The fifth lecture is the evolution of the relationship between politics and religion in medieval Islam.
One of the characteristics of Islam is the all-round impact of religion on social life, especially politics.
However, many people may think that the separation of politics and religion in the Middle East is after the influence of the West in modern times.
In fact, it is not.
As early as the middle ancient times, the Middle East began to have a trend of political and religious separation, which is also determined by the internal development of the Islamic political system.
The following is a brief analysis in five stages. I. Muhammad and the traditional Arab society during the four caliphs were a tribal society, and a real state had never been formed in the center of the peninsula.
Therefore, Arabs are deeply influenced by tribal values and distrust the king and the Royal system.
This has had a far-reaching impact on the future Islamic countries.
The missionary activities carried out by Prophet Muhammad are aimed at realizing the political unity of the peninsula and transforming the Arab tribal society into a nation-state.
The characteristics of the relationship between politics and religion in this stage are as follows: 1 In the new Islamic countries, Muhammad, as the “seal prophet”, is the head of state, legislator and military commander of the unity of politics and religion.
The disciples of the holy gate (Disciples following the Prophet) are the main officials and officers of the state, and the religious and political institutions are integrated.2. UMA (Islamic community) transcends narrow tribes and families, but it is born out of tribal society, so it has its traces, such as the praise of egalitarianism.
Egalitarianism is consistent with the Jewish and Christian traditions in the Middle East.3. The ruling elite of UMA hides the competition between the disciples of the holy gate and the aristocrats of Mecca tribe.
The latter was initially opposed to the prophet and later forced to join the church.
This conflict affects the nature of the state, that is, whether it is an Islamic state or an Arab state under the leadership of tribal aristocrats.
After the prophet’s death, the four caliphs began (632-661, Abu Burke, Omer, Osman and Ali in turn).
The Caliph is different from the prophet.
The former has no messenger status of the latter, can not convey enlightenment, and has no legislative power, so its power is limited.
In addition, Ottoman and Ali were finally assassinated, which weakened the spiritual and moral authority of the Caliph.
The characteristics of the relationship between politics and religion in this period are as follows: (1) the problem of heirs.
After the death of the prophet, the succession became a big problem.
The prophet did not leave a system to decide his successor, nor did he have relevant institutions.
Finally, after consultation, it was decided to adopt the tribal method and elect Abu Burke as the Caliph to be responsible for the management of the country.
Since then, the election of the Caliph has become a custom.
Some scholars believe that Berkeley is universal suffrage and Osman is limited election.
The word Khalifa, which means “heir” and “agent”, actually describes the status of this position quite accurately (the heir of the prophet and the agent of Allah), although there was no such awareness at that time.
(2) caliphate policy.
Abu Burke and Omar are ancient Laixi nobles, but they are also relatives and friends of the prophet and the earliest believers.
They define the country from a religious point of view.
Omer pursues Islamic policy, favors the disciples of the holy gate, and divides grades and annuities successively by joining the church.
Osman appointed Mecca nobles and cronies to redistribute income and take care of the interests of the new immigrant clans.
Ali advocates equal taxation and equal sharing of spoils.
(3) social differentiation develops gradually.
The Caliphate regime is committed to establishing a country ruled by Arab Muslims and forming a distinction between Muslim rulers and non muslim ruled.
Within Muslims, according to the order of joining the church and participating in the conquest, the inherent blood nobility, race, age and arms of Arabs form a division, and there are upstarts (owning land, official positions, wealth, etc.). For example, there is a contradiction between Arabs and Mawali (the emancipation class of conquered countries, mainly Persians, many of whom have joined the Arab army and fought side by side with Muslims), and Mawali is dissatisfied with his discriminatory status.
In addition, the maximum annual salary of soldiers is 5000 dirhams and the minimum is only 200 dirhams.
The latter is infantry.
Moreover, the booty of cavalry is twice as much as that of infantry.
The disciples of the holy gate once asked to turn the conquered Syrians into slaves, but Omer refused.
Thus, the Arab noble state was established, the hereditary family dynasty replaced the alliance of nomadic tribes, and an eastern empire was formed.
The characteristics of the relationship between politics and religion in the Umayyad Dynasty (661-750) are as follows: 1 A hereditary monarchy and court system were formed.
The Umayyad family replaced the electoral system with the hereditary system of the Caliph.
Of course, its hereditary system is not a strict eldest son inheritance system.
At the same time, the Caliph also has other characteristics of monarchy.
First, strict etiquette and court system were stipulated.
For example, a throne dedicated to the use of the Caliph and a special box in the mosque were set up, and the Caliph preached from a chair in the mosque (he used to preach standing).
Visitors cannot enter the palace at will.
It must be decided by the court manager.
It is no longer the chief who surrounds the monarch, but ministers, seal officials, guards, scribes and confidants.
Of course, the court still retained some kind of public symposium with representatives from all walks of life.
Secondly, set up the harem.
The Caliph’s concubines live in groups and live in luxury.
Finally, establish the ideological and legal basis of the monarch.
The defender of religion, the defender of people’s interests and the sponsor of culture and art have become the basis of the image and legitimacy of Muslim monarchs.
Therefore, he must promote Jihad and build mosques.
The construction of Magnificent Mosques (such as the rock top mosque built by Caliph Abdullah Malik in Palestine) is designed to compare with the magnificent Christian Church in Syria, and the magnificent palace buildings also show the role of monarchy.
Unique Islamic art has also been announced.2. Build a huge bureaucracy and army.
First of all, following the example of Persia and Byzantium, various ministries (Diwan) were established, such as the Ministry of Taxation, the Ministry of military affairs, the post office and the letter office (also responsible for intelligence Affairs).
The local system was divided into provinces and counties, which were the same as that of the Sassanian empire.
Set up an appeal court, torture, set up imperial officials, post stations and police, and retain Persian and Byzantine officials of the previous dynasty.
Secondly, the formation of official hierarchy.
Such as the strict guard system.
In addition, the magnificent governor’s residence and large assembly hall replaced the tribal council and assembly hall (the luxury of the governor’s residence in Iraq is comparable to that of the Caliph’s court) and set up the governor’s guard.
Thirdly, persianization in other fields.
Such as adopting its land tax and poll tax system (even itsThe names remain the same, the land tax is “haraji” in Persian), the financial book is kept, and the tax registration is still in Persian and Greek (the official language of Byzantium), using Persian currency.
The silk costumes of Persian nobles and groups of servants were also imitated by Arab nobles.
It was not until the reign of Caliph Abdullah Malik (686-705) that Arabized coins appeared and Arabic began to be used in administration.
Finally, the well-equipped and well-trained Syrian army (with many Christians) replaced the temporarily recruited tribal army, and the foreign war evolved from tribal war to carefully planned Imperial War.3. Social differentiation further developed.
Arabs were divided into rulers, nobles (officials, landlords, businessmen, etc.
) and farmers and handicraftsmen.
The latter gradually integrated with the conquered residents.
Among the latter, there was a trend of conversion to Islam, but its development was slow.
New integration is also developing, and ethnic boundaries are increasingly blurred.4. Urima began to form and dominate legal affairs.
With the increasing size and specialization of imperial institutions, the Caliph focused on administrative and military affairs, and religious affairs increasingly focused on the forming urima, that is, the hands of religious scholars.
They are engaged in the study of doctrines and pedagogy, alienated from the government, and enjoy high prestige among the people.
The reason for this situation is that there is no unified religious institution (mosques have no subordinate relationship with each other) and religious hierarchy in Islam, and jurists “almost monopolize the development of Islamic law”, which is an important aspect that Islamic civilization is different from other civilizations.
Therefore, the rulers promulgated and took charge of public law, while the religious law dominated by private law was created and implemented by jurists and religious judges.
But nominally, the Caliph remains the supreme religious leader.5. The division of Islam.
They opposed the legitimacy of the Umayyad Dynasty and advocated that the Caliph should be inherited by the descendants of Ali, the prophet’s cousin and son-in-law, and change from a political faction to a sect.
The view of Shia on the relationship between politics and religion is different from that of the mainstream Sunnis formed later.
The former emphasizes the close relationship between the two sides, and gradually forms a more rigorous top-down religious hierarchy (from top to bottom, including six levels: greater Ayatollah, Ayatollah, hojateyslan, mubarakh, muzhitaisid and Talib).6. The overall policy of religious tolerance.
The Umayyad Dynasty also suppressed other religions in the early stage, but gradually began to allow the autonomy of other religions, which also inherited the old Sassanian system.
The Empire Divided non Muslim residents into “Demi” and slaves.
The former were protected persons, including Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians.
The government allowed their autonomy.
Especially in religious and private law affairs, the leaders of various societies managed by themselves and were responsible for paying taxes to the government.
In fact, the government sometimes intervenes to stop sectarian disputes.
Generally speaking, the government does not encourage them to convert to Islam, mainly for economic interests (levying poll tax) and politically to maintain the status of Arabs as rulers.
Therefore, conversion to Islam is basically a spontaneous process.
In short, the caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty gradually evolved to the eastern monarch, and its religious authority began to transfer to the religious elite (urima). II. During the Abbasid Dynasty, the Abbasid Dynasty (750-1256) was founded with the support of Shiites and Persians based on Khorasan, and its capital was also located in Baghdad, Iraq, which was greatly affected by Persia.
The characteristics of political and religious relations in this period are as follows: 1 The deification of monarchs has developed unprecedentedly.
The Abbas family and the prophet belong to the Hashemite branch, so they have certain advantages, which is the basis of their political legitimacy.
Therefore, the Caliph called himself “Allah’s shadow on the earth” and personally intervened in the missionary cause.
In addition, the Caliph Mamen (in power from 813 to 833) defined the thought of murtaiqilai school as the official creed, that is, the “creation theory” of the Koran, and believed that the Koran should be subject to the authoritative interpretation of the Caliph, but the monarchy declined in the late Dynasty and the Turkic general was in power.
In addition, the rulers of the post Umayyad Dynasty and karmat countries were also called caliphs in the early 10th century.
At the same time, there were three caliphs, and the era of only one Caliph in the Islamic world ended.2. The dynasty has the nature of Islamic Empire.
This is reflected in the following aspects: first, the Caliphs of the Abbasid Dynasty are mostly mixed blood (the Umayyad Dynasty does not allow mixed blood princes to serve as caliphs).
At the same time, the nobles and the rich also accepted foreign female slaves, resulting in mixed blood of future generations, and there were marriages of different nationalities among the people.
Second, the heterogeneity of state organs and the army.
The Persian people’s Congress entered government organs in batches.
Persian culture further affected the operation of the government.
Christians and Jews also entered the government in large numbers.
The army had a large number of Persians in the early stage and was replaced by Turkic slaves in the later stage.
Third, the development of ethnic integration and Islamization.
A large number of non Arabs entered the local Arab cities and converted to Islam.
Arabs are no longer professional soldiers, but are engaged in agriculture, work and business, and integrate with the local people.
Arabic is widely spread in the west of Persia, and Arabization continues to develop.
In Persia and Central Asia, the local people preserved their own language, but used Arabic letters and absorbed some Arabic words.
Islam also expanded geographically to Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa and Spain.
Fourth, the government adopts an average tax policy and does not discriminate against Mawali and non muslims.
Fifth, Islamic culture widely absorbs the cultures of other nationalities such as Persia and Greece.
During this period, there was an unprecedented cultural integration – the Centennial translation movement.
The government has organized a large number of translations of works in Greek, ancient Syrian, Persian, Sanskrit, Hebrew, Latin, Coptic and naibert, involving many fields such as astronomy, medicine, geometry, philosophy, mathematics, geography, literature and art.
Therefore, Arab Islamic culture has become the “cultural crystallization” of all ethnic groups.
In short, the Abbasid empire was further orientated than the Umayyad Dynasty.
In the early stage, the centralization of monarchy was strengthened.
At the same time, the Islamic society was further mature and the organization was strengthened (that is, the degree of self-organization was improved).
The culture was dominated by monism and complicated competition. III. during the period of Bayi Dynasty and Seljuk Empire, in 945, the Bayi people belonging to the Persian branch, originated in the Caucasus and believed in Shia founded the Bayi Dynasty (94)5-1055）.
Since then, Islamic countries have entered a period of division and decline, and Arabs have become ruled.
In 1055, the Seljuk Turks belonging to Sunnis established the Seljuk Empire (1055-1194).
Some scholars believe that the two dynasties still belong to the Abbas Dynasty, but due to the decline of the Caliph’s power, the Baiyi and Seljuk who originated from the nomadic military aristocracy are de facto rulers.
The characteristics of the relationship between politics and religion in this period are as follows: 1 The Caliph gradually became a religious and spiritual leader.
This process began in the late Abbasid Dynasty.
By the time of the Bayi Dynasty, the capital of the dynasty was Shiraz in Persia, and the secular power of the Sunni Caliph was basically deprived.
He only controlled the secular power in Baghdad and adjacent areas, and its control area changed according to the change of the power balance between the king and the Caliph.
During the reign of Seljuk, Emperor Seljuk regarded the Caliph territory in Iraq as a province of the Empire and the Caliph’s iqtar (fiefdom).
Even the Caliph must be recognized by Sudan.
The former was restricted even in Baghdad, and the “amid” appointed by the Empire was responsible for the taxes and expenses of the caliph territory, Another military chief is responsible for public security and sectarian relations.
In other regions, his power was limited to religion and justice, but he was still the supreme nominal head of the Empire, and sutan still accepted his canonization.2. The emergence of secular monarchs.
In the later period of Abbas, the post of “general Emir” held by the Turkic general appeared.
He was the highest military and political officer in China.
His power was higher than the prime minister and he was the de facto ruler.
The monarch of Bayi also calls himself the “general Emir” and calls himself “Malik” (King).
Since then, Persia has become the political and economic center of West Asia, and Baghdad, as the spiritual center, has gradually declined.
The king also borrowed from the Persian monarchy tradition, claiming to be “the king of kings” and “the king of justice”, publicized the divine grant of monarchy, traced his ancestors to the Sassanian clan, and his rituals and coins imitated Persia.
They also renovated mosques and sponsored cultural development.
Mamud, the famous King of Ghazni Dynasty in Afghanistan and also a Turk (reigned from 998 to 1030), first used the title of “Sudan” (meaning “power”), and the Seljuk were once subject to the Ghazni Dynasty.
Obviously, Emperor Seljuk followed the title of “Sudan”.
They considered themselves the highest administrative ruler in the Islamic world, publicized the idea of divine grant of monarchy, and truly formed a dual political structure of the coexistence of secular monarchs and religious leaders.
After the disintegration of the Seljuk Empire, the title of Sudan became more and more popular, and has since become a popular title for Sunni Muslim monarchs.
The reasons for the further separation of politics and religion in the period of Bai Yi and Seljuk are as follows: first, the decline of the Abbasid Dynasty.
Second, the political tradition of Turkic separation of politics and religion.
Third, there is a consensus in the Islamic world that the Caliph can only be held by members of the gulaisi clan, and the monarchs of Bai Yi and Seljuk have no intention of destroying this tradition and seizing the title of Caliph.
Fourth, the weakening of Arab and Sunni regime monopoly (the emergence of alien and Shiite kings) and the rise of slave soldiers.
However, the above division of power is relative.
The Caliph still had some secular power, and even controlled most of central and southern Iraq during the decline of Seljuk.
The secular monarchs also preached the divine grant of monarchy.
They (including the Shiite Baiyi monarch) still respected the Caliph as the nominal supreme leader, accepted his canonization, listed their name after the Caliph in hutba, and tried to marry the Caliph family.3. Further development of Islamic institutions.
Islamization was basically completed.
In central and southern Iraq, this process ended in the 11th century.
As a result, Islam has become a religion of the people rather than the elite.
Christianity only exists in Syria, Lebanon and lesser Asia, which is also in the Islamization formed by Seljuk immigrants.
A new situation emerged in this period, that is, Shia and Sunni monarchs appeared alternately, such as Shia Bayi, Fatima Dynasty and Sunni Seljuk, ayyub Dynasty, etc.
This has promoted the development of the rituals and regulations of the two factions.
The holy festival of the Shiite Dynasty has strengthened the cohesion of the Shiite believers.
Seljuk Empire established a large number of religious schools “madrasa”, which mainly taught the theories of the four teaching schools.
Under the protection of the state, urima became a new upper class, mastered the power of justice and education, obtained a large amount of land and funds (wakhev) through state gifts and automatic shelter, and participated in local tax, water conservancy, police and charity affairs.
Madrasa graduates became new officials, replacing the scribe class that had existed since ancient times.
As a result, urima strengthened its contact with the government, became the intermediary between the government and the people, and firmly established its own position.
However, due to Kadi’s low prestige among the people due to his acceptance of government appointment and salary, mufti and other religious figures still maintain their independence by relying on wakhev economically.
The thought and ceremony of Sufism finally matured, and a perfect organizational system represented by the religious mission appeared.
Sufism goes deep into the people, especially among farmers and herdsmen.
Its influence is particularly strong in North Africa and weakest in Iran.
In this way, the Islamic society finally matured, which ensured the continuity of the development of Islam, and the independent Islamic folk forces formed the power to contain the government.
For the changes of the political situation at this stage, pedagogical jurists have made a new theoretical interpretation.
The famous medieval Islamic philosopher Ansari (1058-1111) pointed out that the government mainly depends on military power, and the new Caliph system is a nominally supreme caliph, a place with real power, Sudan and urima, the guardian of sharia.
The Caliphate system is only a symbol of power, and the Sudan system has become an integral part of the Imam (i.e. caliphate) system. IV. during the period of Mongolian rule, in 1258, the Mongolian army captured Baghdad and the Abbasid Dynasty perished.
The Mongols established two countries in West and Central Asia, namely Ilkhanate (1258-1353) and Khanate.
The Caliph’s tradition ceased, but the Mongols finally converted to Islam, and hezan Khan called himself Sudan.
As a result, mature Islamic societies assimilated conquerors.
In Egypt, local monarchs took in members of the troubled Abbas family and appointed a Caliph, but they have become playthings in the hands of local dynasties.
During this period, the monarchs of India and the Timur Empire continued to seek the authorization of the Caliph.
During this period, some scholars believe that ahThe Caliphate state in the late baths Dynasty has evolved into “Mulk”, or “kingdom”.
Ibn Helden (1332-1405) pointed out for the first time that the state is an independent entity, and the transformation from caliphate to murko is inevitable, while murko retains the factors of caliphate and Islam.
In addition, he believed that human society could exist without divine law, and the king could approve the law.
The religious jurist Ibn jamala (1241-1333) pointed out that the purpose of IMA was not only election, but also power seizure.
The Caliphate system should be incorporated into the Sudan system.
In addition, Imam and Sudan have become synonymous.
Ibn tamiye (1263-1328) believed that the Caliphate system was no longer a compulsory system.
After the death of the prophet, Allah had transferred the function of sovereignty to urima.
The Islamic mission requires authority, even if the Imam rule is “unjust”, as the Hadith says: “60 years of unjust Imam rule is better than one day without Sudan”.
Moreover, there is no need for religious jurists to require that the Caliph must be held by members of the gulaisi clan and have noble morality, profound knowledge and healthy physique.
Fader Allah (– 1521) pointed out that Sudan is the source of all power.
Even unjust Sudan is legal and should be respected as a Caliph, and non Arabs can also serve as a Caliph.
He further simplified the elements of the Caliphate system into two: Imam Sudan and urima.
His theory had a great influence on the Ottoman Empire. V. during the Ottoman Empire, the Ottomans rebuilt a strong Muslim empire.
The characteristics of the relationship between politics and religion in this period are as follows: 1 Rebuild a strong monarchy of political and religious unity.
In order to establish the legitimacy of the dynasty, baziad I (reigned from 1389 to 1402) asked for canonization from the shadow caliph of the Mamluk Dynasty in Cairo.
In 1517, when the Ottoman army occupied Egypt, the last shadow caliph of the Abbas family was sent to Istanbul.
The latter handed over the prophet’s cloak and other relics to Sudan, then returned to Cairo as a civilian and died in 1543.
However, the title of the early Ottoman emperor was padishah (ruler of the world) and Sudan (executor of the Dharma and servant of the Holy Land).
But Sudan didn’t care about the Caliph’s title at first, because there was no difference between them in the eyes of ordinary people.
However, in the late 18th century, Sudan began to use the title of caliph, apparently to strengthen its influence on Muslim subjects and other Islamic countries.
At the beginning of the 20th century, caliphate theory was valued again.
One is that Sudan Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909) tried to strengthen his position against European powers.
Second, gemaludin Afghani (1839-1897) vigorously promoted pan Islamism and called on all Muslims in the world to unite into a community beyond countries, nationalities and regions.
But the advocacy of Pan Islamism did not save the Ottoman Empire from collapse.
Therefore, the Caliph in the Ottoman era basically has only symbolic and ceremonial significance.2. A high degree of centralization.
European historians roughly divided the Ottoman State into “ruling institutions” and “Muslim (or religious) institutions”, of course, the two are not completely separated.
The canon promulgated by sutan (“canon”) can interpret the Sharia law according to local customs and sutan’s will.
At the same time, the imperial government has completely controlled urima and the judicial and educational system.
For the first time in Islamic history, it has established a complete religious hierarchy, implemented the hierarchical system of religious courts and academies, and the state pays urima’s salary and establishes religious funds, The great Mufti of Istanbul, the capital, was appointed.
He became the leader of the religious community and enjoyed the title of “Islamic elder”.
The government also donated to the Sufi church, established a Taoist church, established links with the court and the army, and controlled the urban economy through the guild, which had close ties with the Sufi church.3. Adopt the policy of autonomy of religious communities, that is, Miley special.
This is the inheritance of a similar system in the Arab Empire.
The Empire has four basic millets, including Muslims, Orthodox, Jews and Armenians.
Each Milet has established and maintained independent institutions to perform functions not undertaken by the government, such as education, religion, justice and public security.
In addition, the Balkans is one of the centers of the Empire, and the government vigorously protects the local Orthodox Church (in fact, most of the orthodox believers in the peninsula are willing to be ruled by Ottoman rather than Catholic Austria, which implements a discriminatory policy against them).
This reveals the secular monarchy of Sudan, although he stipulates that the state religion is Islam.
The government’s control over Sunni urima was also reflected in other countries and regions in the same period, such as Afghanistan under Abdul Rahman (1880-1901) and Egypt under Muhammad Ali (1805-1849).
Coupled with the rigidity of Islamic legal thought, the influence of Sunni urima among the people has decreased, while Sufis and Shiites with economic and political independence still maintain their vitality and independence.
After the 18th century, the movements against government and colonialism in Asia and Africa were mostly led by the Shiite urima and the Sufism (New Sufism), such as Wahhabi, Mahdi and Senussi.
They established a new monarchy or promoted the establishment of the country (Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Libya), and their political and religious unity exceeded that of Ottoman.
In Iran, the anti tobacco monopoly movement in the 19th century was also related to the religious community.
After the first World War, after Kemal abolished the Caliph, some Arab rulers tried to establish themselves as caliphs, among which the most powerful were Hanzhi Sharif Hussein and the king of Egypt, but they failed.
India’s political movement against British rule and defending the leadership of the Caliph – the Caliph movement also failed.
It can be seen that the relationship between politics and religion in medieval Islam has experienced a long-term evolution process.
At the same time, the Islamic world has also evolved from a universal empire to an international system in which Islamic countries coexist.
Urima has become a full-time religious elite, and finally formed the triangular political system of Khalifa Sudan urima.
After the invasion of Mongolia, the traditional Caliph ceased to exist, and by the time of the Ottoman Empire, the Caliph had become a symbol attached to SudanPosition.
So far, some countries have retained more distinctive characteristics than Islamic countries.