British occupied areas, so that the two occupied areas were combined into one economic unit.
In May 1947, the United States and Britain planned to establish the Frankfurt Economic Committee.
The committee is called economy, but in fact it has certain legislative power and government functions.
Under the banner of simple “economic unity”, the United States has quietly stuffed the content of political unity.
The Soviet Union did not wait and see.
They fought head to head and established the German Economic Commission in the Soviet occupied area in early June.
At the end of that year, the German people’s Congress for reunification and a just peace treaty was held in Berlin.
The division of Germany is irreversible.
In 1948, the United States, Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg held a meeting in London and put forward a proposal to split Germany: the occupied areas of the United States and Britain and the occupied areas of France coordinated economic policies and unified foreign trade.
Convene the constitutional assembly of the Western occupied area to formulate the constitution.
Prepare to formulate occupation regulations.
Monetary reform in the Western occupied areas, participation in the Marshall Plan, international communist Ruhr and so on.
Its core is to establish a West German state, split Germany, and revitalize western Europe with West Germany as the center, so as to fully integrate Western Europe into the strategic track of the United States.
On June 20, 1948, according to the agreement reached at the London conference, the United States, Britain and France first implemented the secret currency system reform plan code named “operation bird hound” and issued new marks in the occupied western region.
This action triggered the first crisis in Berlin.
In addition to the diplomatic protest statement, the Soviet Union also instructed the commander-in-chief of the Soviet army in Germany, solokovsky, to cut off the roads between the East and west regions and between West Berlin and the outside world.
On June 22, the Soviet Union announced the reform of the currency system in the Soviet occupied areas and issued its own new mark.
Two days later, the Soviet Union took tougher measures to cut off the railway line between Berlin and the Western occupied areas, and then cut off all land and water transportation to Berlin, cutting off the supply source of West Berlin.
West Berlin has a population of 2.
It needs 4000 tons of materials to maintain basic living and 8000 tons of materials to maintain normal living and operation every day.
The Soviet Union’s move plunged West Berlin into great difficulties.
The Germans, officers and soldiers stationed in Germany, the United States and Britain were trapped in the besieged city and were in constant panic.
When the news reached Washington, Truman was surprised and hurriedly held a meeting to discuss countermeasures.
General Lucius clay, commander in chief of the US military in Germany, insisted on sticking to Berlin and would not give in.
He called on everyone to resist the pressure.
But several other officials repeatedly said that retreat was the best policy.
General clay was angry, but there was nothing to do.
Truman advocated against the Soviet Union, but he had no bottom in his heart.
So he left general clay alone for secret business.
General clay gave Truman a wonderful idea: the three countries jointly carried out air transportation to Berlin.
He suggested: “I think we can unite Britain and France and use a large number of aircraft for air transportation.
The sky cannot be blocked.
If the Soviets don’t want to start a war, they generally won’t attack our aircraft.
Besides, if our three countries unite and the Soviets want to do it, they must consider that their enemies are three powerful countries!” Truman nodded again and again, but then he thought: if the US Air Force aircraft were used to focus on air transportation to Berlin, in case of hostilities, they might all be destroyed.
What should we do? Truman was on pins and needles at this time.
If the United States could not maintain its position in Berlin, the Soviet Union would greatly expand its power.
But if you want to stay in Berlin, you must show strength and do not hesitate to go to war.
The two are very contradictory.
However, it was the year of the presidential election.
I’m afraid some people said that he became president only by Roosevelt’s sudden death.
This time, he had to rely on his real ability to run for re-election.
If he was forced to withdraw from Berlin, he would lose face and the re-election would be doomed.
He thought about it and felt that air transportation was always less risky than land transportation.
So he ordered the deployment of troops and generals, organized large-scale air transportation, and prepared for a war with the Soviets.
Truman said that dozens of planes could throw atomic bombsPower has had a huge impact and further exacerbated the opposition between the eastern and Western camps.
In order to protest against NATO’s admission of West Germany into the alliance, the Soviet Union invited representatives of Poland, Czechoslovakia, democratic Germany, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania to Moscow at the end of November 1954 to condemn the policies of western countries towards Federal Germany and warn the West that if Western countries accept West Germany’s participation in the North Atlantic Treaty, Then the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries should take joint measures to establish joint armed forces and their headquarters.
In March 1955, the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries held further consultations on the signing of collective friendship and mutual assistance treaties and the establishment of joint armed forces, and reached consensus.
In May, as western countries accepted West Germany to join NATO, the Soviet Union signed the Treaty of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance with seven eastern European countries, namely the Warsaw Treaty, and adopted the resolution on the establishment of the joint command of the armed forces.
Soviet field marshal konev became the first commander in chief of the joint armed forces.
The treaty officially entered into force on June 4 and is valid for 20 years.
If the treaty is not declared invalid before its expiration, it will continue to enter into force for 10 years.
The main content of this agreement is also similar to the NATO agreement.
The treaty stipulates: “if an armed attack by any state or group of States against one or more States parties occurs in Europe, each State Party.
Shall, individually or through agreement with other States parties, immediately provide assistance to one or more states that have suffered such attack in all ways it deems necessary, including the use of armed forces.
” After the formation of the two military blocs, the struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union further intensified.
The two sides came and went, and each did not give in.
Due to the status of Berlin, it triggered the Second Berlin crisis.
On the ownership of Berlin, West Germany believes that “Berlin is a state of the Federal Republic of Germany”.
East Germany believes that “the whole Berlin is located in the territory of the German Democratic Republic, and the whole Berlin belongs to the sovereignty of the German Democratic Republic”.
The United States, Britain and France believe that West Berlin is under the military occupation of the United States, Britain and France and has a “special relationship” with West Germany.
The Soviet Union fully supported the position of East Germany.
The contradiction is becoming increasingly fierce, and the crisis is inevitable.
On November 27, 1958, the Soviet government sent a note to the governments of the United States, Britain and France, asking them to end their occupation of West Berlin for half a year.
Khrushchev made a public speech: “Everyone knows that Berlin is located in the part of German territory on which the German Democratic Republic was founded and developed.
Therefore, the most correct decision should be that the west of Berlin, which is now actually separated from the German Democratic Republic, should be merged with its East, so that Berlin will become a complete city within the scope of its country.
” The United States, Britain and France immediately stated their position and resolutely refused.
The two sides agreed to negotiate, but they did not reach a conclusion until 1960.
East Germany’s post-war economy has been in recession.
In order to obtain war compensation as soon as possible, the Soviet occupiers, regardless of the economic affordability of East Germany, demolished a large number of machinery and equipment and transported them to the Soviet Union, especially the things produced.
By 1950, the Soviets themselves admitted that they had received $7.
5 billion in compensation from East Germany.
Therefore, the excessive burden made the economy of East Germany more chaotic.
East Germans saw that the life of West Germans was better than themselves, so they moved to West Germany one after another.
By 1961, the number of people fleeing to West Germany had soared, most of them from East Berlin to West Berlin.
West Berlin Airport accommodated more than 1000 East German fugitives every day, many of whom were technicians.
This has brought greater difficulties to the East German economy and increasingly threatened its security.
Khrushchev felt that this situation could not continue.
At this time, the timing was also good for the Soviet Union: the British economy was in a state of great distress.
France is caught up in the Algerian War.
The armed invasion of Cuba planned by the United States ended in failure.
The newly elected president was busy cleaning up the mess.
Seeing the opportunity, Khrushchev decided to compete with Kennedy on the Berlin issue.
He remembered the Berlin crisis in the late 1940s.
Stalin was forced to make concessions.
In fact, the Soviet Union lost a chess game.
Now he wants to win back the Soviet Union’s face.
Therefore, he proposed to hold a summit meeting with Kennedy in Vienna in an attempt to force Kennedy, who was facing many difficulties, to make concessions on the German issue.
However, Kennedy did not buy it.
The two sides also insisted on their own views on Disarmament and other issues.
They did not give in to each other and finally broke up unhappily.
After Khrushchev returned from Vienna, he was so angry that he immediately announced that the Soviet army would suspend demobilization and the military expenditure would increase by 13.
At the same time, he also wantonly carried out nuclear blackmail, claiming that if a nuclear war broke out, hundreds of millions of people would die, the military bases of the United States and its allies would be completely destroyed, and Kennedy would be the last president of the United States.
He told the British Ambassador: as long as six hydrogen bombs can destroy Britain, nine hydrogen bombs are enough to destroy France.
He also said to Italy: the war will completely destroy Italy.
Therefore, Italy had better withdraw from NATO.
In the face of Khrushchev’s nuclear blackmail, was Kennedy a layman? He knew that West Berlin had become a touchstone to test the courage and will of the West and the focus of contention between the United States and the Soviet Union.
If the United States gave up under such pressure, even a little weakness would make western Europe lose its trust in it as a protector.
Therefore, he was determined to compete with Khrushchev.
He immediately asked Congress to increase the national defense budget by $3.
25 billion, increase the number of troops of the three armed services by 217000, recruit some reserve personnel and the National Guard, purchase new equipment, and expand the civil defense plan.
Later, he delivered a televised speech, saying: the Soviet Union will never be allowed to drive the United States out of Berlin by force.
At Kennedy’s command, a large number of US troops rushed to Europe, and more than 50% of us B-52 and b-47 bombers and missiles were on alert.
The Soviet Union is also stepping up its research on countermeasures.
In early August 1961, Khrushchev called the first secretaries of the Warsaw Treaty Organization countries to Moscow for a meeting, and then issued a statement: if the western countries are not willing to sign a peace treaty with Germany, the Warsaw Treaty countries decided to unilaterally conclude a peace treaty with the German Democratic Republic and give Berlin the status of “free city”.
Khrushchev believed that West Berlin was a foot extended by the United States to Europe.
When the Soviet Union wanted to step on the foot of the United States, it just had to cut off the traffic through West Berlin in East Germany.
So he decided to step on the feet of Americans and give them some faceLook at it.
After consulting with East German leader honak, he asked the East German government to order tens of thousands of East German troops to act together with the Soviet army in East Germany on August 13.
Overnight, he built a “Berlin Wall” with stones and cement along the boundary between East and West Berlin.
The wall is 4.
2 meters high and 107 kilometers long.
The construction speed is amazing.
It will be even more difficult for East Germans to escape to West Germany.
East Germany also blocked the border between East and West Berlin and cut off personnel exchanges between East and West Berlin.
The three western countries protested against the construction of the “Berlin Wall”.
In retaliation, they sealed off the Soviet Memorial in West Berlin with barbed wire.
Kennedy was even tougher.
He warned Khrushchev that in order to safeguard the interests of West Berlin, the United States would not hesitate to fight in the first World War.
Any interference in the traffic line of West Berlin would constitute an act of aggression, and the Soviet government must take full responsibility for it.
Then he sent Vice President Johnson to West Berlin and ordered a 1500 strong combat force to rush through the checkpoint of the German Democratic Republic along the highway from West Germany to West Berlin.
The United States also rammed a truck into part of the “Berlin Wall” to show its determination not to give in.
The Soviet Union did not show weakness, and instructed Soviet field marshal konev to order the Soviet Army’s heavy tank forces to drive up, so that the American jeep, tank, truck, personnel transport vehicle and bulldozer were under the barrel of the Soviet Army’s tank.
The two sides had a tense confrontation for one night, which was likely to fire when the American army moved forward.
Although the United States and the Soviet Union met on both sides of the “Berlin Wall”, neither side had made up its mind to fight it out.
Khrushchev, in particular, first softened down in view of the advantages of the United States in nuclear weapons and Kennedy’s tough attitude.
He instructed konev, “I think you’d better order our tanks to turn around and drive back from the border.
I’m sure American tanks will drive back in 20 minutes.
” Sure enough, as Khrushchev expected, the Americans also felt guilty.
After the withdrawal of the Soviet army, the U.S. tanks also turned around, and the direct conflict between the two sides was avoided.
On October 10, 1961, Khrushchev announced the cancellation of the deadline for the withdrawal of the United States, Britain and France from Berlin and offered to postpone the settlement of the West Berlin issue.
The United States also felt that the “Berlin Wall” did not touch the security of West Berlin.
If it really fought, I was afraid the gains would not outweigh the losses.
Therefore, it accepted the established facts and ended the Second Berlin crisis.
The confrontation between the eastern and Western military blocs did not end with the Second Berlin crisis, but intensified.