in 1910, European kings took a group photo at the funeral of King Edward VII. This was their last big gathering. From left to right in the front row: Alfonso XIII of Spain, George V of England and Christian X of Denmark. From left to right in the back row: Haakon VII of Norway, Ferdinand of Bulgaria, Manuel II of Portugal, William II of Germany, George I of Greece and Albert I of Belgium.

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in the 257th issue of global people. On July 28, 100 years ago, World War I broke out. The war lasted more than four years, involving more than 30 countries, affecting 1.5 billion people and 30 million casualties. It is an unprecedented disaster in human history. Today, 100 years after

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, the whole world is busy around the same commemorative theme: on July 8, representatives of Britain, France, Russia, Germany, the United States and other participating countries gathered solemnly at the United Nations to recall the painful lessons of the war and look forward to world peace; On the 15th, at the invitation of the French government, Li Zhaoxing, a representative of the Chinese government, paid tribute to the largest cemetery of Chinese workers in World War I in Europe and deeply cherished the memory of more than 20000 Chinese compatriots who bled and died and buried their bones in other places; The Royal Naval Museum in Portsmouth, UK, spent £ 4.3 million to build a World War I special exhibition, and other relevant commemorative activities will last for four years nationwide; Many cities in Russia will set up monuments for World War I, and President Putin will participate in the opening ceremony of the memorial hall of the heroes of World War I in St. Petersburg…

people can’t deny that the war has changed the history of many countries and Nations, as well as the fate of too many individuals and families. Because of it, some people are recorded in history, and the halo is added to the top; Others slipped from the throne of glory to a corner that only historians would occasionally set foot in.

on June 28, 1914, Austrian crown prince Ferdinand and his wife visited Sarajevo.

on June 28, 1914, Austrian crown prince Ferdinand and his wife visited Sarajevo.

the Assassin

“little people” lit the fuse of World War I

on June 28, 1914, Austrian crown prince Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia visited Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, and were assassinated by Gavrilo Principe, a young Serbian student under the age of 20. This is the famous “Sarajevo incident”, which is also regarded as the fuse of World War I. At that time, the Austrian Empire and the kingdom of Hungary jointly formed the Austro Hungarian Empire. Ferdinand was not only the crown prince of Austria, but also the crown prince of Austro Hungarian Empire.

in fact, compared with the European pattern at that time, it is not difficult to see that the outbreak of World War I is already imperative, “Sarajevo incident” is just an excuse. After the Franco Prussian War in 1871, France’s hegemonic position in Europe was ended, and the scattered German Federation formed a unified German Empire with the posture of winning the war. After the strong rise of Germany, it won over the Austro Hungarian Empire and launched fierce competition with Britain, France and Russia. By the early 20th century, the European continent had actually formed the alliance of Germany, Austria and Italy (after Italy changed its position and joined the camp of allies) and the agreement between Britain, France and Russia. Whenever a major dispute occurs, the member states of the two major alliances will be involved, whether they like it or not.

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some small European countries swing between these two forces and wait for opportunities to seek their own interests, especially the dominant Eastern European countries, which hope to use the power of big countries to strive for national liberation and self-reliance. At that time, Serbia had become the core of Mrs. Yugoslavia’s opposition to foreign rule and struggle for national reunification. In 1908, the Austro Hungarian Empire annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter referred to as Bosnia and Herzegovina), which also had a large Serb population, which was regarded as humiliation by Serbia. Therefore, after learning that the Austrian crown prince and his wife were about to visit Sarajevo, some Serbian nationalists began to contemplate assassination.

the assassin princip

the assassin princip of Ferdinand belongs to a radical secret group “young Bosnians”. Dimitrijevic, the leader of the group, is the backbone of the Serbian secret organization “black hand”. Founded in 1911, the “black hand society” advocates the realization of the national ideal of uniting all Serbs through terrorist acts. Their badges consist of skeletons, daggers, bombs and a bottle of poison with the slogan “if you don’t unify, you’d better die”.

in fact, princip was not the core force to assassinate Ferdinand, but one of the peripheral cooperation personnel selected by dimitriyevich from young students. After nearly two months of preparation and planning, in early June 1914, princip and others entered Bosnia from Serbia, carrying pistols and grenades, as well as a small bottle of potassium cyanide: if captured, they would take poison and commit suicide.

according to the plan, the assassins ambushed on the only way for the Ferdinand couple to take the bus. When the convertible reached the chumurya bridge, the main assassin chabrinovich took out a bomb from his pocket and threw it at the convertible. The bomb was powerful enough to kill people in the car, but it fell on the tarpaulin of the car and then fell to the ground. There is also a more magical saying that when the bomb actually landed in the car, Ferdinand reacted very quickly and threw it out of the car.

the frightened Ferdinand couple were not in a panic and decided to temporarily change their driving route. The motorcade then continued along a relatively wide street. When driving near the Latin bridge, the motorcade suddenly stopped. Some people said that the reason for parking was that the driver forgot that the route had changed and was stopped by the Bosnian military government chief who followed him; Some people also said that the driver was nervous and braked too quickly in case of condition, resulting in flameout.

whatever the reason, the Ferdinand couple’s convertible parked right in front of the cafe waiting in Principe. When other assassins were arrested or evacuated quickly when the plan failed, prissy