although the reasons for the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Soviet Communist Party were the result of the comprehensive action of many factors, the key reason was still in the Communist Party. This result was also the initiative of the privileged class of the Soviet Union. The privileged class of the Soviet Union monopolized all the ruling resources of the country, including political and economic resources and public opinion propaganda tools, and mastered the appointment power of cadres of the Soviet party, government and army, enterprises and social organizations. They took advantage of the reform wind blown by Gorbachev to wantonly misappropriate state-owned assets, turn public affairs into private affairs and take possession of them. Especially in the late 1980s, the private property of this class expanded sharply. In order to legalize their own property, they have actually become the most powerful destroyer of public ownership and the most practical promoter of privatization. The disintegration of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Soviet Communist Party can be said to be a “self coup” of the privileged class of the Soviet Union to a great extent, in order to legalize the social wealth and various rights and interests they have occupied for a long time through illegal means. The process after the drastic changes in the Soviet Union did show this. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, those “registered dignitaries” in the Soviet Union changed into new bureaucrats or millionaires under the new system.

it has been nearly 20 years since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, but there are still different opinions on the reasons for the disintegration. In our opinion, the reasons for the disintegration of the Soviet Union are multifaceted and the result of the comprehensive action of many factors. But there are primary and secondary reasons. The main reason for the disintegration of the Soviet Union was the ruling party itself, and the long-standing privileged class in the Soviet Union played a very important role in the drastic change of the Soviet Union.

“job roster” and the formation of the Soviet privileged class

the Soviet privileged class is a part of people who are directly appointed according to a certain job roster, hold the country’s ruling resources accordingly, and enjoy different privileges according to the law of rank. This privileged class is used in Russian Номенклатура This word means. Literally, the word comes from the Latin “nomen”, which means a list of names or names. Borrowed from Russian, this word refers to the job roster, or job list. Specifically, it refers to the position name table selected by the person and appointed by the superior. Later, this system covered the investigation, registration, appointment, removal and rank treatment of leading cadres in the Soviet Union.

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, as the “job roster” system of the principle of appointment of public officials, began to be implemented after the October Revolution, but there was no mandatory document stipulating this principle at the beginning. On June 12, 1923, the organization Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) adopted the resolution on the appointment system. In October of the same year, the Central Committee made a resolution on the basic tasks of registration and distribution. On November 16, 1925, the central organization Bureau adopted the regulations on the procedures for selecting and appointing staff, and adopted a revised “job roster”. There are various “job rosters”. At that time, the most important one was No. 3: No. 1 “job roster” is a list of cadres appointed and managed by the Central Committee; No. 2 “job roster” is the list of cadres appointed and managed by the central organization and Distribution Department; The list of cadres appointed and managed by various ministries and commissions is called No. 3 “job roster”. Others are the “job roster” of local organs at all levels.

“job roster” system was finally finalized in the late 1930s. Since then, although the “job roster” system has been revised, the basic principles have not changed substantially. With the deepening of Gorbachev’s post system reform, Gorbachev also began to be touched. In October 1989, a committee of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union passed a resolution to terminate the implementation of the registration and supervision of the job roster related to the appointment of cadres. The “job roster” system was replaced by the election system. Since then, the “job roster” system, as a cadre appointment system, has played little role in the Soviet Union. After the “August 19 incident” in 1991, Gorbachev announced on August 23 that the Soviet Communist Party had ceased its activities and that the “job roster” system had been completely abolished.

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this part of cadres appointed through the “job roster” system. They hold certain positions, enjoy certain material interests and certain privileges, have their specific lifestyle, monopolize power, ideology and economic management, and represent the bureaucratic group of the Soviet Union, that is, the whole Party and state power stratum. The Soviet Union thus produced a group of closed privileged classes.

the basic characteristics of the Soviet privileged class

it can be said that the emergence and development of the Soviet Bureaucratic privileged class is related to the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Soviet Communist Party in the political life of the Soviet Union. To a great extent, it can be said that it is the “self coup” of the Soviet privileged class, It is to legalize the social wealth and various rights and interests they have occupied for a long time through illegal means. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, those “registered dignitaries” in the Soviet Union changed into new bureaucrats or millionaires under the new system.

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are consistent with the gradual concentration of power, and its formation and establishment are synchronized with the formation and establishment of mode. In fact, the Soviet Union’s “job roster” system is a part of Stalin’s model. Therefore, the basic characteristics of the privileged class in the Soviet Union are not only related to the “job roster” system, but also have something in common with the Stalin model.

1. The power structure presents a pyramid shape, and its power is arbitrary.

from the Secretariat of the Central Committee, the Political Bureau and the organization Bureau, down to counties, districts and towns, the composition of the Soviet Bureaucratic privileged class gradually increased. According to the “job roster” rules, officials at all levels are appointed and their fate is in the hands of the highest leadership. During Stalin’s period, Stalin, who had “unlimited power” at the top, was of course. The appointment of most officials was decided by the organization and Distribution Department controlled by Stalin’s cronies. Stalin himself controlled lists 1 and 2 and even often manipulated list 3. In addition, on the one hand, the Central Secretariat recommends candidates to the provincial secretariats, on the other hand, it also recommends candidates to the central organization Bureau (which can make appointments to the highest positions of the party and the state)(resolution) recommend candidates. In this way, the Secretariat headed by Stalin has the power to appoint major leaders at all levels in the country. At the same time, both the party and the Soviet Union lacked the supervision and restriction mechanism for this class, resulting in the arbitrariness of this class in formulating and implementing policies.

2. The particularity of rights.

cadres at all levels appointed according to the “job roster” enjoy different privileges: Senior residence, villa, car, vacation voucher and vacation travel, “medical expenses” subsidy, purchase of scarce goods in special stores, etc.

in addition, since the early 1930s, a high salary system for leading cadres has been implemented. In addition to the formal salary, a large envelope containing a lot of money has to be issued, that is, the so-called “money bag” system. From hundreds of rubles (currency at that time) to thousands of rubles, the number depends on the position.

Khrushchev launched the first active attack on the privilege system. Under his orders, many privileges of bureaucrats were abolished, and his reform was fiercely opposed by the privileged class. After Brezhnev came to power, he immediately restored all the cadre privileges abolished by Khrushchev, and the scope of cadres enjoying privileges was expanded, and the types of privileges were increasing day by day. This prompted the privileged ruling class of the Soviet Union to grow rapidly. It was during this period that the income gap between Party and government cadres and the people reached 30 ~ 44 times.