Section IV Assyrian expansion and expedition

Assyrian conquest War refers to a series of Conquest wars carried out by several generations of Assyrian kings from the 9th century BC to the 7th century BC, relying on sophisticated equipment, strong military forces and strict military system, constantly employing troops, conquering East and West, and establishing an unprecedented military empire for the first time in the history of Western Asia.

background

Assyrians are a branch of the West Asian semean language family. In the middle and late 3000 BC, they established a country centered on the Assyrian city in the north of the two rivers basin, implemented the aristocratic oligarchy, and then transitioned to the monarchy. The country continued for more than 2000 years. In the competition with surrounding countries, it was resurgent twice, but it immediately declined. In the 9th century BC, it began to enter the imperial era as a powerful country (9th ~ 7th century BC). The father and son of naspar II of Assyria (883-859 B.C.) and sharmanassel (858-824 B.C.) can be called promising kings in the early days of the Empire. They made great achievements in opening up territory, but they were soon on the defensive. During the period of tigrath palashar III (745-727 BC), he reformed the military, fought for hegemony again, and brought the empire into its heyday.

after that, salmanassel V (727-722 B.C.), Sargon II (721-705 B.C.), sinakhribu (704-681 B.C.), ASAR Hadong (680-669 B.C.) and Ashur baniba (668-631 B.C.) all conquered other countries and suppressed rebellion, occupying Syria and Egypt in the West, It attacked uraltu in the north, took Babylon in the South and occupied Elam in the East, making the Empire cover West Asia and North Africa, becoming the first military empire in world history and maintaining its prosperity for more than 100 years.

the territory of Assyrian Empire

through

(1) the expansion war of Assyrian nayphal II

the founding king of Assyrian Empire should be Assyrian nayphal II. He reigned for 25 years, made 14 expeditions, and wiped out more than 10 cities and countries around the northern part of the two rivers basin, And continue to push westward, conquer Syria, Lebanon and Phoenicia, and make the Empire reach the Mediterranean. He was cruel by nature and liked to dig the eyes of captives all his life. He killed 450 male lions, 390 bison, 200 ostriches and 30 elephants. In 858 BC, his son sharmanassel succeeded to the throne and continued to expand. He never left pommel horse all his life. He was in power for 35 years and launched 32 wars of aggression. At that time, the Syrian countries joined forces with the Northern Power uraltu to form a trend of North-South attack. After he came to power, he continued to attack uraltu, and the military front reached the area of Fanhu in the center of the country. Since then, he fought with the coalition forces of various countries led by the Syrian regional power Damascus for four times. 120000 troops were invested for the last time, but there was still no progress. It was not until 842 B.C., when he took advantage of his discord, that he used troops again. In the first war on the outskirts of the city, he killed 16000 infantry, 480 cavalry and 1121 captured chariots. In the following year, he captured Damascus and calmed Syria again. In the southeast, he conquered Babylon and washed the Persian Gulf.

(2) palashar III’s expansion war

in the middle of the 8th century BC, the military general tigrath palashar III ascended the throne. He seized power in chaos with his strength. He was an experienced and resourceful king. When he came to power, he judged the situation and reformed the traditional military and political system and ruling policy. In order to prevent local forces from becoming big, he divided the original larger governor into smaller provinces, appointed governors to govern, and sent commissioners to supervise government affairs and strengthen the central government’s control over local areas. For the residents of the conquered areas, the traditional policy of extermination was changed, forced immigration was implemented, and they were ordered to move to designated areas for scattered placement, which not only saved manpower, but also prevented them from suffering. In terms of military affairs, he implemented the recruitment system and formed a standing army; Implement military immigration, cultivate a professional hereditary warrior class, and form a local corps to guard the place or prepare for recruitment; In order to expand the source of troops, some conquered residents were recruited; Create new arms of engineers and baggage soldiers, and make engineers an independent arm for the first time; And replace copper weapons with iron weapons. Through the above-mentioned reforms, he not only strengthened the centralization of power, strengthened national strength and stabilized the conquered residents, but also formed a powerful force with perfect organization, complete arms, well-equipped, sufficient soldiers and brilliant tactics. He used this elite army to restart the struggle for hegemony and brought Assyria into its heyday.

at the beginning of the succession of tigrath palashar, Assyria faced enemies on all sides, especially ural Tu in the north and Damascus in the West. To this end, he adopted a strategy of breaking one by one. In 745 BC, he calmed down the civil strife in Babylon, established a pro Assyrian regime and stabilized the rear. The next year, he first conquered the Midea tribes in the northeast and cut off the left arm of the strong enemy uraltu; Another year, he marched westward to the alliance of northern Syrian countries and broke uraltu’s right arm. In 743 BC, the front of the army pointed directly at uraltu. The two armies fought in Kangma district on the upper reaches of the Euphrates River. Uraltu was almost completely destroyed. Its king fled alone on a mare, which was a laughing stock. Assyria recovered the area along the Euphrates River, and took advantage of the victory to pursue the enemy, capturing 72950 enemy people. From 736 to 735 B.C., Assyria again attacked uraltu in the north and directly attacked tushpa, the capital of its country. Although it could not be conquered due to the dangerous terrain, it left only one isolated city, which was not enough for a time.

Assyrian civilization – relief

from 742 to 740 BC, Assyria marched westward and forced Syrian countries to submit. In 739 BC, the 19 Western countries led by Damascus and Israel jointly rebelled. The Assyrian army broke the coalition army in the mountains of Lebanon, and all countries asked to surrender again. In 732 BC, tigrath palashar marched around Syria and came to Damascus. The Assyrian army is arranged in companies. The first row of each company is composed of five chariots, the second row is composed of 15 cavalry, the third row is composed of 25 heavy infantry, and 50 light infantry are arranged on both wings and behind. Form an array and fight in the sound of killing: chariot to chariot, cavalry to cavalry and archers shoot at each other. The battle is very fierce. Assyria has gained an advantageSubordinate to the great empire. However, when it seemed to have reached its peak, it suddenly disappeared and could no longer stand up from the ruins as before. Because the Assyrian Empire did not pay attention to agricultural production, it established its country by attacking cities and land and hunting booty. Once it failed to conquer cities and land, there would be famine. Because of this, the kings of Assyria had to conquer constantly. Every time they captured a city, they plundered it and scraped away all their possessions; Every time a country is subdued, it is forced to pay tribute. The amount of tribute is surprising. In order to consolidate the fruits of the war, Assyria implemented a terrorist policy, killing hundreds of thousands at every turn, destroying the city and the country. The king of Assyria not only slaughtered prisoners of war, but also cruelly punished the monarchs and nobles of the enemy country, or stabbed them in the eye with a short gun, pierced their cheeks with a rope, and held them in public; Or peel it raw, and then put it into the stove; Or chop it into pieces of meat, etc. The continuous conquest of the kings of Assyria made the Empire reach its peak. On the other hand, due to excessive collection and cruel means, it was difficult for the conquered countries to sincerely obey them. They betrayed at any time, consumed the national strength of Assyria, and finally turned this behemoth from prosperity to decline.

in 633 BC, Ashu baniba died, and the subsequent kings lacked talent and could not keep their father’s career. At this time, the kingdom of Lydia rose, the Chaldeans in the South established the new Babylonian Kingdom, and the emerging country Medes appeared on the Iranian plateau. The new Babylonian Kingdom and the Medes Kingdom attacked Assyria from north to south. In 614 BC, the Allied forces captured the city of Assyria. Two years later, they diverted water to conquer Nineveh, its capital. The remnant of the Empire of Assyria was destroyed in 605 BC.