with the end of World War II, the independence movement led by these figures who were supported by the people and led carefully organized and experienced combat units encountered imperialism again. Now it is impossible to return to the pre war colonial state, especially in European countries. The cost of manpower and precious resources needed to rebuild the country is too high.
the leaders of the Vietnamese independence movement
the second world war greatly stimulated the people of non western countries’ desire for independence. Taking World War I as an example, the colonial people and soldiers provided the necessary raw materials and finished products to support the war. The colonial people and some important western public opinion have a strong feeling that the local people cannot sacrifice in vain. This feeling is further strengthened by the nature of war, and the power of justice is fighting against evil forces. If the Allied victory over Nazi Germany represented the victory of liberalism, humanization, equality and democratic ideas, how could the victors continue to maintain an imperialist system based on racism, cruelty, exploitation and inequality? The ideas claimed by the western world are obviously inconsistent with imperialism.
perhaps the most obvious is the breakdown of the relationship between the colony and its imperial patriarch. For many Asians, Japan’s military victory in the Russo Japanese War (1904-1905) strengthened the budding belief that whites were not impeccable militarily. Moreover, when Japan, which supported imperialism like Europe, replaced the white colonial rule in Asia, its leaders who resisted colonial rule before World War II formed guerrillas to resist the Japanese. Some leaders, such as Hu Zhiming of French French (Indochina of Indochina) and President Sukarno of the Dutch East Indies (Sukarno), have not only established highly effective combat troops, but also a large number of followers. (Indochina) With the end of World War II, the independence movement led by these figures who were supported by the people and led well-organized and experienced combat units once again encountered imperialism. Now it is impossible to return to the pre war colonial state, especially in European countries. The cost of manpower and precious resources needed to rebuild the country is too high.
1942, (right) and Nehru (left).
the British colonial independence movement in Asia
many imperialist countries, such as Britain and the United States, quickly learned the lessons of World War II. Other countries, such as France and the Netherlands, tried to regain sovereignty over the colonies and ended up in costly and exhausting battles. The largest and most populous colony is India. The liberation movement against Britain was very significant before World War II. In 1947, Britain withdrew from the Indian subcontinent; However, religious and ethnic competition was a common curse among the colonial people, which not only led to Gandhi’s assassination in 1948, but also hindered the formation of a complete and single country. Instead, two countries were established: India, which is dominated by Hindus, and Pakistan, which is dominated by Muslims. Jawaharlal Nehru, a disciple of Gandhi, served as prime minister from 1947 to 1964. Under his leadership, India established a lasting constitutional democracy, which was very rare in the colonial world in the past. At that time, dictatorship was the norm. Nehru guided India to develop a socialist economy, and India became a model for several other newly independent countries. However, due to colonial rule, India and Pakistan were divided, and there were even several wars between the two countries.
in 1948, Britain also returned sovereignty to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Myanmar. Burmese people refuse to join the British Commonwealth (an advisory organization composed of 50 independent former British colonies) and prefer to develop alone. Nine years later, in 1957, Britain restored the independence of the Malay Peninsula after suppressing a communist uprising.
how the Netherlands, France and the United States treat the independence of Asian colonies
contrary to the peaceful liberation of the former British colonies in Asia, from 1945 to 1949, the Netherlands had a very costly Colonial war, trying to recapture the Dutch East Indies or Indonesia, but it turned out to be futile. The Indonesian national liberation movement, led by Sukarno and a Communist Party, boycotted Japan during World War II, so they were also prepared to resist the Netherlands.
France also tried to restore its imperial rule in Asia. In Indochina, the popular and orderly national independence movement led by Hu Zhiming has repeatedly defeated France in the military. The independence movement culminated in the 1954 Battle of Dien Bien Phu in Dien Bien Phu. France described these struggles as a rebellion initiated and led by the Communist Party, rather than the national liberation movement, which made the United States interested in Indochina, which brought devastating consequences to the Americans. This is a strange turning point in US policy, which clearly reflects the general tension during the cold war. The fact that the United States happily restored the independence of the Philippines (the main colony of the United States in Asia) a few years ago (1946) is a good proof of this.
the end of African colonialism
the end of sub Saharan Africa, or African colonies, came rapidly and unexpectedly. Unlike Asia, where the orderly anti colonialism struggle has existed for decades, Africa remained silent until the end of World War II. However, since the 1950s, imperialist rule in sub Saharan Africa has collapsed in two decades, and more than 30 independent countries ruled by blacks have emerged.
the decolonization process of Africa began in the British Empire. In 1957, the Gold Coast (Ghana) gained independence under the charismatic leader Kwame Nkrumah. Six years later, in 1963, BritainChina recognized the independence of Nigeria, which is the largest and most populous British colony in Africa. The reason why only a small number of white people can give up their colonies in West Africa is that they can live in this relatively easy area; However, it is not so lucky in East Africa, because there are a large number of white people in East Africa, where the mild climate and fertile land make them ready to settle permanently. The whites strongly opposed any suggestion of black rule.
however, the failure of the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya in the 1950s made Britain realize that it must pay a very high price to preserve the colony. This experience sobered Britain, and its domestic problems continued, so Britain recognized the independence of Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1961 [the two countries merged into Tanzania under the leadership of Julius Nyerere in 1964] and Uganda in 1962, In 1963, it recognized the independence of Kenya led by the famous Jomo Kenyatta.
in the process of independence of African countries, Britain faced great difficulties in South Africa, where a large number of white people settled. North Rhodesia (Zambia, 1964 independence), NIA Ya LAN (Malawi, independence in 1964), betnna (Botswana, 1966 independence) were independent without any unnecessary conflict. When Zimbabwe was founded in 1980 under the leadership of black nationalist leader Robert Mugabe, white settlers in Southern Rhodesia stopped resisting the national liberation movement. The Republic of South Africa, where many white people have lived for centuries, abandoned apartheid in 1994 and recognized the leadership of the wise and charismatic Nelson Mandela. However, even today, the Republic of South Africa continues to explore a path that is acceptable to blacks, people of color (East Asians) and whites at the same time.
compared with its misguided colonial policies in Asia and North Africa, the rule of France’s empire in sub Saharan Africa is much more enlightened. France not only generously abandoned the black colonies, but also consciously cultivated a concept of “French” in the hearts of the black elite, and gladly provided economic assistance to the newly independent countries. France has always had a deep influence in sub Saharan Africa.