Section III the king’s expedition

from 334 BC to 323 BC, Alexander commanded the Greek Macedonian coalition army with Macedonian army as the backbone to carry out a 10-year long expedition against the Persian Empire in Western Asia. The war led to the collapse of the Persian Empire, and an Alexander empire spanning Europe, Asia and Africa was established.


the Greek Persian War planted the seeds of hatred between the Greek world and the Persian Empire. Although there was no public war between the two sides for more than a hundred years after the war, both sides waited for the opportunity to intervene in each other’s affairs. During the Greek civil war, Persia made a lot of benefits as a mediator, and Greek mercenaries also intervened in the struggle for the Persian throne. Therefore, the opposition did not eliminate, but deepened. Greece has long been vindictive, but it has always suffered from internal strife and is unable to attack outside. Philip II, king of Macedonia, took advantage of this. After conquering Greece, he called for the attack on West Asia, so he became the revenge angel in the eyes of the Greeks. In 336 BC, his father Philip II was assassinated and died. The Greek states rose up and deviated. Alexander, who was under the age of 20, ascended the throne. Alexander showed great talent and quickly put down the rebellion of the nobility. In the spring of 335 BC, he led the army to the north. After several months of war, he successively eliminated the rebellion of the tribali, Ketai and Illyria. Then he moved south to calm the rebellion of Thebes and stabilize the domestic situation. So Alexander decided to go on an expedition to Persia to fulfill his father’s wish.

the statue of Alexander the great

passes through

(1) battle of granicu

in the spring of 334 BC, Alexander led more than 30000 infantry and more than 5000 cavalry to the east of the present Dardanelles Strait and met the Persian army on the West Bank of the granicu river. The Persian army had 40000 men, half of whom were Greek mercenaries. The Macedonian cavalry first rushed to the other side, and the Persian army bravely met it with a row of arrows and javelins. In the twinkling of an eye, the two sides scuffled together. The scene was magnificent. However, the impact of the first round of the Allied forces failed to work because the Persian cavalry at the attack point was not only the essence of the enemy, but also the position of the troops. They relied on the local strength and stubbornly fought to stop the attack of the Macedonian avant garde. Just at the moment of fierce battle, Alexander led some cavalry to the scene. He marched forward bravely and rushed into the enemy line first. Then, the whole cavalry squadron followed up and immediately confused the formation of some stunned enemy troops. In the fierce battle, Alexander first stabbed the son-in-law of the king of Persia. Then he became braver and braver, defeated the Persian army and fled. Hating that Greek mercenaries had defected to Persia to fight against their own nation, Alexander ordered all efforts to encircle and annihilate the Greek mercenaries on the enemy’s second line position. As a result, all the Greek mercenaries were killed except 2000 prisoners, while only more than 1000 Persian cavalry were annihilated, and the rest fled by plane. The great loss of the Persian army in this war was not the annihilation of infantry, but the loss of 10 generals.

the battle of Granicus ended with Alexander’s victory. After a short stay, he continued to lead his troops eastward, and cities in Western Asia Minor, such as Sardis and esusas, surrendered one after another. He won Lydia, Karia and Lykia without fighting. In only about three months, he cleared the obstacles on the east coast of the Aegean Sea, opened up the transportation line that can lead directly to Greece by sea, and controlled the political and economic hub. Subsequently, the “liberation” policy was implemented in these areas, the democratic system was implemented, and new local governments were established.

winter came in 334 BC. Alexander decided that all bridegrooms, whether officers or soldiers, who married shortly before the war, would have a holiday, ordered them to return to Macedonia from karonia, reunite with their wives, and return to the camp after winter, and designated Ptolemy, captain of the Royal Guard, as the leader. At the same time, he ordered deputy commander baminho to return to Sardis with a force responsible for pacifying and monitoring the entire Virginia region in order to consolidate the territory he had won and strengthen his rear. But he didn’t have a rest. He personally led a force into the areas of Lixia and panfilia, accepted the surrender of more than 30 large and small castles such as poga and zansas, suppressed the surrender and rebellion of aspandas, and organized the siege of the barbarian people of tamisas.

(2) battle of Isis

in the spring of 333 BC, the Greek coalition army went north to the eastern border of Phrygia and reached highlanda. Here, baminho led his troops to meet; All the newly married officers and soldiers who went back to Macedonia to visit their relatives in winter also returned to the army from Macedonia and brought the recruits recruited that year. Alexander did not stay in Highland Asia for a long time. He reorganized his army and immediately went south to enter Silesia. His purpose was to occupy the southeast of Asia Minor as soon as possible. The march of the Greek coalition to the South was very smooth and soon entered the region of Cappadocia. Alexander received many messengers along the way. All the towns on both sides of the Haris River have sincerely surrendered to the Greek overlord. In July of that year, the Allied forces captured the Silesia pass by means of sneak attack. Opened the door to Asia.

while Alexander was singing the song of triumph, Darius III of Persia also learned from Alexander’s experience. He personally led more than 100000 troops to move southward at the fastest speed, entered Syria, moved to the rear of Alexandria, cut off the communication line of Macedonian army and occupied the area near Alexandria city. After hearing the news, Alexander immediately led 30000 troops back to the enemy. Alexander found that the Persian army had gathered heavy troops in the coastal area and occupied the position on the North Bank of the bonarus River in an attempt to cut off the rear path of Alexander’s army. Due to the great disadvantage in the number of troops, Alexander planned to use the main cavalry “forest army” and heavy infantry to attack the left wing of the Persian army. The rest of the infantry square was arranged in echelons on his left wing, and the West Xuya cavalry was arranged in the square to prevent the threat from the Persian cavalry. After the attack began, the Macedonian army made a short impactIt attacked the enemy’s fierce attack, but the enemy’s quantitative advantage is too large to make passive circles for a long time. On the one hand, he sent some cavalry to attack and drag the Persian cavalry who began to detour to the rear of the right wing. On the other hand, he personally led the troops to advance forward, burst into the enemy with a deep echelon and stood by to insert into the enemy’s array.

fighters finally appeared. When the Persian cavalry went all out to the right of the Greek coalition, a gap suddenly appeared between its left wing and the center, forming a gap. Alexander made a quick decision and immediately formed a commando with elite cavalry and some square infantry around him. He personally led them into the enemy array and opened a breakthrough. The soldiers shouted for death and rolled forward like waves. Alexander took the lead and led a fine horse to rush towards the Persian army, pushing and squeezing hard. The spear pierced the enemy’s face, and the horse’s hooves stepped on the enemy’s fallen body; The infantry pushed closely in dense formation, carrying spears and bumping into the Persian army like hedgehogs. The Persian soldiers were stupefied by the sudden scene and were at a loss. In the twinkling of an eye, the Persian array was in a panic. The Persian army seems to have played well in the original step-by-step fighting. Darius, relying on the advantage of quantity, continued to increase troops and press against the Greek coalition. If this goes on, it seems that there is great hope for victory. However, due to the desire for quick victory, the cavalry made a big detour, resulting in a gap between the phalanx and the left wing. Alexander, on the other hand, knew the military aircraft with a keen eye, and immediately led a fine horse to crash into the enemy array from the crack, opening a breakthrough, which immediately brought about great changes in the war situation in favor of the coalition forces. In the square array, the fighting between the two sides is extremely cruel, and there are a lot of tragedies that can’t be seen. In the face of this momentum and situation, Darius nearby was frightened again. When he saw this terrible scene, he probably thought he had completely failed, so he gave up his command duty, left his soldiers and baggage, turned his horse’s head and ran away. The king fled without a leader, and the left wing and center of the Persian army were in chaos. The Greek allied forces became braver and braver in the war. After several successive charges, they finally completely broke down the enemy’s central phalanx and repulsed the counterattack of the enemy’s left-wing cavalry. At the same time, the left wing of the coalition has been fighting tenaciously and fiercely with the enemy. Facing him was the right wing of the Persian army, which still had a great advantage at that time, and did not know that the king had escaped and the rest of the troops had failed, so he was still struggling to clamp down on the coalition forces. After the Persian cavalry defeated, the Persian cavalry stopped their pursuit.

the battle of gaucamilla ended with a devastating blow to the Persian army. They were killed and many were captured. It is estimated that about 300000 Persians died in the war alone, the rest were captured, and most national forces fled separately. In terms of the Greek coalition forces, they only lost more than a thousand horses and hundreds of personnel, but a considerable number of soldiers lost their combat effectiveness due to injuries.

the battle of gaucamilla actually declared the demise of the Persian Empire. For although Darius led 3000 cavalry and 6000 infantry out of the battlefield, he was soon killed by his ministry. His death marked the end of the ancient Persian Empire. After the war, Alexander sent his troops South and seized the famous Persian city of Babylon and occupied the new capital Susa and the old capital persipolis. Subsequently, he announced the merger of Persia and Macedonia to form a great power and self styled himself as the “great emperor”, thus truly becoming the ruler of the whole Persian Empire, and his power and position has exceeded the Persian king known as the “king of kings” in the past. Therefore, Western historians call the battle of gaucamilla a battle that changed the situation of the ancient world.


in 327 BC, Alexander led his army eastward in the area south of the Caspian Sea, crossed the Hindu Kush mountains to Bactria and SUT in the north through Sabbath, Aria and delanguya County, invaded India in 325 BC and occupied the Indus River Basin. He also attempted to conquer the Ganges valley. But after years of expedition, the soldiers were exhausted. The indomitable resistance of the Indian people, the spread of malaria and the injury of poisonous snakes have all affected the morale of the army. The soldier refused to move on and asked to go home. Alexander had to give up his eastward advance plan and withdrew his troops from India in July 325 BC. In 324 BC, the army returned to the Persian coast at the mouth of Babylon, and the invasion of Grice was ended.

impact ` evaluation

Alexander’s eastward invasion was a predatory expedition, with a journey of more than ten thousand miles, which lasted 10 years, destroyed Persia and built a great empire spanning Europe, Asia and Africa, starting from the Balkans and the Nile in the West and the Indus River in the East. In 323 BC, he died of fever at the age of 33, and the huge empire established by his military conquest collapsed, and his ministry launched a struggle for power. Although his expedition was a naked aggression, no one can deny Alexander’s outstanding military talent and command ability. He is destined to be a wonderful flower in the long river of world military history.

historians affirmed the important cultural significance of Alexander’s eastward expedition and the establishment of a super empire across the East and West. The establishment of Alexander Empire combined the wisdom of the East and the West in ancient times, creating an era in which eastern and Western cultures learned from each other.